International Science Index

International Journal of Geotechnical and Geological Engineering

370
92611
Numerical Modeling to Validate Theoretical Models of Toppling Failure in Rock Slopes
Abstract:
Traditionally, rock slope stability is carried out using limit equilibrium analysis when investigating toppling failure. In these equilibrium methods, internal forces exerted between columns are not clearly defined, and to the authors’ best knowledge, there is no consensus in literature with respect to the results of analysis. A discrete element method-based numerical model was developed and applied to simulate the behavior of rock layers subjected to toppling failure. Based on this calibrated numerical model, a study of the location and distribution of internal forces that result in equilibrium was carried out. The sum of side forces was applied at a point on a block which properly represents the force to determine the inter-column force distribution. In terms of the side force distribution coefficient, the result was compared to those obtained from laboratory centrifuge tests. The results of the simulation show the suitable criteria to select the correct position for the internal exerted force between rock layers. In addition, the numerical method demonstrates how a theoretical method could be reliable by considering the interaction between the rock layers.
369
92612
A Discrete Element Method-Based Simulation of Toppling Failure Considering Block Interaction
Abstract:
The toppling failure mode in a rock mass is considerably different from the most common sliding failure type along an existing or an induced slip plane. Block toppling is observed in a rock mass which consists of both a widely-spaced basal cross-joint set and a closely-spaced discontinuity set dipping into the slope. For this case, failure occurs when the structure cannot bear the tensile portion of bending stress, and the columns or blocks overturn by their own weight. This paper presents a particle-based discrete element model of rock blocks subjected to a toppling failure where geometric conditions and interaction among blocks are investigated. A series of parametric studies have been conducted on particles’ size, arrangement and bond contact among of particles which are made the blocks. Firstly, a numerical investigation on a one-block system was verified. Afterward, a slope consisting of multi-blocks was developed to study toppling failure and interaction forces between blocks. The results show that the formation of blocks, especially between the block and basal plane surface, can change the process of failure. The results also demonstrate that the initial configuration of particles used to form the blocks has a significant role in achieving accurate simulation results. The size of particles and bond contacts have a considerable influence to change the progress of toppling failure.
368
92613
Numerical Analysis of Bearing Capacity of Caissons Subjected to Inclined Loads
Abstract:
A finite element modeling for determination of the bearing capacity of caissons subjected to inclined loads is presented in this paper. The model investigates the uplift capacity of the caisson with varying cross sectional area. To this aim, the behavior of the soil is assumed to be elasto-plastic, and its failure is controlled by Modified Cam-Clay failure criterion. The simulation takes into account the couple analysis. The approach is verified using available data from other research work especially centrifuge data. Parametric studies are subsequently performed to investigate the effect of contributing parameters such as aspect ratio of the caisson, the loading rate, the loading direction angle, and points where the external load is applied. In addition, the influence of the caisson geometry is taken into account. The results show the bearing capacity of the caisson increases with increasing the taper angle. Hence, the pullout capacity will increase using the same material. In addition, the bearing capacity of caissons strongly depends on the suction that is generated at tip and in sealed surface on top of caisson. Other results concerning the influencing factors will be presented.
367
95678
Analysis of Shallow Foundation Using Conventional and Finite Element Approach
Abstract:
For structural evaluation of shallow foundation, the modulus of subgrade reaction is one of the most widely used and accepted parameter for its ease of calculations. To determine this parameter, one of the most common field method is Plate Load test method. In this field test method, the subgrade modulus is considered for a specific location and according to its application, it is assumed that the displacement occurred in one place does not affect other adjacent locations. For this kind of assumptions, the modulus of subgrade reaction sometimes forced the engineers to overdesign the underground structure, which eventually results in increasing the cost of the construction and sometimes failure of the structure. In the present study, the settlement of a shallow foundation has been analyzed using both conventional and numerical analysis. Around 25 plate load tests were conducted on a sand fill site in Bangladesh to determine the Modulus of Subgrade reaction of ground which is later used to design a shallow foundation considering different depth. After the collection of the field data, the field condition was appropriately simulated in a finite element software. Finally results obtained from both the conventional and numerical approach has been compared. A significant difference has been observed in the case of settlement while comparing the results. A proper correlation has also been proposed at the end of this research work between the two methods of in order to provide the most efficient way to calculate the subgrade modulus of the ground for designing the shallow foundation.
