International Science Index

International Journal of Health and Medical Engineering

Automated Ultrasound Carotid Artery Image Segmentation Using Curvelet Threshold Decomposition
In this paper, we propose denoising Common Carotid Artery (CCA) B mode ultrasound images by a decomposition approach to curvelet thresholding and automatic segmentation of the intima media thickness and adventitia boundary. By decomposition, the local geometry of the image, its direction of gradients are well preserved. The components are combined into a single vector valued function, thus removes noise patches. Double threshold is applied to inherently remove speckle noise in the image. The denoised image is segmented by active contour without specifying seed points. Combined with level set theory, they provide sub regions with continuous boundaries. The deformable contours match to the shapes and motion of objects in the images. A curve or a surface under constraints is developed from the image with the goal that it is pulled into the necessary features of the image. Region based and boundary based information are integrated to achieve the contour. The method treats the multiplicative speckle noise in objective and subjective quality measurements and thus leads to better-segmented results. The proposed denoising method gives better performance metrics compared with other state of art denoising algorithms.
Role of Moderate Intensity Exercises in the Amelioration of Oxidant-Antioxidant Status and the Levels of Inflammatory Cytokines in Rheumatoid Arthritis Patients
Cytokines and reactive species play an important role in the pathophysiology of rheumatoid arthritis (RA). This study was done to determine the levels of reactive oxygen and nitrogen species (ROS and RNS), inflammatory cytokines and the markers of protein, DNA and lipid oxidation in the blood of RA patients, with the aim to study the antioxidant and anti-inflammatory role of moderate intensity exercises in the management of RA. RA patients were subdivided into two groups- first group (n=30) received treatment with conventional RA drugs while the second group (n=30) received moderate exercise therapy along with the conventional drugs for a period of 12 weeks. The levels of ROS, RNS, inflammatory cytokines and markers of biomolecule oxidation were monitored before and after 12 weeks of treatment. RA patients showed a marked increase in the levels of ROS, RNS, inflammatory cytokines, lipid, protein and DNA oxidation as compared to the healthy controls. These parameters were ameliorated after treatment with drugs alone and exercise combined with drugs, with the amelioration being more significant in patients given drugs along with the moderate intensity exercise treatment. In conclusion, the role of ROS, RNS and inflammatory cytokines in the pathogenesis of RA has been confirmed by this study. These may also serve as potential biomarker for assessing the disease severity. Finally, the addition of moderate intensity exercises in the management of RA may be of great value.
Multimodal Integration of EEG, fMRI and Positron Emission Tomography Data Using Principal Component Analysis for Prognosis in Coma Patients
Introduction: So far, clinical assessments that rely on behavioral responses to differentiate coma states or even predict outcome in coma patients are unreliable, e.g. because of some patients’ motor disabilities. The present study was aimed to provide prognosis in coma patients using markers from electroencephalogram (EEG), blood oxygen level dependent (BOLD) functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) and [18F]-fluorodeoxyglucose (FDG) positron emission tomography (PET). Unsuperwised principal component analysis (PCA) was used for multimodal integration of markers. Methods: Approved by the local ethics committee of the Technical University of Munich (Germany) 20 patients (aged 18-89) with severe brain damage were acquired through intensive care units at the Klinikum rechts der Isar in Munich and at the Therapiezentrum Burgau (Germany). At the day of EEG/fMRI/PET measurement (date I) patients (
National Accreditation Board for Hospitals and Healthcare Reaccreditation, the Challenges and Advantages: A Qualitative Case Study
Background: The National Accreditation Board for Hospitals & Healthcare Providers (NABH) is India’s apex standard setting accrediting body in health care which evaluates and accredits healthcare organizations. NABH requires accredited organizations to become reaccredited every three years. It is often though that once the initial accreditation is complete, the foundation is set and reaccreditation is a much simpler process. Fortis Hospital, Shalimar Bagh, a part of the Fortis Healthcare group is a 262 bed, multi-specialty tertiary care hospital. The hospital was successfully accredited in the year 2012. On completion of its first cycle, the hospital underwent a reaccreditation assessment in the year 2015. This paper aims to gain a better understanding of the challenges that accredited hospitals face when preparing for a renewal of their accreditations. Methods: The study was conducted using a cross-sectional mixed methods approach; semi-structured interviews were conducted with senior leadership team and staff members including doctors and nurses. Documents collated by the QA team while preparing for the re-assessment like the data on quality indicators: the method of collection, analysis, trending, continual incremental improvements made over time, minutes of the meetings, amendments made to the existing policies and new policies drafted was reviewed to understand the challenges. Results: The senior leadership had a concern about the cost of accreditation and its impact on the quality of health care services considering the staff effort and time consumed it. The management was however in favor of continuing with the accreditation since it offered competitive advantage, strengthened community confidence besides better pay rates from the payors. The clinicians regarded it as an increased non-clinical workload. Doctors felt accountable within a professional framework, to themselves, the patient and family, their peers and to their profession; but not to accreditation bodies and raised concerns on how the quality indicators were measured. The departmental leaders had a positive perception of accreditation. They agreed that it ensured high standards of care and improved management of their functional areas. However, they were reluctant in sparing people for the QA activities due to staffing issues. With staff turnover, a lot of work was lost as sticky knowledge and had to be redone. Listing the continual quality improvement initiatives over the last 3 years was a challenge in itself. Conclusion: The success of any quality assurance reaccreditation program depends almost entirely on the commitment and interest of the administrators, nurses, paramedical staff, and clinicians. The leader of the Quality Movement is critical in propelling and building momentum. Leaders need to recognize skepticism and resistance and consider ways in which staff can become positively engaged. Involvement of all the functional owners is the start point towards building ownership and accountability for standards compliance. Creativity plays a very valuable role. Communication by Mail Series, WhatsApp groups, Quizzes, Events, and any and every form helps. Leaders must be able to generate interest and commitment without burdening clinical and administrative staff with an activity they neither understand nor believe in.
