International Science Index
International Journal of Hospitality and Tourism Sciences
Climate Change and Tourism: A Scientometric Analysis Using Citespace
The interaction between climate change and tourism is one of the most promising research areas of recent decades. In this paper, a scientometric analysis of 976 academic publications between 1990 and 2015 related to climate change and tourism is presented in order to characterize the intellectual landscape by identifying and visualizing the evolution of the collaboration network, the co-citation network, and emerging trends of citation burst and keyword co-occurrence. The results show that the number of publications in this field has increased rapidly and it has become an interdisciplinary and multidisciplinary topic. The research areas are dominated by Australia, USA, Canada, New Zealand, and European countries, which have the most productive authors and institutions. The hot topics of climate change and tourism research in recent years are further identified, including the consequences of climate change for tourism, necessary adaptations, the vulnerability of the tourism industry, tourist behaviour and demand in response to climate change, and emission reductions in the tourism sector. The work includes an in-depth analysis of a major forum of climate change and tourism to help readers to better understand global trends in this field in the past 25 years.
Sustainability of Small Tourism Enterprises: A Comparison of Homestays and Independent Businesses from Ghalegaon and Ghandruk of the Annapurna Conservation Area, Nepal
Small tourism enterprises (STEs) are primary providers of services and attractions in many destinations of less developed countries; they are considered the lifeblood of tourism sector. Furthermore, in rural community destinations of such countries including Nepal, STEs are regarded as alternative tools for advancing economic and sociocultural transformations. In rural Nepal, the impacts of STEs are reported on sustained livelihood and poverty reduction of the host communities by creating tourism entrepreneurship opportunities while using local cultural and environmental attractions. This study synthesizes observations from Ghalegaon and Ghandruk of the Annapurna Conservation Area in western Nepal and reports the sustainability of the STEs therein. Ghalegaon has community based homestays and Ghandruk has independently owned and operated small tourism businesses such as cafes, tea houses, lodges, guest houses and hotels, etc. The community based homestays of Ghalegaon are compared with the independently owned and operated STEs of Ghandruk. The data was collected through multiple sources: 1) survey of tourists (n=112) and households (n=191); 2) interviews (n=14) with the locals, 3) group discussions (n=10) with different local groups including that of regional tourism players, experts and policy makers, 4) observations, and 5) document analysis. The STEs of both communities were first analyzed by understanding their level of sustainability as businesses, and then were explored how they were impacting on respective communities’ sustainability. The survey indicators and guidelines for interviews and group discussions were adapted to the Nepalese context based on four pillars of sustainability: economic, social, cultural and environmental; an additional dimension of management was also included, particularly for the STEs. The findings have shown a weaker economic and management dimensions of Ghalegaon’s Homestay than that of Ghandruk’s STEs. Some interesting social complexities of rural tourism and entrepreneurship were also revealed. This study’s findings do not much resonate to what Nepal government’s current rural tourism strategies have envisioned and prioritized for, particularly that the rural homestay tourism opportunities enhance inclusiveness of women and other deprived communities by spreading the benefits to the grassroots level. The study has highlighted several important applied implications to the local tourism management committees, tourism operators and associations, and regional and national tourism authorities. Further studies are advisable in other similar contexts in Nepal and in other countries to see whether there are variances in the findings.
Relation between Tourism and Health: Case study AIDS in Lebanon
Each year, 600 million tourists travelled abroad to practice several types of tourism. Nowadays, whatever is the type of tourism practiced it considered as a real public health problem which can contribute the spread of several diseases such as AIDS, H1N1, NDM1 With regard to HIV/AIDS, Lebanon is always considered as a low HIV prevalence country. However, the potential risks associated with the mobility of the population, migration and tourism. The total number of cases reported by the ministry of health since 1989 until the end of 2011 is of 1455 cases, with an average of 85 new cases per year over the last three years. The main reason of the increased number is Travel and migration which represent 50% of the risks reported by cumulative cases. Given the interest of this kind of epidemic it would be interesting to study the Evolution of HIV/ AIDS and its relation with travel and tourism The main aim of this research is to study in general the relation between tourism and health, more specific to understand the relation between Tourism and AIDS, the problem of the transmission of HIV in Lebanon, the ways of contamination and the countries in which these people are contaminated.