366
86478
Experimental Study and Numerical Modelling of Failure of Rocks Typical for Kuzbass Coal Basin
Abstract:
Present work is devoted to experimental study and numerical modelling of failure of rocks typical for Kuzbass coal basin (Russia). The main goal was to define strength and deformation characteristics of rocks on the base of uniaxial compression and three-point bending loadings and then to build a mathematical model of failure process for both types of loading. Depending on particular physical-mechanical characteristics typical rocks of Kuzbass coal basin (sandstones, siltstones, mudstones, etc. of different series – Kolchuginsk, Tarbagansk, Balohonsk) manifest brittle and quasi-brittle character of failure. The strength characteristics for both tension and compression are found. Other characteristics are also found from the experiment or taken from literature reviews. On the base of obtained characteristics and structure (obtained from microscopy) the mathematical and structural models are built and numerical modelling of failure under different types of loading is carried out. Effective characteristics obtained from modelling and character of failure correspond to experiment and thus, the mathematical model was verified. An Instron 1185 machine was used to carry out the experiments. Mathematical model includes fundamental conservation laws of solid mechanics – mass, impulse, energy. Each rock has a sufficiently anisotropic structure, however, each crystallite might be considered as isotropic and then a whole rock model has a quasi-isotropic structure. This idea gives an opportunity to use the Hooke’s law inside of each crystallite and thus explicitly accounting for the anisotropy of rocks and the stress-strain state at loading. Inelastic behavior is described in frameworks of two different models: von Mises yield criterion and modified Drucker-Prager yield criterion. The damage accumulation theory is also implemented in order to describe a failure process. Obtained effective characteristics of rocks are used then for modelling of rock mass evolution when mining is carried out both by an open-pit or underground opening.
365
88140
Investigation of Yard Seam Workings for the Proposed Newcastle Light Rail Project
Abstract:
The proposed Newcastle Light Rail is a key part of the revitalisation of Newcastle, NSW and will provide a frequent and reliable travel option throughout the city centre, running from Newcastle Interchange at Wickham to Pacific Park in Newcastle East, a total of 2.7 kilometers in length. Approximately one-third of the route, along Hunter and Scott Streets, is subject to potential shallow underground mine workings. The extent of mining and seams mined is unclear. Convicts mined the Yard Seam and overlying Dudley (Dirty) Seam in Newcastle sometime between 1800 and 1830. The Australian Agricultural Company mined the Yard Seam from about 1831 to the 1860s in the alignment area. The Yard Seam was about 3 feet (0.9m) thick, and therefore, known as the Yard Seam. Mine maps do not exist for the workings in the area of interest and it was unclear if both or just one seam was mined. Information from 1830s geological mapping and other data showing shaft locations were used along Scott Street and information from the 1908 Royal Commission was used along Hunter Street to develop an investigation program. In addition, mining was encountered for several sites to the south of the alignment at depths of about 7 m to 25 m. Based on the anticipated depths of mining, it was considered prudent to assess the potential for sinkhole development on the proposed alignment and realigned underground utilities and to obtain approval for the work from Subsidence Advisory NSW (SA NSW). The assessment consisted of a desktop study, followed by a subsurface investigation. Four boreholes were drilled along Scott Street and three boreholes were drilled along Hunter Street using HQ coring techniques in the rock. The placement of boreholes was complicated by the presence of utilities in the roadway and traffic constraints. All the boreholes encountered the Yard Seam, with conditions varying from unmined coal to an open void, indicating the presence of mining. The geotechnical information obtained from the boreholes was expanded by using various downhole techniques including; borehole camera, borehole sonar, and downhole geophysical logging. The camera provided views of the rock and helped to explain zones of no recovery. In addition, timber props within the void were observed. Borehole sonar was performed in the void and provided an indication of room size as well as the presence of timber props within the room. Downhole geophysical logging was performed in the boreholes to measure density, natural gamma, and borehole deviation. The data helped confirm that all the mining was in the Yard Seam and that the overlying Dudley Seam had been eroded in the past over much of the alignment. In summary, the assessment allowed the potential for sinkhole subsidence to be assessed and a mitigation approach developed to allow conditional approval by SA NSW. It also confirmed the presence of mining in the Yard Seam, the depth to the seam and mining conditions, and indicated that subsidence did not appear to have occurred in the past.
364
89333
Topping Failure Analysis of Anti-Dip Bedding Rock Slopes Subjected to Crest Loads
Abstract:
Crest loads are often encountered in hydropower, highway, open-pit and other engineering rock slopes. Toppling failure is one of the most common deformation failure types of anti-dip bedding rock slopes. Analysis on such failure of anti-dip bedding rock slopes subjected to crest loads has an important influence on engineering practice. Based on the step-by-step analysis approach proposed by Goodman and Bray, a geo-mechanical model was developed and the related analysis approach was proposed for the toppling failure of anti-dip bedding rock slopes subjected to crest loads. Using the transfer coefficient method, a formulation was derived for calculating the residual thrust of slope toe and the support force required to meet the requirements of the slope stability under crest loads, which provided a scientific reference to design and support for such slopes. Through slope examples, the influence of crest loads on the residual thrust and sliding ratio coefficient was investigated for cases of different block widths and slope cut angles. The results show that there exists a critical block width for such slope. The influence of crest loads on the residual thrust is non-negligible when the block thickness is smaller than the critical value. Moreover, the influence of crest loads on the slope stability increases with the slope cut angle and the sliding ratio coefficient of anti-dip bedding rock slopes increases with the crest loads. Finally, the theoretical solutions and numerical simulations using Universal Distinct Element Code were compared, in which the consistent results show the applicability of both approaches.