Implementation of a Web-Based Clinical Outcomes Monitoring and Reporting Platform across the Fortis Network
Background: Clinical Outcomes are the globally agreed upon, evidence-based measurable changes in health or quality of life resulting from the patient care. Reporting of outcomes and its continuous monitoring provides an opportunity for both assessing and improving the quality of patient care. In 2012, International Consortium Of HealthCare Outcome Measurement (ICHOM) was founded which has defined global Standard Sets for measuring the outcome of various treatments. Method: Monitoring of Clinical Outcomes was identified as a pillar of Fortis’ core value of Patient Centricity. The project was started as an in-house developed Clinical Outcomes Reporting Portal by the Fortis Medical IT team. Standard sets of Outcome measurement developed by ICHOM were used. A pilot was run at Fortis Escorts Heart Institute from Aug’13 – Dec’13.Starting Jan’14, it was implemented across 11 hospitals of the group. The scope was hospital-wide and major clinical specialties: Cardiac Sciences, Orthopedics & Joint Replacement were covered. The internally developed portal had its limitations of report generation and also capturing of Patient related outcomes was restricted. A year later, the company provisioned for an ICHOM Certified Software product which could provide a platform for data capturing and reporting to ensure compliance with all ICHOM requirements. Post a year of the launch of the software; Fortis Healthcare has become the 1st Healthcare Provider in Asia to publish Clinical Outcomes data for the Coronary Artery Disease Standard Set comprising of Coronary Artery Bypass Graft and Percutaneous Coronary Interventions) in the public domain. (Jan 2016). Results: This project has helped in firmly establishing a culture of monitoring and reporting Clinical Outcomes across Fortis Hospitals. Given the diverse nature of the healthcare delivery model at Fortis Network, which comprises of hospitals of varying size and specialty-mix and practically covering the entire span of the country, standardization of data collection and reporting methodology is a huge achievement in itself. 95% case reporting was achieved with more than 90% data completion at the end of Phase 1 (March 2016). Post implementation the group now has one year of data from its own hospitals. This has helped identify the gaps and plan towards ways to bridge them and also establish internal benchmarks for continual improvement. Besides the value created for the group includes: 1. Entire Fortis community has been sensitized on the importance of Clinical Outcomes monitoring for patient centric care. Initial skepticism and cynicism has been countered by effective stakeholder engagement and automation of processes. 2. Measuring quality is the first step in improving quality. Data analysis has helped compare clinical results with best-in-class hospitals and identify improvement opportunities. 3. Clinical fraternity is extremely pleased to be part of this initiative and has taken ownership of the project. Conclusion: Fortis Healthcare is the pioneer in the monitoring of Clinical Outcomes. Implementation of ICHOM standards has helped Fortis Clinical Excellence Program in improving patient engagement and strengthening its commitment to its core value of Patient Centricity. Validation and certification of the Clinical Outcomes data by an ICHOM Certified Supplier adds confidence to its claim of being leaders in this space.
Adaptive Training Methods Designed to Improve a Shorter Resident Curriculum in Obstetrics and Gynecology
Background: In France, the resident curriculum (RC) in Obstetrics and Gynecology (OBGYN) takes five years. In the course of the last 15 years, this RC has undergone major changes, characterized mainly by successive reductions of work hours. The program used to comprise long and frequent shifts, huge workload, poor supervision and erratic theoretical teaching. A decade ago, the French Ministry of Heath recommended a limitation of shift duration up to 24 hours and a minimum of 11 hours off duty between shifts. Last year, in order to comply with European Union directives, new recommendations have further limited residents’ work hours to 48 hours per week. Methods: Assessment of the residency program adjustments recently made to accommodate the recommendations while improving the training quality in resorting to new methods. Results: The challenge facing program directors was to provide an all-encompassing curriculum to OBGYN residents despite fewer work hours. Program has been dramatically redesigned, and several measures have been put in place: -The resident rotation system has been redesigned. Residents used to make 6-month rotations between 10-12 Departments of OBGYN or Surgery. Fewer Departments, those providing the best teaching, have been kept in the new RC. -Extensive inhouse supervision has been implemented for all kinds of clinical activities. Effectual supervision of residents has proved to be an effective tool to improve the quality of training. -The tutorship system, with academic members individually overseeing residents during their curriculum, has been perfected. It allows a better follow-up of residents’ progresses during the 5-year program. -The set up of an extensive program of lectures encompassing all maters in Obstetrics & Gynecology. These mandatory lectures are available online in a dedicated website. Therefore, face-to-face lectures have been limited in order to fit in the 48-hour limit. -The use of simulation has been significantly increased in obstetrics, materno-fetal medicine and surgery (stressing especially laparoscopic training). -Residents’ feedback has been taken into account in the setup of the new RC. Conclusion: This extensive overhaul of the Obstetrics and Gynecology RC has been in place since last year only. Nevertheless, the new program seems to adequately take into account the new recommendations while providing a better and more consistent teaching to the OBGYN residents.
Optimization of PCR Condition to Amplify Exon 9 of PIK3CA Gene in Preventing False Positive Detection Caused by Pseudogene Existence in Breast Cancer
Breast cancer is a regulated by many genes. Defect in PIK3CA gene especially at position of exon 9 (E542K and E545K), called hotspot mutation induce early transformation of breast cells. The early detection of breast cancer based on mutation profile of this hotspot region would be hampered by the existence of pseudogene, marked by its substitution mutation at base 1658 (E545A) and deletion at 1659 that have been previously proven in several cancers. To the best of the authors’ knowledge, until recently no studies have been reported about pseudogene phenomenon in breast cancer. Here, we reported PCR optimization to obtain true exon 9 of PIK3CA gene from its pseudogene hence increasing the validity of data. Material and methods: Two genomic DNA with Dev and En code were used in this experiment. Two pairs of primer were designed for Standard PCR method. The size of PCR products for each primer is 200bp and 400bp. While another primer was designed for Nested-PCR followed with DNA sequencing method. For Nested-PCR, we optimized the annealing temperature in first and second run of PCR, and the PCR cycle for first run PCR (15x versus 25x). Result: standard PCR using both primer pairs designed is failed to detect the true PIK3CA gene, appearing a substitution mutation at 1658 and deletion at 1659 of PCR product in sequence chromatogram indicated pseudogene. Meanwhile, Nested-PCR with optimum condition (annealing temperature for the first round at 55°C, annealing temperature for the second round at 60,7°C with 15x PCR cycles) and could detect the true PIK3CA gene. Dev sample was identified as WT while En sample contains one substitution mutation at position 545 of exon 9, indicating amino acid changing from E to K. For the conclusion, pseudogene also exists in breast cancer and the application of optimized Nested-PCR in this study could detect the true exon 9 of PIK3CA gene.