Airbnb, Hotel Industry and Optimum Strategies: Evidence from European Cities, Barcelona, London and Paris
Airbnb and other similar platforms are offering a near substitute to the traditional accommodation service supplied by the hotel sector. In this context, hotels can try to compete by offering higher quality and additional services, which imply the need for new investments or try to compete by reducing prices. The theoretical model presented in this paper analyzes the best response using a sequential game theory model. The main conclusion is that due to the financial constraints that small and medium hotels have these hotels have reduced prices whereas hotels that belong to international groups or have an easy access to financial resources have increased their investment to increase the quality of the service provided. To check the validity of the theoretical model financial data from Barcelona, London and Paris hotels have been used analyzing profitability, quality of the service provided, the investment propensity and the evolution of the gross profit. The model and the empirical data provide the base for some industrial policy in the hospitality industry. To address the extra cost that small hotels in Europe have to face compared by bigger firms would help to improve the level of quality provided and to some extent have positive externalities in terms of job creation and an increasing added value for the industry.
Looking beyond Corporate Social Responsibility to Sustainable Development: Conceptualisation and Theoretical Exploration
Traditional Corporate Social Responsibility (CSR) idea has gone beyond just ensuring safety environments, caring about global warming and ensuring good living standards and conditions for the society at large. The paradigm shift is towards a focus on strategic objectives and the long-term value creation for both businesses and the society at large for a realistic future. As an important approach to solving social and environment issues, CSR has been accepted globally. Yet the approach is expected to go beyond where it is currently. So much is expected from businesses and governments at every level globally and locally. This then leads to the original idea of the concept, that is, how it originated and how it has been perceived over the years. Little wonder there has been a lot of definitions surrounding the concept without a major globally acceptable definition of it. The definition of CSR given by the European Commission will be considered for the purpose of this paper. Sustainable Development (SD), on the other hand, has been viewed in recent years as an ethical concept explained in the UN-Report termed “Our Common Future,” which can also be referred to as the Brundtland report. The report summarises the need for SD to take place in the present without comprising the future. However, the recent 21st-century framework on sustainability known as the “Triple Bottom Line (TBL)” framework, has added its voice to the concepts of CSR and sustainable development. The TBL model is of the opinion that businesses should not only report on their financial performance but also on their social and environmental performances, highlighting that CSR has gone beyond just the “material-impact” approach towards a “Future-Oriented” approach (sustainability). In this paper, the concept of CSR is revisited by exploring the various theories therein. The discourse on the concepts of sustainable development and sustainable development frameworks will also be indicated, thereby inducing these into how CSR can benefit both businesses and their stakeholders as well as the entirety of the society, not just for the present but for the future. It does this by exploring the importance of both concepts (CSR and SD) and concludes by making recommendations for a more empirical research in the near future.
Community Based Heritage Tourism: An Analysis
The aim of this paper is to identify the factors of success in community based heritage tourism initiatives. Heritage and community are central to many tourism initiatives with heritage tourism having the potential to act as a catalyst for community development. This paper presents the findings of research that examined the relationship between heritage tourism and community development. The findings recognised that heritage tourism had economic, social and cultural benefits for a community as well as a role in strengthening concepts such as sense of identity, place and authenticity. In addition, this paper proposes an assessment framework for sustainable community based heritage tourism to identify factors and contextual influences involved in their success or failure. In evaluating the sustainability of such initiatives, a number of issues are investigated including the continued role of stakeholders, the role of funding, the influence of collaboration and the changing role of rural development and its impact on community engagement. The research is descriptive, evaluative and explanatory research, exploring and analyzing issues such as the development of community structures in community based heritage tourism. Thus it will contribute to the development of potential tourism and community development policies and strategies at a local, national and international level. An interpretative and inductive approach is utilized and a mixed method approach followed as it encapsulates the best of quantitative and qualitative research methods. The case studies focus on social enterprises in relation to tourism and community-based tourism cooperatives as there is limited study and knowledge of these. Consequently, this research will contribute to the discourse on community-based heritage tourism as an aspect of community development.
Protecting Game Officials from Violence
The dramatic rise in violence against game officials has affected all levels of sports including recreational, amateur, and professional sports. One way to combat this rise in violence is through the creation of laws specifically aimed at preventing and punishing this kind of violence. This paper will use related legal cases as a starting point to explore possible ways of better protecting the safety of game officials. It will do this by looking at relevant cases, related legal issues, and two specific ways of reducing violence against game officials. In closing, it will be argued that there needs to be a more robust legal approach with emphasis on criminal and civil penalties for assault and battery, and a more comprehensive social approach with emphasis on raising social awareness on the need to protect game officials from violence.