363
94555
The Behavior of Ordinary and Encased Stone Columns in Soft Clay Soil of Egypt: A Finite Element Study
Abstract:
Soft to very soft soil deposits are widely speared in some areas of Egypt such as East Port Said, Damietta, Kafr El-Sheik, Alexandria, etc. The construction projects in these areas have faced the challenge of the presence of extended deep layers of soft and very soft clays which reach to depths of 40 to 60 m from the ground level. Stone columns are commonly used to support structures overlying soft ground soils and surcharged by embankment type loading. Therefore, this paper introduces a wide comparison numerical study between the ordinary stone columns (OSC) versus the geosynthetic encased stone columns (ESC) installed in soft clay soil deposit using finite element method (FEM). Parametric study of an embankment on soft soils reinforced with stone columns is performed using commercial computer program based on the finite element technique (PLAXIS 2D). The investigation will present the influence of the following parameters: diameter of stone columns, stiffness of geosynthetic encasement, embedded depth of stone column from ground level, and the length encasement of the stone column on the consolidation time, vertical settlement, and lateral displacement of soft clay soil formations.
362
82535
Use of Geosynthetics as Reinforcement Elements in Unpaved Tertiary Roads
Abstract:
In Colombia, most of the roads of the national tertiary road network are unpaved roads with granular rolling surface. These are very important ways of guaranteeing the mobility of people, products, and inputs from the agricultural sector from the most remote areas to urban centers; however, it has not paid much attention to the search for alternatives to avoid the occurrence of deteriorations that occur shortly after its commissioning. In recent years, geosynthetics have been used satisfactorily to reinforce unpaved roads on soft soils, with geotextiles and geogrids being the most widely used. The interaction of the geogrid and the aggregate minimizes the lateral movement of the aggregate particles and increases the load capacity of the material, which leads to a better distribution of the vertical stresses, consequently reducing the vertical deformations in the subgrade. Taking into account the above, the present research aims to evaluate the use of geogrids as a reinforcing element in granular materials, from the development of laboratory tests through the loaded wheel tester (LWT). For comparison purposes, the reinforced, non-reinforced conditions and the traffic conditions to which this type of material may be subjected to practice will be simulated. In total four types of geogrids, with different openings will be tested with granular material; this means that five test sets, the reinforced material and the non-reinforced control sample, will be evaluated. From each test performed, results of the number of reps of loading and depth of rutting supported by each test body will be obtained; from which a comparison will be made in order to determine if the placement of the geogrid as a reinforcement element brings benefits to the behavior of the whole and to establish if the opening of the geogrid has influence on it.
361
92705
Shaft Friction of Bored Pile Socketed in Weathered Limestone in Qatar
Abstract:
Socketing of bored piles in rock is always seen as a matter of debate on construction sites between consultants & contractors. The socketing depth normally depends on the type of rock, depth at which the rock is available below the pile cap and load carrying capacity of the pile. In this paper, the review of field load test data of drilled shaft socketed in weathered limestone conducted using conventional static pile load test and dynamic pile load test was made to evaluate a unit shaft friction for the bored piles socketed in weathered limestone (weak rock). The borehole drilling data was also reviewed in conjunction with the pile test result. In addition, the back-calculated unit shaft friction was reviewed against various empirical methods for bored piles socketed in weak rock. The paper concludes with an estimated ultimate unit shaft friction from the case study in Qatar for preliminary design.
360
93447
Comparing Field Displacement History with Numerical Results to Estimate Geotechnical Parameters: Case Study of Arash-Esfandiar-Niayesh under Passing Tunnel, 2.5 Traffic Lane Tunnel, Tehran, Iran
Abstract:
Underground structures are of those structures that have uncertainty in design procedures. That is due to the complexity of soil condition around. Under passing tunnels are also such affected structures. Despite geotechnical site investigations, lots of uncertainties exist in soil properties due to unknown events. As results, it possibly causes conflicting settlements in numerical analysis with recorded values in the project. This paper aims to report a case study on a specific under passing tunnel constructed by New Austrian Tunnelling Method in Iran. The intended tunnel has an overburden of about 11.3m, the height of 12.2m and, the width of 14.4m with 2.5 traffic lane. The numerical modeling was developed by a 2D finite element program (PLAXIS Version 8). Comparing displacement histories at the ground surface during the entire installation of initial lining, the estimated surface settlement was about four times the field recorded one, which indicates that some local unknown events affect that value. Also, the displacement ratios were in a big difference between the numerical and field data. Consequently, running several numerical back analysis using laboratory and field tests data, the geotechnical parameters were accurately revised to match with the obtained monitoring data. Finally, it was found that usually the values of soil parameters are conservatively low-estimated up to 40 percent by typical engineering judgment. Additionally, it could be attributed to inappropriate constitutive models applied for the specific soil condition.
359
86480
Behavior of Masonry Reinforced Concrete Composite Columns Under Lateral Loads
Abstract:
To provide tall unreinforced brick masonry walls of a century-old existing building with sufficient resistance against earthquake loading actions, additional reinforced concrete columns were integrated into the building at some designated locations and jointed to the existing masonry walls through dowel shear steel bars, resulting in a composite structural element. As conditions at the interface between the existing masonry and newly added reinforced concrete parts were not well grasped and the behavior of such composite elements would be complex, an experimental investigation was carried out. Three relatively large specimens were tested to investigate the overall behavior of brick masonry-reinforced concrete composite elements under lateral cyclic loadings. Confining the brick walls on only one side or on two opposite sides, as well as providing different amounts of dowel shear steel bars at the interface were the main parameters of the investigation. Test results showed that such strengthening provide a good seismic performance even at very large lateral drifts and the investigated amount of shear dowel lead to a good performance level that would result in a considerable cost reduction of the strengthening.