Parathyroid Hormone Receptor 1 as a Prognostic Indicator in Canine Osteosarcoma
Osteosarcoma (OS) is the most common type of malignant primary bone tumour in dogs. In addition to their critical roles in bone formation and remodeling, parathyroid hormone-related protein (PTHrP) and its receptor (PTHR1) are involved in progression and metastasis of many types of tumours in humans. The aims of this study were to determine the localisation and expression levels of PTHrP and PTHR1 in canine OS tissues using immunohistochemistry and to investigate if this expression is correlated with survival time. Formalin-fixed, paraffin-embedded tissue samples from 44 dogs with known survival time that had been diagnosed with primary osteosarcoma were analysed for localisation of PTHrP and PTHR1. Findings showed that both PTHrP and PTHR1 were present in all OS samples. The dogs with high level of PTHR1 protein (16%) had decreased survival time (P0.05). The results of this study indicate that the PTHR1 is expressed differently in canine OS tissues and this may be correlated with poor prognosis. This may mean that PTHR1 may be useful as a prognostic indicator in canine OS and could represent a good therapeutic target in OS.
Analysis of Stress and Strain in Head Based Control of a Collaborative Assistant Robot Through Tetraplegics
The recent development of robotics leads away from industrial robots as part of highly automated manufacturing facilities, through to collaborative (light-weight) robots. This offers the opportunity of using them as assistance robots and to improve the participation in professional life of disabled or handicapped people such as tetraplegics. Robots under development are located within a collaboration area together with the working person at the same workplace. This collaboration area is an area in which the robot and the working person can perform tasks at the same time. Thus, the robots are not limited to a movable component of automation, but working persons and robots working in the immediate proximity and perform together a work task. Considering the physical restrictions and the limited mobility of tetraplegics, a hands-free robot control could be an appropriate approach for a collaborative assistance robot. To meet these requirements, the research project MeRoSy (human-robot synergy) researches, develops and implements methods of machine learning and adaptation for collaborative assistance robots based on the measurement of head movements of the working person. One research objective is to improve the participation in professional life of people with disabilities and, in particular mobility impaired persons (e.g. wheelchair users or tetraplegics), whose participation in a self-determined working life is denied. This raises the research question how a human-robot collaboration workplace can be designed suitable for a human-centered, ergonomic hands-free robot control. In this study the example of a library scenario is demonstrated. Here, the participants move the end effector of a robot through a head based control system and grab a book with a gripper attached to this end effector. In the final paper, an empirical study that focuses on the impact of head movement related stress is presented. In this study, 11 test subjects with tetraplegia have participated. In the experiment carried out three different basic head movements each with two characteristics (flexion/extension, rotation left/right, lateral flexion left/right) were investigated. Data of the head posture was received by a motion capture system, muscle activity was measured via surface electromyography and the subjective mental stress was assessed via Rating Scale Mental Effort. The muscle activity was measured for the sternocleidomastoid, the upper trapezius and the splenius capitis muscle. For this purpose, six non-invasive surface electromyography sensors were mounted in the head and neck area. An analysis of variance shows differentiated muscular strains depending on the type of head movement. Investigating the influence of different basic head movements on the resulting strain systematically is an important issue to transfer the research results to other scenarios generically. The results of this study are discussed with respect to ergonomic design recommendations regarding the design of the human-robot workplaces and the human-robot collaboration. At the end of this paper a conclusion will be drawn and an outlook of future work will be presented.
Performance Evaluations of Five Commonly Used Glucose Meters in Thailand Using the International and National Guidelines
Glucose meters play an important role in the management of diabetes mellitus (DM) patients. Analytical and clinical performance of blood glucose testing deserve to be evaluated before using it in hospital settings. The objectives of this study were to evaluate the analytical performance of five commonly used glucose meters and to evaluate the clinical performance. Analytical performance including precision, recovery, common interferences, and comparison were carried out. One hundred capillary and venous blood samples obtained from 60 diabetes patients and 40 healthy adults were used in comparison studies. Whole blood samples were measured for glucose by glucose meters and a YSI reference analyzer, while plasma samples were measured for glucose by a Cobas c111 analyzer. All data obtained from the comparative studies was evaluated by using the international guidelines for blood glucose testing, and also Thailand's national guidelines for point of care testing. The clinical performance of blood glucose testing was evaluated using Park Error Grid analysis. The coefficients of variation of blood glucose testing by glucose meters were less than 8% and recoveries ranged from 95 to 105%. We found that hemoglobin and triglyceride can interfere with one of the glucose meter. However, blood glucose levels obtained from four of the glucose meters were compatible with the reference analyzers published in ISO 15197 and CLSI (> 95%). All five glucose meters were in conformance with Thailand's national guidelines for point of care testing by Correlation coefficient > 0.975 (r2 > 0.95), Bland-Altman plot > 95% and clinical performance with biases felt within zone A and B ≥99% of error grid plots.
Nursing System Development in Patients Undergoing Operation in 3C Ward: Early Ambulation in Patients with Head and Neck Cancer
Background: Srinagarind Hospital Ward 3C has about 180 cases of patients with head and neck cancer per year. Almost all of these patients suffer with pain, fatigue, low self image, swallowing problem and when the tumor is larger they will have breathing problem. Many of them have complication after operation such as pressure sore, pneumonia, deep vein thrombosis. Nursing activity is very important to prevent the complication especially promoting patients early ambulation. The objective of this study was to develop early ambulation protocol for patients with head and neck cancer undergoing operation. Method: this study is one part of nursing system development in patients undergoing operation in Ward 3C. It is a participation action research divided into 3 phases Phase 1 Situation review: In this phase we review the clinical outcomes, process of care, from document such as nurses note and interview nurses, patients and family about early ambulation. Phase 2 Searching nursing intervention about early ambulation from previous study then establish protocol . This phase we have picture package of early ambulation. Phase 3 implementation and evaluation. Result: Patients with head and neck cancer after operation can follow early ambulation protocol 100%, 85 % of patients can follow protocol within 2 days after operation and 100% can follow protocol within 3 days. No complications occur. Patients satisfaction in very good level is 58% and in good level is 42% Length of hospital stay is 6 days in patients with wide excision and 16 day in patients with flap coverage. Conclusion: The early ambulation protocol is appropriate for patients with head and neck cancer who undergo operation. This can restore physical health, reduce complication and increase patients satisfaction.
