International Science Index

International Journal of Environmental and Ecological Engineering

The Influence of Estuarine Changes on Tidal Dynamics in Adjacent Coastal Waters: Comparison of the Tidal Response Caused from Both Historic and Present Morphological States
Analysis of long time tide gauge records along the Dutch and German coast indicate an increase of tidal range after 1955 in the German Bight. Beyond global influences from sea level rise or long-term shifts of astronomic or atmospheric boundary conditions, changes in the tidal regime can also mirror local effects. Especially anthropogenic interventions due to hydraulic-engineering measures like dredging or land reclamation need to be considered as contributors, as they can have great impact on nonlinear hydrodynamic effects in the shallow coastal waters. The rivers Ems and Weser, both entering the North Sea at Germany’s Lower Saxony coast rank among the most heavily modified estuaries worldwide. Over the past circa 120 years numerous rectifications, deepenings and broadenings as well as other adjustments made to the navigational channels and their embankments have greatly modified the tidal regimes within these estuaries. This paper deals with the development of a method determining possible interactions of these inner-estuarine tidal regime changes with tidal dynamics in adjacent coastal waters. By means of numerical simulations, the tidal signals caused from historic morphological states prior to the major riverine modifications are compared to tidal signals caused from present morphological states. Historic estuarine morphologies are set up using bathymetric data, which has been derived and digitized from charts of the rivers Ems and Weser, partly dating back to the late 19th century. Airborne laser scanning and echo sounding from the past decade provide data for the present states. In order to identify changes solely induced by construction measures within the estuaries, the bathymetry of the adjacent coastal waters remains the same for both conditions. The model domain is extended well above the investigation area. It covers the Greater North Sea and further parts of the North-East Atlantic. This approach bypasses prerequisite model nesting and allows for a physically consistent propagation of tidal waves across the shelf. The simulations are carried out with the open-source modeling system SCHISM, which has been tailored to such seamless cross-scale applications. First results show that, within the estuaries, the models can reproduce the rise to tidal range and the characteristics of the tidal signals in coherence with observation data. The typical distortion of the tide evoked from the shift of energy to higher harmonics due to nonlinear shallow water mechanisms both asymmetric in terms of displacing the times of high and low water and symmetric in terms of affecting the amplitudes is significantly governed by the extent of the riverine modifications. The overall largely increased estuarine tidal volumes together with other measures have engendered considerable amplifications of the tide, which account for a rise in tidal range of several meters at the head of the estuaries accompanied by further distortion of the already previously flood dominant tidal currents. Subsequent studies based on this model aim on detecting and quantifying possible residual effects on tidal dynamics outside the scope of the estuaries and their spatial extension in adjacent coastal waters, originating from the above-described estuarine changes.
Capability of Marine Macroalgae Chaetomorpha linum for Wastewater Phytoremediation and Biofuel Recovery
Macroalgae are larger in size compared with microalgae; hence, they imposed lower separation and drying costs. To explore the potential for enhancing cultivation conditions in macroalgae Chaetomorpha linum (C. linum)-based bioreactor for nutrient recovery from municipal wastewaters and examine the biochemical composition of the macroalgae for the potential downstream production of biofuels, screening experiments were performed. This study suggested that C. linum grew well on primary (PW), secondary (SW), and centrate wastewater (CW). A step feeding approach was shown to significantly enhance biomass productivity when grown on 10% CW; meanwhile, nitrogen and phosphorus removal efficiencies increased to 86.8 ± 1.1% and 92.6 ± 0.2%, respectively. The CO₂-supplemented SW cultures were 1.20 times more productive than the corresponding controls without CO₂ supplementation. These findings demonstrate that C. linum could represent a promising and efficient wastewater treatment alternative which could also provide a feedstock for downstream processing to biofuels.