358
92163
Anchorage Mechanism of Inflatable Steel Pipe Rockbolt Depending on Initial Ground Stress
Abstract:
Inflatable steel pipe rockbolt is anchored by frictional force generated when the rockbolt expands and comes into contact with the ground. Because its pullout resistance is developed immediately after installation, it has increasingly started to be used in many tunnel sites. But due to the mechanical anchorage mechanism, the magnitude of the pullout resistance varies depending on the ground conditions. Especially, initial ground stress affects the contact behavior between the rockbolt and boring hole surface, and finally its pullout resistance. In this study, anchorage mechanism of inflatable steel pipe rockbolt was analyzed considering the initial ground stress. Since the factors determining initial ground stress are the magnitude and direction of the principal stress, the anchorage mechanism was investigated while varying the principal stress magnitude and the earth pressure coefficient associated with the direction of principal stress. For this, finite element method was used to consider its nonlinear behavior during the expansion of the rockbolt. As the initial principal stress of the ground increased, the pullout resistance of the rockbolt also increased. This means that at the deep depth where the initial ground stress is large, the pullout resistance of the rockbolt is increased. The maximum contact stress between the rockbolt and the boring hole surface was slightly different according to the magnitude of the earth pressure coefficient. But there was almost no difference in average contact stress and contact area.
357
94321
Prediction of Pile-Raft Responses Induced by Adjacent Braced Excavation in Layered Soil
Abstract:
Considering excavations in urban areas, the soil deformation induced by the excavations usually causes damage to the surrounding structures. Displacement control becomes a critical indicator of foundation design in order to protect the surrounding structures. Evaluation, the damage potential of the surrounding structures induced by the excavations, usually depends on the finite element method (FEM) because of the complexity of the excavation and the variety of the surrounding structures. Besides, evaluation the influence of the excavation on surrounding structures is a three-dimensional problem. And it is now well recognized that small strain behaviour of the soil influences the responses of the excavation significantly. Three-dimensional FEM considering small strain behaviour of the soil is a very complex method, which is hard for engineers to use. Thus, it is important to obtain a simplified method for engineers to predict the influence of the excavations on the surrounding structures. Based on large-scale finite element calculation with small-strain based soil model coupling with inverse analysis, an empirical method is proposed to calculate the three-dimensional soil movement induced by braced excavation. The empirical method is able to capture the small-strain behaviour of the soil. And it is suitable to be used in layered soil. Then the free-field soil movement is applied to the pile to calculate the responses of the pile in both vertical and horizontal directions. The asymmetric solutions for problems in layered elastic half-space are employed to solve the interactions between soil points. Both vertical and horizontal pile responses are solved through finite difference method based on elastic theory. Interactions among the nodes along a single pile, pile-pile interactions, pile-soil-pile interaction action and soil-soil interactions are counted to improve the calculation accuracy of the method. For passive piles, the shadow effects are also calculated in the method. Finally, the restrictions of the raft on the piles and the soils are summarized as: (1) the summations of the internal forces between the elements of the raft and the elements of the foundation, including piles and soil surface elements, is equal to 0; (2) the deformations of pile heads or of the soil surface elements are the same as the deformations of the corresponding elements of the raft. Validations are carried out by comparing the results from the proposed method with the results from the model tests, FEM and other existing literatures. From the comparisons, it can be seen that the results from the proposed method fit with the results from other methods very well. The method proposed herein is suitable to predict the responses of the pile-raft foundation induced by braced excavation in layered soil in both vertical and horizontal directions when the deformation is small. However, more data is needed to verify the method before it can be used in practice.
356
91244
Plastic Deformation Behavior of a Pre-Bored Pile Filler Material Due to Lateral Cyclic Loading in Sandy Soil
Abstract:
The bridge structure is a building that has to be maintained, especially for the elastomeric bearing. The girder of the bridge needs to be lifted upward to maintain this elastomeric bearing, that needs high cost. Nowadays, integral abutment bridges are becoming popular. The integral abutment bridge is less costly because the elastomeric bearings are eliminated, which reduces the construction cost and maintenance costs. However, when this elastomeric bearing removed, the girder movement due to environmental thermal forces directly support by pile foundation, and it needs to be considered in the design. In case of pile foundation in a stiff soil, in the top area of the pile cannot move freely due to the fixed condition by soil stiffness. Pre-bored pile system can be used to increase the flexibility of pile foundation using a pre-bored hole that filled with elastic materials, but the behavior of soil-pile interaction and soil response due to this system is still rarely explained. In this paper, an experimental study using small-scale laboratory model test conducted in a half size model. Single flexible pile model embedded in sandy soil with the pre-bored ring, which filled with the filler material. The testing box made from an acrylic glass panel as observation area of the pile shaft to monitor the displacement of the pile during the lateral loading. The failure behavior of the soil inside the pre-bored ring and around the pile shaft was investigated to determine the point of pile rotation and the movement of this point due to the pre-bored ring system along the pile shaft. Digital images were used to capture the deformations of the soil and pile foundation during the loading from the acrylic glass on the side of the testing box. The results were presented in the form of lateral load resistance charts against the pile shaft displacement. The failure pattern result also established due to the cyclic lateral loading. The movement of the rotational point was measured due to the pre-bored system filled with appropriate filler material. Based on the findings, design considerations for pre-bored pile system due to cyclic lateral loading can be introduced.