Hypertension and Its Association with Oral Health Status in Adults: A Mini Research in Padusunan Adults Community
Background: The association between general and oral health is clearly important, particularly in adults with medical conditions. Many of the medical systemic conditions are either caused or aggravated by poor oral hygiene and vice versa. Hypertension is one of common medical systemic problem which has been a public health concern worldwide due to its known consequences. Those consequences must be related to oral health status as well, whether it may cause or worsen the oral health conditions. Objective: To find out the association between hypertension and oral health status in adults. Methods: This study was an analytical observational study by using cross-sectional method. A total of 42 adults both male and female in Padusunan Village, Pariaman, West Sumatra, Indonesia were selected as subjects by using purposive sampling. Manual sphygmomanometer was used to measure blood pressure, and dental examination was performed to calculate the decayed, missing, and filled teeth (D.M.F.T.) scores in order to represent oral health status. The data obtained was analyzed statistically using One Way Anova to determine the association between hypertensive adults and their oral health status. Results: The result showed that majority age of the subjects were ranging from 51-70 years (40.5%). Based on blood pressure examination, 57.1% of subjects were classified to prehypertension. Overall, the mean of D.M.F.T score calculated in normal, prehypertension and hypertension group was not considered statistically significant. Conclusion: The was no significant association (p>0.05) between hypertension and oral health status in adults.
SPARK: An Open-Source Knowledge Discovery Platform That Leverages Non-Relational Databases and Massively Parallel Computational Power for Heterogeneous Genomic Datasets
Data are the primary asset of biomedical researchers, and the engine for both discovery and research translation. As the volume and complexity of research datasets increase, especially with new technologies such as large single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) chips, so too does the requirement for software to manage, process and analyze the data. Researchers often need to execute complicated queries and conduct complex analyzes of large-scale datasets. Existing tools to analyze such data, and other types of high-dimensional data, unfortunately suffer from one or more major problems. They typically require a high level of computing expertise, are too simplistic (i.e., do not fit realistic models that allow for complex interactions), are limited by computing power, do not exploit the computing power of large-scale parallel architectures (e.g. supercomputers, GPU clusters etc.), or are limited in the types of analysis available, compounded by the fact that integrating new analysis methods is not straightforward. Solutions to these problems, such as those developed and implemented on parallel architectures, are currently available to only a relatively small portion of medical researchers with access and know-how. The past decade has seen a rapid expansion of data management systems for the medical domain. Much attention has been given to systems that manage phenotype datasets generated by medical studies. The introduction of heterogeneous genomic data for research subjects that reside in these systems has highlighted the need for substantial improvements in software architecture. To address this problem, we have developed SPARK, an enabling and translational system for medical research, leveraging existing high performance computing resources, and analysis techniques currently available or being developed. It builds these into The Ark, an open-source web-based system designed to manage medical data. SPARK provides a next-generation biomedical data management solution that is based upon a novel Micro-Service architecture and Big Data technologies. The system serves to demonstrate the applicability of Micro-Service architectures for the development of high performance computing applications. When applied to high-dimensional medical datasets such as genomic data, relational data management approaches with normalized data structures suffer from unfeasibly high execution times for basic operations such as insert (i.e. importing a GWAS dataset) and the queries that are typical of the genomics research domain. SPARK resolves these problems by incorporating non-relational NoSQL databases that have been driven by the emergence of Big Data. SPARK provides researchers across the world with user-friendly access to state-of-the-art data management and analysis tools while eliminating the need for high-level informatics and programming skills. The system will benefit health and medical research by eliminating the burden of large-scale data management, querying, cleaning, and analysis. SPARK represents a major advancement in genome research technologies, vastly reducing the burden of working with genomic datasets, and enabling cutting edge analysis approaches that have previously been out of reach for many medical researchers.
The Quantitative SWOT-Analysis of Service Blood Activity of Kazakhstan
Situation analysis of Blood Service revealed that the strengths dominated over the weak 1.4 times. The possibilities dominate over the threats by 1.1 times. It follows that by using timely the possibility the Service, it is possible to strengthen its strengths and avoid threats. Priority directions of the resulting analysis are the use of subjective factors, such as personal management capacity managers of the Blood Center in the field of possibilities of legal activity of administrative decisions and the mobilization of stable staff in general market conditions. We have studied for the period 2011-2015 retrospectively indicators of Blood Service of Kazakhstan. Strengths of Blood Service of RK(Ps4,5): 1) indicators of donations for 1000 people is higher than in some countries of the CIS (in Russia 14, Kazakhstan - 17); 2) the functioning science centre of transfusiology; 3) the legal possibility of additional financing blood centers in the form of paid services; 4) the absence of competitors; 5) training on specialty Transfusiology; 6) the stable management staff of blood centers, a high level of competence; 7) increase in the incidence requiring transfusion therapy (oncohematology); 8) equipment upgrades; 9) the opening of a reference laboratory; 10) growth of the proportion of issued high-quality blood components; 11) governmental organization 'Drop of Life'; 12) the functioning bone marrow register; 13) equipped with modern equipment HLA-laboratory; 14) High categorization of average medical workers; 15) availability of own specialized scientific journal; 16) vivarium. The weaknesses (Ps = 3.5): 1) the incomplete equipping of blood centers and blood transfusion cabinets according to standards; 2) low specific weight of paid services of the CC; 3) low categorization of doctors; 4) high staff turnover; 5) the low scientific potential of industrial and clinical of transfusiology; 6) the low wages paid; 7) slight growth of harvested donor blood; 8) the weak continuity with offices blood transfusion; 9) lack of agitation work; 10) the formally functioning of Transfusion Association; 11) the absence of scientific laboratories; 12) high standard deviation from the average for donations in the republic. The possibilities (Ps = 2,7): 1): international grants; 2) organization of international seminars on clinical of transfusiology; 3) cross-sectoral cooperation; 4) to increase scientific research in the field of clinical of transfusiology; 5) reduce the share of donation unsuitable for transfusion and processing; 6) strengthening marketing management in the development of fee-based services; 7) advertising paid services; 8) strengthening the publishing of teaching aids; 9) team-building staff. The threats (Ps = 2.1): 1) an increase of staff turnover; 2) the risk of litigation; 3) reduction gemoprodukts based on evidence-based medicine; 4) regression of scientific capacity; 5) organization of marketing; 6) transfusiologist marketing; 7) reduction in the quality of the evidence base transfusions.