The Impact of Community Settlement on Leisure Time Use and Body Composition in Determining Physical Lifestyles among Women
Leisure time is an important component to offset the sedentary lifestyle of the people. Women tend to benefit from leisure activities not only to reduce stress but also to provide opportunities for well-being and self-satisfaction. This study was conducted to investigate body composition and leisure time use among women in Selangor from the influences of community settlement. A total of 419 women aged 18-65 years were selected to participate in this study. Descriptive statistics, t test and ANOVA were used to analyze the level of physical activity, and the relationship between leisure-time use and body composition were made to analyze the physical lifestyles. The results showed that women with normal body composition seem to involve in more passive activities than women with less weight gain and obesity. Thus, the study recommended that the government and other health and recreational agencies should develop more places and activities suitable for leisure preference for women in their community settlement so they become more interested to engage in more active recreational and physical activities.
Educational Migration and Its Linkages with the Households in Kalimpong Town, West Bengal, India
This paper highlights the importance of educational migration in Kalimpong town and the local urban system created to sustain migration in a small town of Kalimpong in Darjeeling district of West Bengal. To accommodate the migrant students, the households in the towns have opened a system of keeping students as paying guests. The main aim of the study is to know the economic and social linkages of the migrants with the households and its members. A purposive sample survey was conducted. The result of the study have shown the rents paid by the students have helped the households to a great extent in creating some additional income in the family and some social links like keeping them busy, curbing loneliness, etc. has also been found. This study has helped to understand the character of a small place like Darjeeling which was once the summer capital of the Britishers.
Tourism Qualification and Academics' Opinions about the Influence of Employability Skills on Graduates' Ability to Secure Jobs in the Tourism Industry
This study focuses on higher education institutions in South Africa, with the view to understanding how tourism as a study discipline has evolved over the years, as well as the influence of employability skills on graduates’ ability to secure jobs in the tourism industry. Indeed, the employability landscape is becoming more complex; hence, it is imperative for higher education institutions to equip students with employability skills while going through their academic programmes and during their transition from higher education to the world of work. Employability – which is regarded as an empowerment mechanism and a key to job security – is a set of achievements which increases the probability for graduates to find and maintain employment. A quantitative research method was used to obtain the necessary information. Data were collected through a web-based, online survey questionnaire directed to academics from various public higher education institutions in South Africa that offer tourism as a qualification. The key findings revealed that academics are of the opinion that there are 5 skills that are influential in obtaining a position within the tourism industry.
Indentifying Critical Factors Influencing Timeshare Purchases in India
Timeshare refers to real estate that is owned simultaneously by many, for a specified time in a year, for a specified numbers of years and is maintained and managed by an agency. Timeshare falls under the umbrella of tourism and is often used for vacation. Timeshare industry has attracted significantly less number of customers in India as compared to the US and Europe. In more than 40 years of existence of timeshare industry, it has not been able to grow its roots among Indian customers. The purpose of the study: To explore perception of Indian customers towards the adoption of timeshare segment of the hospitality industry and identify the factors. Source of data: Survey has been done on existing owners of holidays memberships, resorts or those who at least tourism experience in their past purchases. Methodology: Logistic Regression is used to predict binary responses of the customers based on identified critical factors which might influence timeshare purchases. Result: The study identified four factors: discretionary income, exchange options, ownership pride, risk, and measured their influence on intention to purchases in India. It is recognized that is all four variables are statistically significant while explaining in purchase intentions of customers in India.
An Integrated Planning Framework for Sustainable Tourism: Case Study Tunisia
Tourism sector in Tunisia faces several problems that range from economic challenges to environmental degradation and social instability. These problems have been intensified because of the increased competition in the tourism market, the political instability, financial crises, and recently terrorism problems have aggravated the situation. As a consequence, a new framework that promotes sustainable tourism in the country and increases its competitiveness is urgently needed. Planning for sustainable tourism sector requires the integration of complex interactions between economic, social and environmental aspects. Sustainable tourism principles can be implemented through the help of Strategic Environmental Assessment (SEA) process, which ensures the full integration of economic, social and environmental considerations while planning for tourism sector in Tunisia. Results of the paper have broad implications for policy makers and tourism professionals.