355
84469
Cement Bond Characteristics of Artificially Fabricated Sandstones
Abstract:
The synthetic rocks have been advantageous over the natural rocks in terms of availability and the consistent studying the impact of a particular parameter. The artificial rocks can be fabricated using variety of techniques such as mixing sand and Portland cement or gypsum, firing the mixture of sand and fine powder of borosilicate glass or by in-situ precipitation of calcite solution. In this study, sodium silicate solution has been used as the cementing agent for the quartz sand. The molded soft cylindrical sandstone samples are placed in the gas-tight pressure vessel, where the hardening of the material takes place as the chemical reaction between carbon dioxide and the silicate solution progresses. The vessel allows uniform disperse of carbon dioxide and control over the ambient gas pressure. Current paper shows how the bonding material is initially distributed in the intergranular space and the surface of the sand particles by the usage of Electron Microscopy and the Energy Dispersive Spectroscopy. During the study, the strength of the cement bond as a function of temperature is observed. The impact of cementing agent dosage on the micro and macro characteristics of the sandstone is investigated. The analysis of the cement bond at micro level helps to trace the changes to particles bonding damage after a potential yielding. Shearing behavior and compressional response have been examined resulting in the estimation of the shearing resistance and cohesion force of the sandstone. These are considered to be main input values to the mathematical prediction models of sand production from weak clastic oil reservoir formations.
354
92312
An Investigation of the Effects of Gripping Systems in Geosynthetic Shear Testing
Abstract:
The use of geosynthetic materials in geotechnical engineering projects has rapidly increased over the past several years. These materials have resulted in improved performance and cost reduction of geotechnical structures as compared to the use of conventional materials. However, working with geosynthetics requires knowledge of interface parameters for design. These parameters are typically determined by the large direct shear device in accordance with ASTM-D5321 and ASTM-D6243 standards. Although these laboratory tests are standardized, the quality of the results can be largely affected by several factors that include; the shearing rate, applied normal stress, gripping mechanism, and type of the geosynthetic specimens tested. Amongst these factors, poor surface gripping of a specimen is the major source of the discrepancy. If the specimen is inadequately secured to the shearing blocks, it experiences progressive failure and shear strength that deviates from the true field performance of the tested material. This leads to inaccurate, unsafe, and cost ineffective designs of projects. Currently, the ASTM-D5321 and ASTM-D6243 standards do not provide a standardized gripping system for geosynthetic shear strength testing. Over the years, researchers have come up with different gripping systems that can be used such as; glue, metal textured surface, sandblasting, and sandpaper. However, these gripping systems are regularly not adequate to sufficiently secure the tested specimens to the shearing device. This has led to large variability in test results and difficulties in results interpretation. Therefore, this study was aimed at determining the effects of gripping systems in geosynthetic interface shear strength testing using a 300 x 300 mm direct shear box. The results of the research will contribute to easy data interpretation and increase result accuracy and reproducibility.
353
82343
Simulation of Scaled Model of Tall Multistory Structure: Raft Foundation for Experimental and Numerical Dynamic Studies
Authors:
Abstract:
Earthquakes can cause tremendous loss of human life and can result in severe damage to a several of civil engineering structures especially the tall buildings. The response of a multistory structure subjected to earthquake loading is a complex task, and it requires to be studied by physical and numerical modelling. For many circumstances, the scale models on shaking table may be a more economical option than the similar full-scale tests. A shaking table apparatus is a powerful tool that offers a possibility of understanding the actual behaviour of structural systems under earthquake loading. It is required to use a set of scaling relations to predict the behaviour of the full-scale structure. Selecting the scale factors is the most important steps in the simulation of the prototype into the scaled model. In this paper, the principles of scaling modelling procedure are explained in details, and the simulation of scaled multi-storey concrete structure for dynamic studies is investigated. A procedure for a complete dynamic simulation analysis is investigated experimentally and numerically with a scale factor of 1/50. The frequency domain accounting and lateral displacement for both numerical and experimental scaled models are determined. The procedure allows accounting for the actual dynamic behave of actual size porotype structure and scaled model. The procedure is adapted to determine the effects of the tall multi-storey structure on a raft foundation. Four generated accelerograms were used as inputs for the time history motions which are in complying with EC8. The output results of experimental works expressed regarding displacements and accelerations are compared with those obtained from a conventional fixed-base numerical model. Four-time history was applied in both experimental and numerical models, and they concluded that the experimental has an acceptable output accuracy in compare with the numerical model output. Therefore this modelling methodology is valid and qualified for different shaking table experiments tests.