A Review on the Re-Usage of Single-Use Medical Devices
Reprocessing single-use device has attracted interesting on the medical environment over the last decades. The reprocessing technique was sought in order to reduce the cost of purchasing the new medical device, which can achieve almost double of the price of the reprocessed product. In this manuscript, we have done a literature review, aiming the reuse of medical device that was firstly designed for single use only, but has become, more and more, effective on its reprocessing procedure. We also show the regulation, the countries which allows this procedure, the classification of these device and also the most important issue concerning the re-utilization of medical device, how to minimizing the risk of gram positive and negative bacteria, avoid cross-contamination, hepatitis B (HBV), and C (HCV) virus, and also human immunodeficiency virus (HIV).
Social Contact Patterns among School-Age Children in Taiwan
Social contact patterns among school-age children play an important role in the epidemiology of infectious disease. Since many of the greatest threats to human health are spread by direct person-to-person contact, understanding the spread of respiratory pathogens and patterns of human interactions are public health priorities. This study used social contact diaries to compare the number of contacts per day per participant across different flu/non-flu seasons and weekend/weekday. We also present contact properties such as sex, age, masking, setting, frequency, duration, and contact types among school-age children (grades 7–8). The sample size with pair-wise comparisons for the seasons (flu/non-flu) and stratification by location were 54 and 83, respectively. There was no difference in the number of contacts during the flu and non-flu seasons, with averages of 16.3 (S.D. = 12.9) and 14.6 (S.D. = 9.5) people, respectively. Weekdays were associated with 23% and 28% more contacts than weekend days during the non-flu and flu seasons, respectively (p < 0.001) (Wilcoxon signed-rank test).
An Exploratory Study on the Level of Awareness and Common Barriers of Physicians on Overweight and Obesity Management in Bangladesh
Overweight and obesity is increasing at an alarming rate and a leading risk factor for morbidity throughout the world. In a country like Bangladesh where under nutrition and overweight both co-exist at the same time, but this issue has been underexplored as expected. The aim of the present study was to assess the knowledge, attitudes and identify the barriers of the physicians regarding overweight and obesity management on an urban hospital of Dhaka city in Bangladesh. A simple cross sectional study was conducted at two selected government and two private hospital to assess the knowledge, attitude and common barriers regarding overweight and obesity management among healthcare professionals. One hundred and fifty five physicians were surveyed. A standard questionnaire was constructed in local language and interview was administrated. Among the 155 physicians, majority 53 (34.20%) were working on SMC, 36 (23.20%) from DMC, 33 (21.30%) were based on SSMC and the rest 33 (21.30%) were from HFRCMH. Mean age of the study physicians were 31.88±5.92. Majority of the physicians 80 (51.60%) were not able to answer the correct prevalence of obesity but also a substantial number of them 75(48.40%) could mark the right answer. Among the physicians 150 (96.77%) reported BMI as a diagnostic index for overweight and obesity, where as 43 (27.74%) waist circumference, 30 (19.35%) waist hip ratio and 26 (16.77%) marked mid-arm circumference. A substantial proportion 71 (46.70%) of the physicians thought that they do not have much to do controlling weight problem in Bangladesh context though it has been opposed by 42 (27.60%) of the physicians and 39(25.70%) was neutral to comment. The majority of them 147 (96.1%) thought that a family based education program would be beneficial followed by 145 (94.8%) physicians mentioned about raising awareness among mothers as she is the primary caregiver. The idea of a school based education program will also help to early intervene referred by 142 (92.8%) of the physicians. Community based education program was also appreciated by 136 (89.5%) of the physicians. About 74 (47.7%) of them think that the patients still lack in motivation to maintain their weight properly at the same time too many patients to deal with can be a barrier as well assumed by 73 (47.1%) of them. Lack of national policy or management guideline can act as an obstacle told by 60 (38.7%) of the physicians. The relationship of practicing as a part of the general examination and chronic disease management was statistically significant (p
Pathogenic Candida Biofilms Producers Involved in Healthcare Associated Infections
The establishment of intravenous catheters in hospitalized patient is an act common in many clinical situations. These therapeutic tools, from their insertion in the body, represent gateways including fungal germs prone. The latter can generate the growth of biofilms, which can be the cause of fungal infection. Faced with this problem, we conducted a study at the University Hospital of Tlemcen in the neurosurgery unit and aims to isolate and identify Candida yeasts from intravenous catheters. Then test their ability to form biofilms. Materials and methods: 256 patient hospitalized in surgery of the hospital in west Algeria were submitted to this study. All samples were taken from peripheral venous catheters implanted for 72 hours or more days. A total of 31 isolates of Candida species were isolated. MIC and SMIC are determined at 80% inhibition by the test XTT tetrazolium measured at 490 nm. The final concentrations of antifungal agent being between 0.03 and 16 mg / ml for amphotericin B and from 0.015 to 8 mg / mL caspofungin. Results: 31 Candida species isolates from catheters including 14 Candida albicans and 17 Candida non albicans . 21 strains of all the isolates were able to form biofilms. In their form of Planktonic cells, all isolates are 100% susceptible to antifungal agents tested. However, in their state of biofilms, more isolates have become tolerant to the tested antifungals. Conclusion: Candida yeasts isolated from intravascular catheters are considered an important virulence factor in the pathogenesis of infections. Their involvement in catheter-related infections can be disastrous for their potential to generate biofilms. They survive high concentrations of antifungal where treatment failure. Pending the development of a therapeutic approach antibiofilm related to catheters, their mastery is going through: -The risk of infection prevention based on the training and awareness of medical staff, -Strict hygiene and maximum asepsis, and -The choice of material limiting microbial colonization.