The Power of Local People in Sustainable Tourism Management: A Case Study of Community Participation on Illuminated Boat Procession in Thailand
The objectives of this research were to study the factors affecting the participation of local people and the obstacles and recommendations towards local people’s participation in illuminated boat procession culture. The study looked at both qualitative, and quantitative data were collected by in-depth interview and analyzed by the descriptive approach. The 296 samplings were a local community who participated in constructing the illuminated boat in each community for 14 communities. The results of this study showed that the factor that encourages local people’s participation in illuminated both procession is the awareness of an importance of cultural uniqueness in the local. The problems and obstacles to the participation in illuminated boat procession include the resources for constructing illuminated both such as bamboos are run out of and price increasing, lack of proper cooperation between local people and government officers and conflict in interests between in local government office. So, the result of this study recommended that the government officers should be taken into account about community participation in the illuminated boat procession culture because without local people, the uniqueness culture of Nakhon Phanom Province would not exist and they would not reach the sustainable tourism goal.
Crisis Communication at Destinations:
A Study for Tourism Managers
Tourism industry essentially requires effective crisis management and crisis communication skills, as it is extremely vulnerable to crises. In terms of destinations, tourism crises cause dramatic decreases in the number of inbound tourists, impairment in the destination’s image, and decline in the level of preferability of the destination not only in the short but also in the long term. Therefore, any destination should be well prepared for crisis situation that may arise for various reasons. Currently, the advancement in communication technologies enables and facilitates information and experience to spread rapidly, and negative information and experiences tend to be shared to a further extent. Destinations are broadly exposed to the impacts of such communication stream. Turkey is almost continuously exposed to crises and their adverse impacts as a tourism destination, and thus requires effective crisis communication activities to be maintained. Hence, the approaches of tourism managers toward crisis communication and their proposals for addressing issues in question are important. This study intends to set forth the considerations of the managers serving in the tourism industry about crisis communication at destinations. The theoretical part of the study describes and explains crisis management and crisis communication at destinations; following which are provided the outcomes of the thorough in-depth interviews and discussions conducted for the establishment of the considerations of tourism managers. Managers indicated the role and importance of crisis communications in destinations.
The Relationship between Public Relations and Media Relations: The Case of Hotel Enterprises
Though in the academic literature, it is emphasized that Public Relations (PR) should not be seen only as media relations, in practise, the media relations has a very dominant position at the communication studies carried out by many companies. There are many PR practitioners who have journalism background. However the number of the practitioners who have started to work in the sector after having PR education at the universities has been highly increasing. Therefore, it can be said that previous journalist dominance has diminished at the public relations sector in Turkey. However, by virtue of the fact that some companies and practitioners consider the media coverage the first priority of PR, this much is certain that the dominant position of media relations is ongoing. On the other hand, still many companies measure the success of their PR by how much place their companies have taken. This situation creates major pressure on the PR practitioners to have close relations with the media members and to make them write articles about their companies. Thereupon, PR practitioners have to take the time for the media relations and the media relations comes into prominence more than the other PR functions. The aim of this study is to reveal the PR functions at the companies and to evaluate the position of the media relations in the PR studies. Therefore, it is aimed to find out at what extend the discourse of “Public relations is not media relations” is accepted in practice and actualised. Accordingly, a research about 15 hotel enterprises which are located in the city of İzmir will be carried out. İzmir as one of the most important tourism destinations has many hotels. The PR/corporate communications managers will be interviewed profoundly within the scope of this study and PR functions performed by hotels will be discussed in details in consideration of the datum obtained.
Local Remedies to Hangover: An Alcohol Consumer Welfare-Concerned Study
Hangover is the unpleasant psychological and physiologic effects after heavy consumption of alcoholic beverages. In awareness of the need to have a remedy for hangover occurrence in Iligan City, the authors aimed to determine the most preferred and effective local remedy to the hangover and inform people, bars and food establishments that there are available remedies to the hangover in the locality. The study utilizes qualitative data gathered through an interview on four different age groups with 50 random individuals each group as to what symptom determines they are experiencing the hangover. Then, quantitative data gathered through an online and written survey was done as to what local hangover remedy do they intake after drinking to ameliorate the most experienced symptom provided from the first assessment. After data tabulation of hangover symptoms on different age groups, we have found out that the most common determinant that you have a hangover has a headache. Thus, we queried the respondents again to what was effective the most in relieving them of a headache and their other felt symptoms depending on their varying age groups. The results of the evaluations showed that most respondents from different age groups preferred Halang-halang Soup, a spicy beef soup in the locality. As part of the hospitality industry concerned with welfare of customers, Bars in Iligan City should include on their menu these hang-over remedies in anticipation of guest needs given the fact that there are no more stores open at late hours in Iligan City. Placards should also be posted within the bar area to orient the guests about hang-over cures available inside the bar. Bartenders and other staff being directly in-contact with guests should take part in orienting guests about these aforementioned remedies. Added to that, we would like to promote Halang-halang Soup as a Health beneficial cuisine in the Philippines and help in the growth of the Tourism Industry of Iligan City by making the Halang-halang place a tourist destination.