352
91237
Finite Element Simulation of an Offshore Monopile subjected to Cyclic Loading using Hypoplasticity with Intergranular Strain Anisotropy (ISA) for the Soil
Abstract:
Numerical simulations of offshore wind turbines (OWTs) in shallow waters demand sophisticated models considering the cyclic nature of the environmental loads. For the case of an OWT founded on sands, rapid loading may cause a reduction of the effective stress of the soil surrounding the structure. This eventually leads to its settlement, tilting, or other issues affecting its serviceability. In this work, a 3D FE model of an OWT founded on sand is constructed and analyzed. Cyclic loading with different histories is applied at certain points of the tower to simulate some environmental forces. The mechanical behavior of the soil is simulated through the recently proposed ISA-hypoplastic model for sands. The Intergranular Strain Anisotropy ISA can be interpreted as an enhancement of the intergranular strain theory, often used to extend hypoplastic formulations for the simulation of cyclic loading. In contrast to previous formulations, the proposed constitutive model introduces an elastic range for small strain amplitudes, includes the cyclic mobility effect and is able to capture the cyclic behavior of sands under a larger number of cycles. The model performance is carefully evaluated on the FE dynamic analysis of the OWT.
351
94706
Applications of Engineering Geology in Hydro Power Tunnel Projects in Himalayan Geological Regime
Authors:
Abstract:
Tunnel construction in Himalayan rock is a challenging task due to fragile nature of the strata. Tunnel excavation carried out from lower Himalayas to high Himalayas in different metamorphic rock. Therefore application of engineering geology plays a vital role during various stage of the tunneling projects. Engineering geology is defined as application of geology to construction of civil structures through engineering practice. It is applied to the design, construction and performance aspects of engineering structure on the surface or sub-surface like dam, underground and surface power house, cut slopes, tunnels and underground storage cavern for nuclear material. But this paper emphasized mostly on underground structures like big caverns of Power house, desilting chambers, and tunnels of various sizes. Construction of these structures in the fragile rock conditions of Himalayan geology from Western Himalayas to Eastern Himalayas necessitated the application of the engineering geology on the micro-scale base for the stability, performance, and longevity of the civil structures. Number of hydropower projects have been constructed, some of them are under construction and under investigation stage. These projects are located in various parts of Himalayas under various seismic-tectonic zones. Tunneling works are involved in these projects. This paper represents the various engineering geological practices adopted in investigation and construction stage of various projects based on experiences gained during past construction histories in Himalayan geology of young mountains in very fragile geological conditions. Highlighting and sharing of use of these techniques on various platforms will definitely enhance the knowledge for carrying out the construction of various projects for the development of society. Construction of the tunnels, surface, and sub-surface caverns, dams, highway, metro, highway tunnels are all based on engineering geological parameters in combinations with other engineering considerations.
350
91300
Tree Resistance to Wind Storm: The Effects of Soil Saturation on Tree Anchorage of Young Pinus pinaster
Abstract:
Windstorm damage to European forests has ecological, social and economic consequences of major importance. Most trees during storms are uprooted. While a large amount of work has been done over the last decade on understanding the aerial tree response to turbulent wind flow, much less is known about the root-soil interface, and the impact of soil moisture and root-soil system fatiguing on tree uprooting. Anchorage strength is expected to be reduced by water-logging and heavy rain during storms due to soil strength decrease with soil water content. Our paper is focused on the maritime pine cultivated on sandy soil, as a representative species of the Forêt des Landes, the largest cultivated forest in Europe. This study aims at providing knowledge on the effects of soil saturation on root anchorage. Pulling experiments on trees were performed to characterize the resistance to wind by measuring the critical bending moment (Mc). Pulling tests were performed on 12 maritime pines of 13-years old for two unsaturated soil conditions that represent the soil conditions expected in winter when wind storms occur in France (w=11.46 to 23.34 % gg⁻¹). A magnetic field digitizing technique was used to characterize the three-dimensional architecture of root systems. The soil mechanical properties as function of soil water content were characterized by laboratory mechanical measurements as function of soil water content and soil porosity on remolded samples using direct shear tests at low confining pressure ( < 15 kPa). Remarkably Mc did not depend on w but mainly on the root system morphology. We suggested that the importance of soil water conditions on tree anchorage depends on the tree size. This study gives a new insight on young tree anchorage: roots may sustain by themselves anchorage, whereas adhesion between roots and surrounding soil may be negligible in sandy soil.
349
85527
Study on the Effects of Grassroots Characteristics on Reinforced Soil Performance by Direct Shear Test
Abstract:
Vegetation slope protection technique is economic, aesthetic and practical. Herbs are widely used in practice because of rapid growth, strong erosion resistance, obvious slope protection and simple method, in which the root system of grass plays a very important role. In this paper, through changing the variables value of grassroots quantity, grassroots diameter, grassroots length and grassroots reinforce layers, the direct shear tests were carried out to discuss the change of shear strength indexes of grassroots reinforced soil under different reinforce situations, and analyse the effects of grassroots characteristics on reinforced soil performance. The laboratory test results show that: (1) in the certain number of grassroots diameter, grassroots length and grassroots reinforce layers, the value of shear strength, and cohesion first increase and then reduce with the increasing of grassroots quantity; (2) in the certain number of grassroots quantity, grassroots length and grassroots reinforce layers, the value of shear strength and cohesion rise with the increasing of grassroots diameter; (3) in the certain number of grassroots diameter, and grassroots reinforce layers, the value of shear strength and cohesion raise with the increasing of grassroots length in a certain range of grassroots quantity, while the value of shear strength and cohesion first rise and then decline with the increasing of grassroots length when the grassroots quantity reaches a certain value; (4) in the certain number of grassroots quantity, grassroots diameter, and grassroots length, the value of shear strength and cohesion first climb and then decline with the increasing of grassroots reinforced layers; (5) the change of internal friction angle is small in different parameters of grassroots. The research results are of importance for understanding the mechanism of vegetation protection for slopes and determining the parameters of grass planting.