Potential of Macroalgae Ulva lactuca for Municipal Wastewater Treatment and Fruitfly Food
Macroalgae are considered a promising approach for wastewater treatment as well as an alternative animal feed in addition to a biofuel feedstock. Their large size and/or tendency to grow as dense floating mats or substrate-attached turfs lead to lower separation and drying costs than microalgae. In this study, the macroalgae species Ulva lactuca (U. lactuca) were used to investigate their capacity for treating municipal wastewaters, and the feasibility of using the harvested biomass as an alternative food source for the fruitfly Drosophila melanogaster, an animal model for biological research. Results suggested that U. lactuca could successfully grow on three types of wastewaters studied with biomass productivities of 8.12-64.3 g DW (dry weight)/(m²∙d). The secondary wastewater (SW) was demonstrated as the most effective wastewater medium for U. lactuca growth. However, both high nitrogen (92.5-98.9%) and phosphorus (64.5-88.6%) removal efficiencies were observed in all wastewaters, particularly in primary wastewater (PW) and SW, however, in central wastewater (CW), the highest removal rates were obtained (N 24.7 ± 0.97 and P 0.69 ± 0.01 mg/(g DW·d)). Additionally, the inclusion of 20% washed U. lactuca with 80% standard fruitfly food (w/w) resulted in a longer lifespan and more stable body weights in flies. On the other hand, similar results were not obtained for the food treatment with the addition of 20 % unwashed U. lactuca. This study suggests a promising method for the macroalgae-based treatment of municipal wastewater and the biomass for animal feed.
Microalgae Applied to the Reduction of Biowaste Produced by Fruit Fly Drosophila melanogaster
Biowastes are a concern due to the large amounts of commercial food required for model animals during the biomedical research. Searching for sustainable food alternatives with negligible physiological effects on animals is critical to solving or reducing this challenge. Microalgae have been demonstrated as suitable for both human consumption and animal feed in addition to biofuel and bioenergy applications. In this study, the possibility of using Chlorella vulgaris and Senedesmus obliquus as a feed replacement to Drosophila melanogaster, one of the fly models commonly used in biomedical studies, was investigated to assess the fly locomotor activity, motor pattern, lifespan, and body weight. Compared to control, flies fed on 60% or 80% (w/w) microalgae exhibited varied walking performance including travel distance and apparent step size, and flies treated with 40% microalgae had shorter lifespans and decreased body weight. However, the 20% microalgae treatment showed no statistical differences in all parameters tested with respect to the control. When partially including 20% microalgae in the standard food, it can annually reduce the food waste (~ 202 kg) by 22.7 % and save $ 7,200 of the food cost, offering an environmentally superior and cost-effective food alternative without compromising physiological performance.
Safe Disposal of Pyrite Rich Waste Rock Using Alkali Phosphate Treatment
Acid rock drainage (ARD) is generated by the oxidation of pyrite (FeS₂) contained in the excavated rocks upon its exposure to atmosphere and is an environmental concern at construction site due to its high acidity and high concentration of toxic elements. We developed the safe disposal method with the reduction of ARD generation by an alkali phosphate treatment. A pyrite rich andesite was collected from a railway construction site. The collected rock sample was crushed to be less than 3/8 inches in diameter using a jaw crusher. The crushed rock was filled in an acryl tube with 20 cm in diameter and 40 cm in height. Two treatments for the ARD reduction were conducted with duplicates: 1) the addition of 10mM KH₂PO₄_3% NaHCO₃ and 2) the addition of 10mM KH₂PO₄_3% NaHCO₃ and ordinary portland cement (OPC) on the top of the column. After the treatments, 500 ml of distilled water added to each column for every week for 3 weeks and then the column was flushed with 1,500 ml of distilled water in the 4th week. The pH, electrical conductivity (EC), concentrations of anions and cations of the leachates were monitored for 10 months. The pH of the leachates from the untreated column showed 2.1-3.7, but the leachates from the columns treated with the alkali phosphate solution with or without the OPC addition showed pH 6.7–8.9. The leachates from the treated columns had much lower concentrations of SO₄²⁻ and toxic elements such as Al, Mn, Fe and heavy metals than those from the untreated columns. However, the leachates from the treated columns had a higher As concentration than those from the untreated columns. There was no significant difference in chemical property between the leachates from the treated columns with and without the OPC addition. The chemistry of leachates indicates that the alkali phosphate treatment decreased the oxidation of sulfide and neutralized the acidic pore water. No significant effect of the OPC addition on the leachate chemistry has shown during 10-month experiment. However, we expect a positive effect of the OPC addition on the reduction of ARD generation in terms of long period. According to the results of this experiment, the alkali phosphate treatment of sulfide rich rock can be a promising technology for the safe disposal method with the ARD reduction.