Assessment of the Impact of Family Care Team in the District Health System of Regional Health, Thailand
Background: Thailand has implemented a district health system based on the concept of primary health care. Since 2014, Family Care Team (FCT) was launched to improve the quality of care through a multidisciplinary team include not only the health sector but also social sector work together. FCT classified into 3 levels: district, sub-district, and community. This system now consists of 66,353 teams, including 3,890 teams at district level, 12,237 teams at the sub-district level, and 50,326 teams at the community level. There is a report regarding assessment the situation and perception on FCT, however, relatively few examined the operationality of this policy. This study aimed to explore the perception of district manager on the process of the implementation of FCT policy and the factors associating to implement FCT in the district health system. Methods/Results: Forty in-depth interviews were performed: 5 of primary care manager at the provincial medical health office, 5 of community hospital director, 5 of district administrative health office, 10 of sub-district health promoting hospital, and 10 of local organization. Semi-structure interview guidelines were used in the discussions. The data was analyzed by thematic analysis. This policy was formulated based on the demographic change and epidemiology transition to serve a long term care for elderly. Facilitator factors are social capital in district health systems such as family health leader and multidisciplinary team. Barrier factors are communication to the frontline provider and local organization. The output of this policy in relation to the structure of FCT is well-defined. Unanticipated effects include training of FCT in community level. Conclusion: Early feedback from healthcare manager is valuable information for the improvement of FCT to function optimally. Moreover, in the long term, health outcome need to be evaluated.
Exploring Communities of Practice through Public Health Walks for Nurse Education
Introduction: Student nurses must develop skills in observation, communication and reflection as well as public health knowledge from their first year of training. This paper will explain a method developed for students to collect their own findings about public health in urban areas. These areas are both rich in the history of old public health that informs the content of many traditional public health walks, but are also locations where new public health concerns about chronic disease are concentrated. The learning method explained in this paper enables students to collect their own data and write original work as first year students. Examples of their findings will be given. Methodology: In small groups, health care students are instructed to walk in neighbourhoods near to the hospitals they will soon attend as apprentice nurses. On their walks, they wander slowly, engage in conversations, and enter places open to the public. As they drift, they observe with all five senses in the real three dimensional world to collect data for their reflective accounts of old and new public health. They are encouraged to stop for refreshments and taste, as well as look, hear, smell, and touch while on their walk. They reflect as a group and later develop an individual reflective account in which they write up their deep reflections about what they observed on their walk. In preparation for their walk, they are encouraged to look at studies of quality of Life and other neighbourhood statistics as well as undertaking a risk assessment for their walk. Findings: Reflecting on their walks, students apply theoretical concepts around social determinants of health and health inequalities to develop their understanding of communities in the neighbourhoods visited. They write about the treasured historical architecture made of stone, bronze and marble which have outlived those who built them; but also how the streets are used now. The students develop their observations into thematic analyses such as: what we drink as illustrated by the empty coke can tossed into a now disused drinking fountain; the shift in home-life balance illustrated by streets where families once lived over the shop which are now walked by commuters weaving around each other as they talk on their mobile phones; and security on the street, with CCTV cameras placed at regular intervals, signs warning trespasses and barbed wire; but little evidence of local people watching the street. Conclusion: In evaluations of their first year, students have reported the health walk as one of their best experiences. The innovative approach was commended by the UK governing body of nurse education and it received a quality award from the nurse education funding body. This approach to education allows students to develop skills in the real world and write original work.
Effect of Stress Relief of the Footbath Using Bio-Marker in Japan
Purpose: There are very often footbaths in the hot-spring area as culture from old days in Japan. This culture moderately supported mental and physical health among people. In Japanese hospitals, nurses provide footbath for severe patients to mental comfortable. However, there are only a few evidences effect of footbath for mental comfortable. In this presentation, we show the effect of stress relief of the footbath using biomarker among 35 college students in volunteer. Methods: The experiment was designed in two groups of the footbath group and the simple relaxation group randomly. As mental load, Kraepelin test was given to the students beforehand. Ultra-weak chemiluminescence (UCL) in saliva and self-administered liner scale measurable emotional state were measured on four times concurrently; there is before and after the mental load, after the stress relief, and 30 minutes after the stress relief. The scale that measured emotional state was consisted of 7 factors; there is excitement, relaxation, vigorous, fatigue, tension, calm, and sleepiness with 22 items. ANOVA was calculated effect of the footbath for stress relief. Results: The level of UCL (photons/100sec) was significantly increased in response on both groups after mental load. After the two types of stress relief, UCL (photons/100sec) of footbath group was significantly decreased compared to simple relaxation group. Score of sleepiness and relaxation were significantly increased after the stress relief in the footbath group than the simple relaxation group. However, score of excitement, vigorous, tension, and calm were exhibit the same degree of decrease after the stress relief on both group. Conclusion: It was suggested that salivary UCL may be a sensitive biomarker for mild stress relief as nursing care. In the future, we will measure using UCL to evaluate as stress relief for inpatients, outpatients, or general public as the subjects.
Public Behavior When Encountered with a Road Traffic Accident
Introduction: The latest WHO data published in 2014 states that Sri Lanka has reached 2,773 of total deaths and over 14000 individuals’ sustained injuries due to RTAs each year. It was noticed in previous studies that policemen, three wheel drivers and also pedestrians were the first to respond to RTAs but the victim’s condition was aggravated due to unskilled attempts made by the responders while management of the victim’s wounds, moving and positioning of the victims and also mainly while transportation of the victims. Objective: To observe the practices of the urban public in Sri Lanka who are encountered with RTAs. Methods: A qualitative study was done to analyze public behavior seen on video recordings of scenes of accidents purposefully selected from social media, news websites, YouTube and Google. Results: The results showed that all individuals who tried to help during the RTA were middle aged men, who were mainly pedestrians, motorcyclists and policemen during that moment. Vast majority were very keen to actively help the victims to get to hospital as soon as possible and actively participated in providing 'aid'. But main problem was the first aid attempts were disorganized and uncoordinated. Even though all individuals knew how to control external bleeding, none of them was aware of spinal prevention techniques or management of limb injuries. Most of the transportation methods and transfer techniques used were inappropriate and more injury prone. Conclusions: The public actively engages in providing aid despite their inappropriate practices in giving first aid.