348
87502
Effect of Boundary Retaining Walls Properties on the Raft Foundations Behaviour
Abstract:
This paper studies the effect of boundary retaining walls properties on the behavior of the raft foundation. Commercial software program Sap2000 was used in this study. The soil was presented as continuous media (follows the Winkler assumption). Shell elements were employed to model the raft plate. A parametric study has been carried out to examine the effect of boundary retaining walls properties on the behavior of raft plate. These parameters namely, height of the boundary retaining walls, thickness of the boundary retaining walls, flexural rigidity of raft plate, bearing capacity of supporting soil and the earth pressure of boundary soil. The main results which were obtained from this study are positive, negative bending moment, shear stress and deflection in raft plate, where these parameters are considered the main parameters used in design of raft foundation. It was concluded that the boundary retaining walls have a significant effect on the straining actions in raft plate.
347
95179
Load-Settlement Behaviour of Geogrid-Reinforced Sand Bed over Granular Piles
Abstract:
Granular piles are a popular ground improvement technique in soft cohesive soils as well as for loose non-cohesive soils. The present experimental study has been carried out on granular piles in loose (Relative density = 30%) and medium dense (Relative density = 60%) sands with geogrid reinforcement within the sand bed over the granular piles. A group of five piles were installed in the sand at different spacing, s = 2d, 3d and 4d, d being the diameter of the pile. The length (L = 0.4 m) and diameter (d = 50 mm) of the piles were kept constant for all the series of experiments. The load-settlement behavior of reinforced sand bed and granular piles system was studied by applying the load on a square footing. The results show that the effect of reinforcement increases the load bearing capacity of the piles. It is also found that an increase in spacing between piles decreases the settlement for both loose and medium dense soil.
346
82802
High-Frequency Monitoring Results of a Piled Raft Foundation under Wind Loading
Abstract:
Piled raft foundations represent an efficient and reliable technique to transfer high vertical and horizontal loads in the subsoil. In the last decades, piled raft foundations were successfully implemented for several high-rise buildings worldwide. For the structural design of this foundation type, the stiffnesses of both the piles and the raft have to be determined for the static (e.g., dead load, live load) and the dynamic load cases (e.g., earthquake). In this context, the question often arises, to which proportion wind loads are to be considered as dynamic loads. Usually, a piled raft foundation has to be monitored in order to verify the design hypotheses. As an additional benefit, the analysis of this monitoring data may lead to a better understanding of the behavior of this foundation type for future projects in similar subsoil conditions. In case the measurement frequency is high enough, one may draw conclusions on the effect of wind loading on the piled raft foundation. For a 41-storey office building in Basel, Switzerland, the preliminary design showed that a piled raft foundation was the best solution to satisfy both design requirements as well as economical aspects. A high-frequency monitoring of the foundation including pile loads, vertical stresses under the raft as well as pore water pressures has been performed during the past 5 years. In windy situations, the analysis of the measurements shows that the pile load increment due to wind consists of a static and a cyclic load term. As piles and raft react with different stiffnesses under static and dynamic loading, these measurements are useful for the correct definition of stiffnesses of future piled raft foundations. The paper outlines the design strategy and the numerical modelling of the piled raft foundation of the project. The measurement results are presented and analyzed. Based on the findings, comments and conclusions on the definition of pile and raft stiffnesses for vertical and wind loading are proposed.
345
90700
Determine of Design Variables and Target Reliability Indexes of Underground Structure
Abstract:
In Korea, a study on Limit State Design (LSD) for underground structures is being conducted in order to perform more effective design. In this study, as a result of MCS (Monte-Carlo Simulation) technique, failure probabilities of the structure during normal and earthquake are estimated in reliability analysis. Target reliability indexes are determined depending on load combinations for underground structure, and then, design variables such as load and material factors in LSD are decided. As a result, through the research in order to determine more reliable design variables, a specification of LSD for underground structures is able to be developed.
344
95402
Finite Element Analyses of Geocell-Reinforced Railway Tracks on Clayey Subgrade
Abstract:
Railways are an integral part of transportation sector of many countries like USA, China and India. New tracks are being laid at a fast pace as well as existing tracks are being upgraded to meet the demands of the ever-increasing population. Geosynthetics in the form of geocells can be used as a reinforcement material in railways to reduce settlements and track deteriorations which can also reduce the maintenance costs involved. Upgrading tracks requires parametric studies to evaluate the effect of various properties of track components on the track system. In the present study, three-dimensional geocell-reinforced tracks are modeled using Midas/GTS, which is commercial finite element analyses software. The displacement and vertical stress variations for the railway tracks over clayey subgrades under applied train load were obtained using finite element analyses. The parametric studies involved variation in subgrade modulus and infill modulus to show their effects on reduction in settlements as well as vertical stresses. The comparison of the geocell-reinforced model with the unreinforced model showed improvement of railway tracks using geocell. The results of parametric studies show that increase in modulus of subgrade and infill material can effectively improve the performance of railway tracks.