Observationally Constrained Estimates of Aerosol Indirect Radiative Forcing over Indian Ocean
Aerosol-cloud-precipitation interaction continues to be one of the largest sources of uncertainty in quantifying the aerosol climate forcing. The uncertainty is increasing from global to regional scale. This problem remains unresolved due to the large discrepancy in the representation of cloud processes in the climate models. Most of the studies on aerosol-cloud-climate interaction and aerosol-cloud-precipitation over Indian Ocean (like INDOEX, CAIPEEX campaign etc.) are restricted to either particular to one season or particular to one region. Here we developed a theoretical framework to quantify aerosol indirect radiative forcing using Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) aerosol and cloud products of 15 years (2000-2015) period over the Indian Ocean. This framework relies on the observationally constrained estimate of the aerosol-induced change in cloud albedo. We partitioned the change in cloud albedo into the change in Liquid Water Path (LWP) and Effective Radius of Clouds (Reff) in response to an aerosol optical depth (AOD). Cloud albedo response to an increase in AOD is most sensitive in the range of LWP between 120-300 gm/m² for a range of Reff varying from 8-24 micrometer, which means aerosols are most sensitive to this range of LWP and Reff. Using this framework, aerosol forcing during a transition from indirect to semi-direct effect is also calculated. The outcome of this analysis shows best results over the Arabian Sea in comparison with the Bay of Bengal and the South Indian Ocean because of heterogeneity in aerosol spices over the Arabian Sea. Over the Arabian Sea during Winter Season the more absorbing aerosols are dominating, during Pre-monsoon dust (coarse mode aerosol particles) are more dominating. In winter and pre-monsoon majorly the aerosol forcing is more dominating while during monsoon and post-monsoon season meteorological forcing is more dominating. Over the South Indian Ocean, more or less same types of aerosol (Sea salt) are present. Over the Arabian Sea the Aerosol Indirect Radiative forcing are varying from -5 ± 4.5 W/m² for winter season while in other seasons it is reducing. The results provide observationally constrained estimates of aerosol indirect forcing in the Indian Ocean which can be helpful in evaluating the climate model performance in the context of such complex interactions.
A Review on Aviation Emissions and Their Role in Climate Change Scenarios
Aviation causes carbon dioxide (CO2) emissions and other climate forcers which increase the contribution of aviation on climate change. Aviation industry and number of air travellers are constantly increasing. Aviation industry has an ambitious goal to strongly cut net CO2 emissions. Modern fleet, alternative jet fuels technologies and route optimisation are important technological tools in the emission reduction. Faster approaches are needed as well. Emission trade systems, voluntary carbon offset compensation schemes and taxation are already in operation. Global scenarios of aviation industry and its greenhouse gas emissions and other climate forcers are discussed in this review study based on literature and other published data. The focus is on the aviation in Nordic countries, but also European and global situation are considered. Different emission reduction technologies and compensation modes are examined. In addition, the role of aviation in a single passenger’s (a Finnish consumer) annual carbon footprint is analysed and a comparison of available emission calculators and carbon offset systems is performed. Long-haul fights have a significant role in a single consumer´s and company´s carbon footprint, but remarkable change in global emission level would need a huge change in attitudes towards flying.
Destruction of Coastal Wetlands in Harper City-Liberia: Setting Nature against the Future Society
Coastal wetland destruction and its consequences have recently taken the center stage of global discussions. This phenomenon is no gray area to humanity as coastal wetland-human interaction seems inevitably ingrained in the earliest civilizations, amidst the demanding use of its resources to meet their necessities. The severity of coastal wetland destruction parallels with growing civilizations, and it is against this backdrop that, this paper interrogated the causes of coastal wetland destruction in Harper City in Liberia, compared the degree of coastal wetland stressors to the non-equilibrium thermodynamic scale as well as suggested an integrated coastal zone management to address the problems. Literature complemented the primary data gleaned via global positioning system devices, field observation, questionnaire, and interviews. Multi-sampling techniques were used to generate data from the sand miners, institutional heads, fisherfolk, community-based groups, and other stakeholders. Non-equilibrium thermodynamic theory remains vibrant in discerning the ecological stability, and it would be employed to further understand the coastal wetland destruction in Harper City, Liberia and to measure the coastal wetland stresses-amplitude and elasticity. The non-equilibrium thermodynamics postulates that the coastal wetlands are capable of assimilating resources (inputs), as well as discharging products (outputs). However, the input-output relationship exceedingly stretches beyond the thresholds of the coastal wetlands, leading to coastal wetland disequilibrium. Findings revealed that the sand mining, mangrove removal, and crude dumping have transformed the coastal wetlands, resulting in water pollution, flooding, habitat loss and disfigured beaches in Harper City in Liberia. This paper demonstrates that the coastal wetlands are converted into developmental projects and agricultural fields, thus, endangering the future society against nature.