The Population Death Model and Influencing Factors from the Data of The "Sixth Census": Zhangwan District Case Study
Objective: To understand the mortality patterns of Zhangwan District in 2010 and provide the basis for the development of scientific and rational health policy. Methods: Data are collected from the Sixth Census of Zhangwan District and disease surveillance system. The statistical analysis include death difference between age, gender, region and time and the related factors. Methods developed for the Global Burden of Disease (GBD) Study by the World Bank and World Health Organization (WHO) were adapted and applied to Zhangwan District population health data. DALY rate per 1,000 was calculated for varied causes of death. SPSS 16 is used by statistic analysis. Results: From the data of death population of Zhangwan District we know the crude mortality rate was 6.03 ‰. There are significant differences of mortality rate in male and female population which was respectively 7.37 ‰ and 4.68 ‰. 0 age group population life expectancy in Zhangwan District in 2010 was 78.40 years old(Male 75.93, Female 81.03). The five leading causes of YLL in descending order were: cardiovascular diseases(42.63DALY/1000), malignant neoplasm (23.73DALY/1000), unintentional injuries (5.84DALY/1000), Respiratory diseases(5.43 DALY/1000), Respiratory infections (2.44DALY/1000). In addition, there are strong relation between the marital status , educational level and mortality in some to a certain extend. Conclusion Zhangwan District, as city level, is at lower mortality levels. The mortality of the total population of Zhangwan District has a downward trend and life expectancy is rising.
Understanding Narrative Transformations of Ebola in Negotiations of Epidemic Risk
Discussing the nexus between global health policy and local practices, this article addresses the recent Ebola outbreak as a role model for narrative co-constructions of epidemic risk. We will demonstrate in how far a theory-driven and methodologically rooted analysis of narrativity can help to improve mechanisms of prevention and intervention whenever epidemic risk needs to be addressed locally in order to contribute to global health. Analyzing the narrative transformation of Ebola, we will also address issues of transcultural problem-solving and of normative questions at stake. In this regard, we seek to contribute to a better understanding of a key question of global health and justice as well as to the underlying ethical questions. By highlighting and analyzing the functions of narratives, this paper provides a translational approach to refine our practices by which we address epidemic risk, be it on the national, the transnational or the global scale.
The Effect of Stent Coating on the Stent Flexibility: Comparison of Covered Stent and Bare Metal Stent
Carotid artery stenting (CAS) is the standard procedure for patients with severe carotid stenosis at high risk for carotid endarterectomy (CAE). A major drawback of CAS is the higher incidence of procedure-related stroke compared with traditional open surgical treatment for carotid stenosis - CEA, even with the use of the embolic protection devices (EPD). As the currently available bare metal stents cannot address this problem, our research group developed a novel preferential covered-stent for carotid artery aims to prevent friable fragments of atherosclerotic plaques from flowing into the cerebral circulation, and yet maintaining the flow of the external carotid artery. The preliminary animal studies have demonstrated the potential of this novel covered-stent design for the treatment of carotid atherosclerotic stenosis. The purpose of this study is to evaluate the effect of membrane coating on the stent flexibility in order to improve the clinical performance of our novel covered stents. A total of 21 stents were evaluated in this study: 15 self expanding bare nitinol stents and 6 PTFE-covered stents. 10 of the bare stents were coated with 11%, 16% and 22% Polyurethane(PU), 4%, 6.25% and 11% EE, as well as 22% PU plus 5 μm Parylene. Different laser cutting designs were performed on 4 of the PTFE covert stents. All the stents, with or without the covered membrane, were subjected to a three-point flexural test. The stents were placed on two supports that are 30 mm apart, and the actuator is applying a force in the exact middle of the two supports with a loading pin with radius 2.5 mm. The loading pin displacement change, the force and the variation in stent shape were recorded for analysis. The flexibility of the stents was evaluated by the lumen area preservation at three displacement bending levels: 5mm, 7mm, and 10mm. All the lumen areas in all stents decreased with the increase of the displacement from 0 to 10 mm. The bare stents were able to maintain 0.864 ± 0.015, 0.740 ± 0.025 and 0.597 ± 0.031of original lumen area at 5 mm, 7 mm and 10mm displacement respectively. For covered stents, the stents with EE coating membrane showed the best lumen area preservation (0.839 ± 0.005, 0.7334 ± 0.043 and 0.559 ± 0.014), whereas, the stents with PU and Parylene coating were only 0.662, 0.439 and 0.305. Bending stiffness was also calculated and compared. These results provided optimal material information and it was crucial for enhancing clinical performance of our novel covered stents.
Application of Artificial Neural Network Technique for Diagnosing Asthma
Introduction: Lack of proper diagnosis and inadequate treatment of asthma leads to physical and financial complications. This study aimed to use data mining techniques and creating a neural network intelligent system for diagnosis of asthma. Methods: The study population is the patients who had visited one of the Lung Clinics in Tehran. Data were analyzed using the SPSS statistical tool and the chi-square Pearson's coefficient was the basis of decision making for data ranking. The considered neural network is trained using back propagation learning technique. Results: According to the analysis performed by means of SPSS to select the top factors, 13 effective factors were selected, in different performances, data was mixed in various forms, so the different models were made for training the data and testing networks and in all different modes, the network was able to predict correctly 100% of all cases. Conclusion: Using data mining methods before the design structure of system, aimed to reduce the data dimension and the optimum choice of the data, will lead to a more accurate system. Therefore, considering the data mining approaches due to the nature of medical data is necessary.