, alcohol consumption
, alcohol hangover
, anticipation of needs
, hospitality industry
, local remedy
, menu development
, menu improvement
The Inception: A University-Wide Research on Alcohol Consumption
Nowadays, alcohol is consumed widely around the globe for plenty of reasons. College years are the time that the students really decide if whether they will or will not engage into alcohol, although alcohol drinking begins before students arrive at college. The reasons on why college students consume alcohol vary in many categories. The norms on alcohol drinking are addiction, emotional pain reliever, popularity purposes, socialization, and a medium of euphoria for most students; college students in particular are most likely to feel this need. After tons of requirements to be complied and courses to be reviewed, they felt a need for celebration and relaxation which ends up in drinking with college mates and a few old friends. A lot of reasons consist the consumption of alcohol and this research determined the reasons behind the students’ onset for alcohol consumption; the main reason for such action and the experiences they encountered after in-take, furthermore, the correlation of alcohol drinking to the average allowance of the involved participants; Mindanao State University-Iligan Institute of Technology Students whether it affects their spending towards alcohol or not. This study assumes that alcohol drinking for MSU-IIT students’ is done to relieve emotional pain caused by flunking in particular subjects as well as dealing with romance, as part of the student body, these acts are noticeable enough which made this hypothesis be formulated. Selected MSU-IIT students were asked about their opinions regarding reasons of alcohol consumption. There were 100 respondents consisting of first year to fifth-year students aging 17-23 years old. Choices were given to the students to mark their most favorable reason for drinking that is adult influence, curiosity, family/personal problems, peer pressure, stress. Using the bar and pie chart illustrations, the collected data was then analyzed and among the given choices, the result has invalidated the hypothesis. The outcome shows that curiosity is the topmost reason why students start to drink and not due to emotional pain. With this, another hypothesis is formulated stating that millennial is a curious generation; this generation has changed the norm of drinking. One of the characteristics of the Y generation is being adventurous which correlates to how they get curious about things and the same goes for alcohol consumption, compared to the latter, this generation can be considered early drinkers in this manner. Therefore, it is concluded that MSU-IIT students which are part of the generation Y are adventurous enough to try unfamiliar beverages to satisfy their curious minds.
Influence Activities In Destination, Destination Marketing, And Loyalty Through Environmental Preservation Toward Satisfaction At The Tourist Destinations In East Java, Indonesia
This study aimed to determine the effect Activities in marketing, Destination Marketing, and Environmental preservation loyalty through satisfaction at tourist destination in East Java, Indonesia. In this study population used is Surabaya citizens who had visited tourist destination in East Java, Indonesia. Characteristics of a sample of respondents in this study are: a minimum age of 17 years, and ever came in tourist destination in East Java, Indonesia with each destination more than 1 visits. Total sample 316 respondents. Data analysis tools which is used in this study is a structural equation modeling. Based on the analysis, the results of this study can be concluded that the hypothesis 1, 2, 5, and 6 are proposed in this study was rejected because not significant. The hypotheses are: (1) Activities in destination have influence which is positive effect on satisfaction in the tourist destination in East Java, Indonesia, (2) Destination marketing have influence which is positive effect on satisfaction in the tourist destination in East Java, Indonesia, (3) Activities in destination have influence which is positive effect towards loyalty through satisfaction in a tourist destination in East Java, Indonesia. (4) Destination marketing have influence which is positive effect on loyalty through satisfaction in a tourist destination in East Java, Indonesia. While the hypothesis 3, 4, and 7, is received. The hypotheses are: (1) Environmental preservation have influence which is positive effect and significant on satisfaction in the tourist destination in East Java, Indonesia. (2) Satisfaction have influence which is positive effect and significant on loyalty to the tourist destination in East Java, Indonesia. (3) Environmental preservation have influence which is positive effect and significant on loyalty through satisfaction in a tourist destination in East Java, Indonesia. Practical advice submitted to the management of tourist destinations, especially in the 10 areas where research was conducted for more attention to the condition of the physical environment to be around tourist spots / attractions, namely: the condition of roads, water supply conditions, the condition of drainage / sanitation, and the condition waste more seriously. Based on the proposal, the manager of a tourist destination seems to be working closely with the local municipal sanitation departments, local water companies local city and town local public works departments to jointly manage a tourist destination considering regional tourism is one of the region's assets and become one sources of local revenue (PAD) is vital.