Flow-Induced Vibration Marine Current Energy Harvesting Using a Symmetrical Balanced Pair of Pivoted Cylinders
The phenomenon of vortex-induced vibration (VIV) for elastically restrained cylindrical structures in cross-flows is relatively well investigated. The utility of this mechanism in harvesting energy from marine current and tidal flows is however arguably still in its infancy. With relatively few moving components, a flow-induced vibration-based energy conversion device augers low complexity compared to the commonly employed turbine design. Despite the interest in this concept, a practical device has yet to emerge. It is desirable for optimal system performance to design for a very low mass or mass moment of inertia ratio. The device operating range, in particular, is maximized below the vortex-induced vibration critical point where an infinite resonant response region is realized. An unfortunate consequence of this requirement is large buoyancy forces that need to be mitigated by gravity-based, suction-caisson or anchor mooring systems. The focus of this paper is the testing of a novel VIV marine current energy harvesting configuration that utilizes a symmetrical and balanced pair of horizontal pivoted cylinders. The results of several years of experimental investigation, utilizing the University of Wollongong fluid mechanics laboratory towing tank, are analyzed and presented. A reduced velocity test range of 0 to 60 was covered across a large array of device configurations. In particular, power take-off damping ratios spanning from 0.044 to critical damping were examined in order to determine the optimal conditions and hence the maximum device energy conversion efficiency. The experiments conducted revealed acceptable energy conversion efficiencies of around 16% and desirable low flow-speed operating ranges when compared to traditional turbine technology. The potentially out-of-phase spanwise VIV cells on each arm of the device synchronized naturally as no decrease in amplitude response and comparable energy conversion efficiencies to the single cylinder arrangement were observed. In addition to the spatial design benefits related to the horizontal device orientation, the main advantage demonstrated by the current symmetrical horizontal configuration is to allow large velocity range resonant response conditions without the excessive buoyancy. The novel configuration proposed shows clear promise in overcoming many of the practical implementation issues related to flow-induced vibration marine current energy harvesting.
Assessment of Barriers Preventing Recycling Practices among Bars and Eateries in Central South Africa
Waste has become a global issue and the management regarding it a priority. Some of the main problems in South Africa (SA) include: (1) the lack of information and education, (2) waste collection services, (3) reusing and recycling is not encouraged, (4) illegal dumping, and the biggest problem of all (5) the lack of waste related regulations and enforcement by the government and municipalities. In SA, there are provinces such as Gauteng and the Western Cape that have some recycling programs in place, but nothing yet in the central part of the country. By identifying the barriers preventing these businesses from recycling, the local municipalities and recycling services could create a solution. Owners or employees of eateries and bars completed a self-administered questionnaire. Information were obtained on knowledge of recycling, participation in recycling and to which extent, barriers that prevent them from recycling and motives that would encourage recycling. The data obtained from the questionnaire indicated that most (98%) participants knew only the basics, that recycling is a process of converting waste materials into new materials and objects. Further knowledge questions indicated that individuals were not educated about recycling as almost half (49%) of the participants believe that they can’t reuse plastic bottles. They do not understand which items of their waste could be re-used or recycled. They had limited knowledge about the recycling opportunities or practices in the area. Only a small number (34%) were involved in recycling or sustainable practices. Many did not even know of any collection services or buy-back centres in their vicinity. Most of the participants (94%) indicated that they would be willing to recycle if it would have a financial benefit. Many also stated that they would be more willing to recycle if the recyclable waste will be collected from their establishment, on a regular basis. The enforcement of recycling by municipalities or government by awarding fines for waste offenders was indicated as a significant motive. It could be concluded that the most significant barrier is knowledge and lack of information. These businesses do not comprehend the impact that they can have with their recycling contributions, not only on the environment, but also on the consumers that they serve. Another barrier is the lack of collection services. There are currently no government or municipal services for the collection of recyclable waste. All waste are taken to landfills. Many of the larger recycling initiatives and companies do not reach as far as central SA. Therefore, the buy-back component of recycling is not present.