Exchanging Radiology Reporting System with Electronic Health Record: Designing a Conceptual Model
Introduction: In order to better designing of electronic health record system in Iran, integration of health information systems based on a common language must be done to interpret and exchange this information with this system is required. Background: This study, provides a conceptual model of radiology reporting system using unified modeling language. The proposed model can solve the problem of integration this information system with electronic health record system. By using this model and design its service based, easily connect to electronic health record in Iran and facilitate transfer radiology report data. Methods: This is a cross-sectional study that was conducted in 2013. The student community was 22 experts that working at the Imaging Center in Imam Khomeini Hospital in Tehran and the sample was accorded with the community. Research tool was a questionnaire that prepared by the researcher to determine the information requirements. Content validity and test-retest method was used to measure validity and reliability of questioner respectively. Data analyzed with average index, using SPSS. Also, Visual Paradigm software was used to design a conceptual model. Result: Based on the requirements assessment of experts and related texts, administrative, demographic and clinical data and radiological examination results and if the anesthesia procedure performed, anesthesia data suggested as minimum data set for radiology report and based it class diagram designed. Also by identifying radiology reporting system process, use case was drawn. Conclusion: According to the application of radiology reports in electronic health record system for diagnosing and managing of clinical problem of the patient, provide the conceptual Model for radiology reporting system; in order to systematically design it, the problem of data sharing between these systems and electronic health records system would eliminate.
Influence of Shift Work on Fasting Blood Sugar in Hospital Workers
Background: Accumulating evidence from prospective studies suggests an increased risk of type 2 diabetes associated with sleep deprivation and sleep disorders. Shift work by disrupting the circadian rhythm, could possibly cause metabolic disturbances. Objective: To investigate the influence of shift work on fasting blood glucose in hospital workers population. Materials and Methods: This was a cross-sectional study including 90 night shift workers (study group) and 90 day workers (controls) drawn from paramedical personnel. Night shift work was on a forward rotation basis, with an average of one night shift every 4 weeks. Each night shift rotation was for a period of 7 days, with a total of 8 hours of shift work per night. In the entire subjects body mass index (BMI) and fasting blood sugar (FBS) was measured. Statistical analysis included unpaired t test, Mann-Whitney ‘U’ test and Chi-square test. P value less than 0.05 was considered significant. Result: The study and control groups were comparable with regard to age, sex distribution and duration of employment. FBS was higher in study group compared to controls (p < 0.0001). There was no significant difference in BMI between control and study group. Conclusion: Shift work may adversely influence glucose metabolism.
Telemedicine Services in Ophthalmology: A Review of Studies
Telemedicine is the use of telecommunication and information technologies to provide health care services that would often not be consistently available in distant rural communities to people at these remote areas. Teleophthalmology is a branch of telemedicine that delivers eye care through digital medical equipment and telecommunications technology. Thus, teleophthalmology can overcome geographical barriers and improve quality, access, and affordability of eye health care services. Since teleophthalmology has been widespread applied in recent years, the aim of this study was to determine the different applications of teleophthalmology in the world. To this end, three bibliographic databases (Medline, ScienceDirect, Scopus) were comprehensively searched with these keywords: eye care, eye health care, primary eye care, diagnosis, detection, and screening of different eye diseases in conjunction with telemedicine, telehealth, teleophthalmology, e-services, and information technology. All types of papers were included in the study with no time restriction. We conducted the search strategies until 2015. Finally 70 articles were surveyed. We classified the results based on the’type of eye problems covered’ and ‘the type of telemedicine services’. Based on the review, from the ‘perspective of health care levels’, there are three level for eye health care as primary, secondary and tertiary eye care. From the ‘perspective of eye care services’, the main application of teleophthalmology in primary eye care was related to the diagnosis of different eye diseases such as diabetic retinopathy, macular edema, strabismus and aged related macular degeneration. The main application of teleophthalmology in secondary and tertiary eye care was related to the screening of eye problems i.e. diabetic retinopathy, astigmatism, glaucoma screening. Teleconsultation between health care providers and ophthalmologists and also education and training sessions for patients were other types of teleophthalmology in world. Real time, store–forward and hybrid methods were the main forms of the communication from the perspective of ‘teleophthalmology mode’ which is used based on IT infrastructure between sending and receiving centers. In aspect of specialists, early detection of serious aged-related ophthalmic disease in population, screening of eye disease processes, consultation in an emergency cases and comprehensive eye examination were the most important benefits of teleophthalmology. Cost-effectiveness of teleophthalmology projects resulted from reducing transportation and accommodation cost, access to affordable eye care services and receiving specialist opinions were also the main advantages of teleophthalmology for patients. Teleophthalmology brings valuable secondary and tertiary care to remote areas. So, applying teleophthalmology for detection, treatment and screening purposes and expanding its use in new applications such as eye surgery will be a key tool to promote public health and integrating eye care to primary health care.
The First Report of Aberrant Corneal Occlusion in Rabbit in Iran
Formation of a conjunctival membrane over the corneal surface is a condition unique to rabbits that has been labeled aberrant corneal occlusion or pseudopterygium. In the summer of 2013, a five years old male Standard Chinchilla rabbit were presented to Karaj Central Veterinary hospital and the owner complained that his rabbit shows degrees of blindness and there were opacities on both eyes of the presented rabbit. Ophthalmic examination of the affected eyes revealed a conjunctival fold stretching over the cornea of both eyes. The fold originated from limbus and it was vascularized and centrally thickened. There were no attachments to the corneal epithelium and the fold could be easily lifted. Surgery was performed under general anesthesia. The conjunctival fold was incised centrifugally up to its attachment at the limbus and the lid margin using small scissors. The central rim of the segment was then replaced to its normal position in the fornix and fixed with mattress sutures (7/0) passing through outside skin. After the surgery, eye drops containing dexamethasone, gentamicin and polymixin were applied twice daily up to 3 weeks. Within the observation period (8 months) no recurrence was noted. "Pseudo" in the term pseudopterygium refers to the fact that the conjunctival membrane is not adhering to the underlying cornea, but growing over it. In rare cases, the membrane may be loosely attached to the cornea, but can be easily separated without causing damage. It can cover only a small part of the cornea with an annular peripheral opacification of the cornea, or cover it almost fully, leading to blindness. Ethiopathogenesis remains unclear and recurrence of the problem is very likely. The surgical technique that used here decreases probability of recurrence of conjunctival fold.