Examining the Challenges Faced by Passengers Using Arik Air for International and Domestic Travel
This research work was aimed at examining the challenges faced by passengers using Arik air for domestic and international travels. Passengers do complain of delay flights, theft and rude behavior by Arik staff while on transit or in the process of travelling using the aircraft. Being the national carrier in Nigeria these behaviors have tarnished the image of the airline and makes travel experience to be challenging. Hundred survey questionnaires were administered to travellers who have used the airline for domestic and international flights. Findings show that the staff of the airline do lack customer care skills and are sometimes rude to customers. The airline does have different agents that book for international flights who delays confirming bookings even after payment. The website of the airline is mostly down and makes bookings difficult. Other findings related to the study are a delay of domestic flights within Nigeria. Passengers are sometimes kept for 8 hours in the airport due to delay of flights. The study, therefore, recommends that flight schedule should be adhered to and staff should be trained to meet of with passengers demand. The security of guest luggage at the airport should be put in place to avoid theft. An effective booking platform should be accessible to passengers for easy booking.
Gadjah Mada University Yogyakarta Indonesia as a Potential Destination for Education Tourism
This paper suggests education tourism as an option into developing more sustainable mass tourism. Identifying the potential of education tourism and developing a sustainable packages will have an impact on social economic development in the area. Indonesia especially Yogyakarta can increase their tourism earnings by tapping into this growing market phenomenon. Educational tourism, a growing part in the world tourism market, has attracted great attention because of its direct impact on the community and as an alternative strategy for poverty alleviation. Tourism is considered as one of the main industries and sectors highly contributing to economic development in Indonesia especially in Yogyakarta, this region can be an ideal case for studying the issue of educational tourism in Universitas Gadjah Mada. This paper tries to introduce the educational tourism as an important alternative source of the economy accelerator in the context of Yogyakarta Indonesia. This paper also aims to discuss the education tourism potential at the University of Gadjah Mada, Yogyakarta Indonesia then to create and established an Education Tourism package at Gadjah Mada University. Education Tourism is a means to empower academics, local community, local businesses, and to improve the economic welfare. Methods: Focus group discussions, direct observation, survey and best practice method. Conclusion: There is a positive relationship between attitude, environmental impact, economic impact, and socio-cultural impacts and practice in the field when the potential is seized. The findings incorporate insights into the socio-cultural and economic potential of education tourism and practices related to community development at the University of Gadjah Mada, Yogyakarta Indonesia by creating an Education Tourism Packages that will suit the needs of the tourist. Educational tourism can create sustainable development for local communities, academic society, universities, and stakeholders.
Analysis of Hotel Websites to Attract Tourists in Iran, Case Study: Yazd County
Nowadays, the importance of information technology and web-based information in tourism is very obvious. Increasing of sales and promotion of brands, the rise of information about tourist attractions and tourist areas, entrepreneurship and making money, introducing of hotels and side information to tourists via web are some examples of website effects on tourism. The hotels using web-based information can succeed in attracting tourists and improve the quality of services to the tourists. So, the study of hotel websites has become one of the most important issues in tourism. Therefore, this research aims to analyze the status of hotel websites in Yazd County as one of the most tourist visited counties in Iran. The quality of hotel website in a county can be very vital for tourism. Hence, this research compares the status of hotel websites in Yazd County with standard indexes and items that extracted from literature and theoretical framework. Content analysis is used for analyzing hotel websites with indexes and items in methodology. In the other words, all of the items are compared with the content of hotel-websites in Yazd one by one. Finally, every hotel archived final score which represents the position of the hotel among the others. All of scores and status of hotels are displayed in their own figures. The result of this research shows that many hotels do not offer standard web-based services and information. So, the existing situation is not very suitable for the attraction of web users or improving the tourism. The result of this research may help the managers and authorities of tourism to offer and improve the web-based services and information.
The Impact of a Living Wage on the UK Hotel Sector
In the UK, more than 1 in 5 workers earn less than a living wage. The hospitality sector is particularly affected where it has been claimed two thirds of workers earn less than the living wage. The UK Government is set to introduce (April 2016) a national living wage (NLW) which is therefore likely to have a significant impact on the hospitality sector. To date limited data exists that focus on how hotels are tackling the issue, what stakeholder perceptions are towards the change in legislation, and how the NLW may affect working patterns in the sector. This study draws on interviews with a range of key stakeholders such as hotel HR and general managers as well as industry representatives to explore these issues within the broader context of responsible tourism. Data collection is still ongoing and is scheduled to be completed by the end of June 2016.