Pattern the Location and Area of Earth-Dumping Stations from Vehicle GPS Data in Taiwan
The objective of this study explores GPS (Global Positioning System) applied to trace construction vehicles such as trucks or cranes, help to pattern the earth-dumping stations of traffic construction in Taiwan. Traffic construction in this research is defined as the engineering of high-speed railways, expressways, and which that distance more than kilometers. Audit the location and check the compliance with regulations of earth-dumping stations is one of important tasks in Taiwan EPA. Basically, the earth-dumping station was known as one source of particulate matter from air pollution during construction process. Due to GPS data can be analyzed quickly and be used conveniently, this study tried to find out dumping stations by modeling vehicles tracks from GPS data during work cycle of construction. The GPS data updated from 13 vehicles related to an expressway construction in central Taiwan. The GPS footprints were retrieved to Keyhole Markup Language (KML) files so that can pattern the tracks of trucks by computer applications, the data was collected about eight months- from Feb. to Oct. in 2017. The results of GPS footprints identified dumping station and outlined the areas of earthwork had been passed to the Taiwan EPA for on-site inspection. Taiwan EPA had issued advice comments to the agency which was in charge of the construction to prevent the air pollution. According to the result of this study compared to the commonly methods in inspecting environment by manual collection, the GPS with KML patterning and modeling method can consumes less time. On the other hand, through monitoring the GPS data from construction vehicles could be useful for administration to development and implementation of strategies in environmental management.
A Combined Activated Sludge-Sonication Process for Abattoir Wastewater Treatment
Wastewater treatment is becoming a worldwide concern due to new and tighter environmental regulations, and the increasing need for fresh water for the exponentially growing population. The meat industry has one of the highest consumption of water producing up to 10 times more polluted (BOD) wastewaters in comparison to domestic sewage. Therefore, suitable wastewater treatment methods are required to ensure the wastewater quality meet regulations before discharge. In the present study, a combined lab scale activated sludge-sonication system was used to treat pre-treated abattoir wastewater. A hydraulic retention time of 24 hours and a solid retention time of 13 days were used for the activated sludge process and using ultrasound as tertiary treatment. Different ultrasonic frequencies, powers and sonication times were applied to the samples and results were analysed for chemical oxygen demand (COD), biological oxygen demand (BOD), total suspended solids, pH, total coliforms and total viable counts. Additionally, both mechanical and chemical effects of ultrasound were quantified for organic matter removal (COD and BOD) and disinfection (microorganism inactivation) using different techniques such as aluminum foil pitting, flow cytometry, and KI dosimetry.
Assessing Missouri State Park Employee Perceptions of Vulnerability and Resilience to Extreme Weather Events
State parks and historic sites are vulnerable to extreme weather events which can affect visitor experiences, management priorities, and legislative requests for disaster relief funds. Recently, global attention has been focused on the perceptions of global warming and how the presence of extreme weather events might impact protected areas, both now and in the future. The effects of climate change are not equally distributed across the United States, leading to varied perceptions based on personal experience with extreme weather events. This study describes employee perceptions of vulnerability and resilience in Missouri State Parks & Historic Sites due to extreme weather events that occur across the state but grouped according to physiographic provinces. Using a four-point rating scale, perceptions of vulnerability and resilience were divided into high and low sub-groups, thus allowing researchers to construct a two by two typology of employee responses. Subsequently, this data was used to develop a three-point continuum of environmental concern (higher scores meant more concern). Employee scores were then compared against a statewide assessment which combined social, economic, infrastructural and environmental indicators of vulnerability and resilience. State park employees thought the system was less vulnerable and more resilient to climate change than data found in statewide assessment This result was also consistent in three out of five physiographic regions across Missouri. Implications suggest that Missouri state park should develop a climate change adaptation strategy for emergency preparedness.
Relation of Black Carbon Aerosols and Atmospheric Boundary Layer Height during Wet Removal Processes over a Semi Urban Location
The life cycle of Black carbon aerosols depends on their physical removal processes from the atmosphere during the precipitation events. Black Carbon (BC) mass concentration has been analysed during rainy and non-rainy days of Northeast (NE) Monsoon months of the years 2015 and 2017 over a semi-urban environment near Chennai (12.81 N, 80.03 E), located on the east coast of India. BC, measured using an Aethalometer (AE-31) has been related to the atmospheric boundary layer height (BLH) obtained from the ERA Interim Reanalysis data during rainy and non-rainy days on monthly mean basis to understand the wet removal of BC over the study location. The study reveals that boundary layer height has a profound effect on the BC concentration on rainy days and non rainy days. It is found that the BC concentration in the night time is lower on rainy days compared to non rainy days owing to wash out on rainy days and the boundary layer height remaining nearly the same on rainy and non rainy days. On the other hand, in the daytime, it is found that the BC concentration remains nearly the same on rainy and non rainy days whereas the boundary layer height is lower on rainy days compared to non rainy days. This reveals that in daytime, lower boundary layer heights compensate for the wet removal effect on BC concentration on rainy days. A quantitative relation is found between the product of BC and BLH during rainy and non-rainy days which indicates the extent of redistribution of BC during non-rainy days when compared to the rainy days. Further work on the wet removal processes of the BC is in progress considering the individual rain events and other related parameters like wind speed.