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95407
Sensitivity Analysis of Micropile Reinforced Subgrade in Railway Tracks Using Finite Element Method
Abstract:
Micropiles can be used to improve the performance of railways tracks that are old. There is a vast network of railway tracks in India that was constructed long ago. Due to the present demands of heavier and faster trains, there is a need to upgrade the old railways tracks. To completely remove the old set of tracks and replace it with a new improved one is a challenging task, especially in areas of heavy traffic. Micropiles provide an alternative solution to retrofit the existing set of tracks without dismantling them and without disruption of rail traffic. This paper presents the effectiveness of micropiles as ground reinforcement for railway subgrades. A Finite Element analysis is conducted using MIDAS GTX NX software. Various geometric configurations of micropiles are considered to study their effect in supporting enhanced loads. Micropiles are driven at the toe of the subballast vertical and inclined. Variation in geometry in terms of diameter, the angle of inclination, number of piles etc. are studied. From the analysis, it is observed that the inclined micropiles with a 45-degree inclination to vertical are the most effective in dealing with enhanced loads. In the vertical arrangement of micropiles, the effect of different numbers of piles is marginal. The effect of various diameters in vertical and inclined micropiles is also unremarkable. However, a combination of a vertical and an inclined 45-degree micropile performed the best out of all the configurations. The outcomes of this study are useful in analyzing the mechanism of subgrade improvement using micropile. The strengthening of subgrade using micropile is beneficial as it eliminates the need of dismantling the tracks, sleepers and the ballasted layers. This method is also fast in implementation as it can be carried out in uninterrupted railway traffic. Thus, this method provides valuable inputs for design and implementation of micropiles to reinforce railway subgrades.
342
95414
Engineering Properties of Mine Overburden and Fly Ash Mix with Lime and Modified with Phosphogyspum and Its Utilization
Abstract:
The main objective of the present study is to utilize the influence of mine waste such as mine overburden-fly ash mixes with lime and modified with phosphogypsum based on the shear strength. The mine overburden is replaced by different percentages of fly ash by weight. The different percentages of lime by weight are mixed with each combination of mine overburden-fly ash mixes and their compaction characteristics are determined. The different proportion of phosphogypsum are added to find the optimum mix. Based on the optimum mix a series of unconfined compression test is conducted on the reference mix composed of mine overburden, fly ash, lime and phosphogypsum. The specimens for these tests are prepared and cured for 1,7,14 and 28 days. The unconfined compression test is conducted on prepared sample for 1, 7, 14 and 28 days of curing and then optimum mix is determined. The microstructure development of the stabilized mix is studied through SEM (scanning electron microscopy) and XRD (X-ray diffraction). Phosphogypsum accelerates the gain in strength for lime-stabilized fly ashes, particularly in the initial curing periods at about optimum lime content. The results of the study indicates that unconfined compressive strength, initial tangent modulus and secant modulus increased with increase in curing period and composite gained strength with time. The present study will be helpful in utilizing waste material for various geotechnical application and pavement.
341
95417
Finite Element Analysis of Reinforced Retaining Wall for Railway Embankment
Abstract:
Mechanically Stabilised Earth (MSE) retaining walls retain the steep slopes and stabilize the unstable slopes. Soil can be retained under crest loads by MSE walls. Road elevation for bridge approaches, underpass frontage roads and other roadway applications can be provided with MSE walls. Another area of application is in railway embankment. MSE walls have a wide range of applications for its different practical consideration of design and analysis. There is a scope to explore its application in moving loads. In the present study, MSE wall analysis for train load is done. Modular blocks of size 0.28-meter width and 0.15-meter height are used as facings for the wall. MSE wall supports railway embankment system with rails, sleepers, sub-ballast, ballast and clay as backfill material. In the present study, two-dimensional finite element analysis has been done for the retaining wall using MIDAS/GTS/NX which is a commercial software. A study has been carried for unreinforced and reinforced section of the retaining wall. Clay is used as backfill material and geogrid as reinforcement. Interfaces have been generated in between block to block, geogrid to clay, geogrid to modular block, geogrid to foundation leveling pad, rail to sleeper, sleeper to ballast and sub-ballast to the ballast. Soil backfill exhibits non-linear characteristics considering Duncan-Chang as model type. For the displacement of the MSE wall, a detailed sensitivity analysis has been carried out. The model has given vertical stress at sublayer/backfill interface. Displacements have been compared with the reinforced and unreinforced section. For reinforced sections, lesser displacement has been experienced than for unreinforced section of retaining wall. Stress variation figures have also been drawn comparing for unreinforced and reinforced sections. Stress variation in each single geogrid is also shown along the length of the geogrid.