Determinants of Conference Service Quality as Perceived by International Attendees
In recent years, conference destinations have been highly competitive; therefore, it is necessary to know about the behaviours of conference participants such as the process of their decision-making and the assessment of perceived conference quality. A conceptual research framework based on the Theory of Planned Behaviour model is presented in this research to get better understanding factors that influence it. This research study highlights key factors presented in previous studies in which behaviour intentions of participants are affected by the quality of conference. Therefore, this study is believed to provide an idea that conference participants should be encouraged to contribute to the quality and behaviour intention of the conference.
The Effect of Religious Tourist Motivation and Satisfaction on Behavioral Intention
In recent years, the Chaoshan area, a special place located in the southeast of Guangdong province in China, actively protects religious heritage and is developing religious tourism, which is attracting many expatriate Chinese who are coming back for travel and to worship. This paper discussed three questions. Firstly, what is the current situation about the different social background of tourists’ motivation, satisfaction and behavioral intention? Secondly, is there a relationship between the motivation, satisfaction and behavioral intention and the different social backgrounds of tourists? Thirdly, what is the relationship between religious tourists’ motivation, satisfaction and behavioral intention? The research methods use a combination of qualitative analysis and quantitative analysis. Qualitative analysis uses the method of observation and interviews. Convenient sampling technique was used for quantitative analysis. The study showed that the different social backgrounds of tourists’ forms diverse cognition and experiences about religious tourism, and their motivations, satisfaction and behavioral intention as tourists vary. Tourists’ motivation and satisfaction has a positive phase relation. Tourists’ motivation with satisfaction as the intervening variable also has a positive phase effect on tourists’ behavior intention. The result shows that religious tourists’ motivations include experiencing a religious atmosphere, and having a rest and recreation. The result also shows that religious tourists want to travel with their family members and friends. While traveling, religious tourists like to talk with Buddhist monks or nuns. Compared to other tourism types, religious tourists have higher expectations about temple environment, traveling experience, peripheral service and temple management.
A Study of Female Casino Dealers' Job Stress and Job Satisfaction: The Case of Macau
Macau is known as the Oriental Monte Carlo and its economy depends on gambling heavily. The dealer is the key position of the gambling industry, at the end of the fourth quarter of 2015, there were over 24,000 dealers among the 56,000 full-time employees in gambling industry. More than half of dealers were female. The dealer is also called 'Croupier', the main responsibilities of them are shuffling, dealing, processing chips, rolling dice game and inspecting play. Due to the limited land and small population of Macao, the government has not allowed hiring foreign domestic dealers since Macao developed temporary gambling industry. Therefore, local dealers enjoy special advantages but also bear the high stresses from work. From the middle of last year, with the reduced income of gambling, and the decline of mainland gamblers as well as VIP lounges, the working time of dealers increased greatly. Thus, many problems occurred in this condition, such as the rise of working pressures, psychological pressures and family-responsibility pressures, which may affect job satisfaction as well. Because of the less research of dealer satisfaction, and a lack of standing on feminine perspective to analyze female dealers, this study will focus on investigating the relationship between working pressure and job satisfaction from feminine view. Several issues will be discussed specifically: firstly, to understand current situation of the working pressures and job satisfactions of female dealers in different ages; secondly, to research if there is any relevance between working pressures and job satisfactions of female dealers in different ages; thirdly, to find out the relationship between dealers' working pressures and job satisfactions in different ages. This paper combined qualitative approach with quantitative approach selected samples by convenient sampling. The research showed the female dealers from diverse ages have different kinds of working pressures; second, job satisfactions of the female dealers in different ages are dissimilar; moreover, there is negative correlation between working pressure and job satisfaction of female dealer in different ages' groups; last but not the least, working pressure has a significant negative impact on job satisfaction. The research result will provide a reference value for the Macau gambling business. It is a pattern to improve dealers' working environment, to increase employees' job satisfaction, as well as to offer tourists a better service, which can help to attract more and more visitors from a good image of Macau gaming and tourism.
Perception of Hygiene Knowledge among Staff Working in Top Five Famous Restaurants of Male’
One of the major factors which can contribute greatly to success of catering businesses is to employ food and beverage staff having sound hygiene knowledge. Individuals having sound knowledge of hygiene has a higher chance of following safe food practices in food production. One of the leading causes of food poisoning and food borne illnesses has been identified as lack of hygiene knowledge among food and beverage staff working in catering establishments and restaurants. This research aims to analyze the hygiene knowledge among food and beverage staff working in top five restaurants of Male’, in relation to their age, educational background, occupation and training. The research uses quantitative and descriptive methods in data collection and in data analysis. Data was obtained through random sampling technique with self-administered survey questionnaires which was completed by 60 respondents working in 5 different restaurants operating at top level in Male’. The respondents of the research were service staff and chefs working in these restaurants. The responses to the questionnaires have been analyzed by using SPSS. The results of the research indicated that age, education level, occupation and training correlated with hygiene knowledge perception scores.
Factors Influencing Student's Decision to Pursue a Hospitality and Tourism Program
The aim of the study is to analyze the factors that influence the decision to pursue a hospitality and tourism program for students of Maldives when pursuing higher education options. This research would further explore the implications and relationship between the universities and students. Quantitative research method will be used to demonstrate the hypothesis and achieve the objectives of this research, a questionnaire consisting of 30 closed questions will be used which will be analyzed based on SPSS18 software to handle and extract the data.10 public school and 3 private schools with secondary education and 3 universities with higher education facilities and a total of 500 students participated in the survey. The findings include selection criteria for decision making for higher studies being the university’s reputation, excellence and quality of educational program, the preference of pursuing further studies from a public over private universities and the academic, cultural and socio demographic factors that influence the students choice of program and university. Finally the study will provide valuable insight to how universities need to market their programs to attract the right students.
A Practical Model for Managing Beach Safety Focusing on Tourist Drownings in Koh Samui, Thailand
This paper aims to investigate management of beach safety with a focus on tourist drownings in Samui. The data collected in this investigation will then lead to the proposal of a practical management model suitable for use in Samui. Qualitative research was conducted in the following manner: nine stakeholders from local government organizations and tourism businesses were interviewed in-depth. Additionally, a best practice case study from Phuket was applied to analyze beach safety. Twelve foreign tourists were also interviewed. Then, a focus group comprised of 32 people was used to determine practical solutions for enhancing tourists’ safety on the beach in Samui. A steering committee to coordinate between public and private organizations was proposed to manage and enhance tourists’ safety. A practical model is proposed to increase the safety level of tourists in Samui
Relationship between Hofstede’s Cultural Dimensions and Tourism Product Satisfaction
This paper aims to explore the satisfaction levels of tourism product components on the island of Samui by studying the cultural dimension relationships of Hofsted’s classic theory. Both the six Hofsted cultural dimensions and tourism production satisfaction measures have been of interest worldwide. Therefore, the challenge of this study is to re-confirm previous research results in the ever-changing current contexts of the modern globalized business era. Self-rated questionnaires were employed to collect data from six nationalities of tourists in Samui, totaling 386 samples. The reliability of this research methodology was 0.967. Correlation was applied to analyze the relationships. The results indicate that Masculinity is significantly related to tourism destination satisfaction for every factor, while the other five cultural dimensions are related to some factors of tourism satisfaction. Surprisingly, tourist satisfaction toward the bar/restaurant factor is significantly correlated with all six cultural dimensions.
Ecolodging as an Answer for Sustainable Development and Successful Resource Management: The Case of North West Coast in Alexandria
The continued growth of tourism in the future relies on maintaining a clean environment by achieving sustainable development. The erosion and degradation of beaches, the deterioration of coastal water quality, visual pollution of coastlines by massive developments, all this has contributed heavily to the loss of the natural attractiveness for tourism. In light of this, promoting the concept of sustainable coastal development is becoming a central goal for governments and private sector. An ecolodge is a small hotel or guesthouse that incorporates local architectural, cultural and natural characteristics, promotes environmental conservation through minimizing the use of waste and energy and produces social and economic benefits for local communities. Egypt has some scattered attempts in some areas like Sinai in the field of ecolodging. This research tends to investigate the potentials of the North West Coast (NWC) in Alexandria as a new candidate for ecolodging investments. The area is full of primitive natural and man-made resources. These, if used in an environmental-friendly way could achieve cost reductions as a result of successful resource management for investors on the one hand, and coastal preservation on the other hand. In-depth interviews will be conducted with stakeholders in the tourism sector to examine their opinion about the potentials of the research area for ecolodging developments. The candidates will be also asked to rate the importance of the availability of certain environmental aspects in such establishments such as the uses of resources that originate from local communities, uses of natural power sources, uses of an environmental-friendly sewage disposal, forbidding the use of materials of endangered species and enhancing cultural heritage conservation. The results show that the area is full of potentials that could be effectively used for ecolodging investments. This if efficiently used could attract ecotourism as a supplementary type of tourism that could be promoted in Alexandria aside cultural, recreational and religious tourism.