Chemical Mechanical Polishing Wastewater Treatment through Membrane Distillation
Chemical Mechanical Polishing (CMP) has developed as a chosen planarization technique in nano-electronics industries for fabrication of the integrated circuits (ICs). These CMP processes release a huge amount of wastewater that contains oxides of nano-particles (silica, alumina, and ceria) and oxalic acid. Since, this wastewater has high solid content (TS), chemical oxygen demand (COD), and turbidity (NTU); therefore, in order to fulfill the environmental regulations, it needs to be treated up to the local and international standards. The present study proposed a unique CMP wastewater treatment method called Membrane Distillation (MD). MD is a non-isothermal membrane separation process, which allows only volatiles, i.e., water vapors to permeate through the membrane and provides 100% contaminants rejection. The performance of the MD technology is analyzed in terms of total organic carbon (TOC), turbidity, TS, COD, and residual oxide concentration in permeate/distilled water while considering different operating conditions (temperature, flow rate, and time). The results present that high-quality permeate has been recovered after removing 99% of the oxide particles and oxalic acid. The distilled water depicts turbidity < 1 NTU, TOC < 3 mg/L, TS < 50 mg/L, and COD < 100 mg/L. These findings clearly show that the MD treated water can be reused further in industrial processes or allowable to discharge in any water body under the stringent environmental regulations.
Wentworth Institute of Technology
The use of legume tree pruning as mulch in agroforestry system is a common practice to maintain soil organic matter and improve soil fertility in the tropics. The study was conducted to determine the influence of agroforestry trees leafy biomass and nitrogen fertilizer on crop growth rate and relative growth rate of maize. The experiments were laid out as 3 x 4 x 2 factorial in a split-split plot design with three replicates. Control, biomass species (Parkia biglobosa and Albizia lebbeck) as main plots Were Part of the conditions considered, nitrogen rates considered include(0, 40, 80, 120 kg N ha-1) as subplots, and maize varieties (DMR-ESR-7 and 2009 EVAT) were used as sub-subplots. Data were analyzed using descriptive and inferential statistics (ANOVA) at α = 0.05. Incorporation of leafy biomass was significant in 2015 on Relative Growth Rate (RGR), while nitrogen application was significant on Crop Growth Rate (CGR). 2009 EVAT had higher CGR in 2015 at 4-6 and 6-8 WAP. Incorporation of Albizia leaves enhanced the growth of maize than Parkia leaves. Farmers are, therefore, encouraged to use Albizia leaves as mulch to enrich their soil for maize production and most especially, in case of availability of inorganic fertilizers. Though, production of maize with biomass and application of 120 kg N ha-1 will bring the better growth of maize.
Overview of the 2017 Fire Season in Amazon
In recent years, fire dynamics in deforestation areas of tropical forests have received considerable attention because of their relationship to climate change. Climate models project great increases in the frequency and area of drought in the Amazon region, which may increase the occurrence of fires. This study analyzes the historical record number of fire outbreaks in 2017 using satellite-derived data sets of active fire detections, burned area, precipitation, and data of the Fire Program from the Center for Weather Forecasting and Climate Studies (CPTEC/INPE). A downward trend in the number of fire outbreaks occurred in the first half of 2017, in relation to the previous year. This decrease can be related to the fact that 2017 was not an El Niño year and, therefore, the observed rainfall and temperature in the Amazon region was close to normal conditions. Meanwhile, the worst period in history for fire outbreaks began with the subsequent arrival of the dry season. September of 2017 exceeded all monthly records for number of fire outbreaks per month in the entire series. This increase was mainly concentrated in Bolivia and in the states of Amazonas, northeastern Pará, northern Rondônia and Acre, regions with high densities of rural settlements, which strongly suggests that human action is the predominant factor, aggravated by the lack of precipitation during the dry season allowing the fires to spread and reach larger areas. Thus, deforestation in the Amazon is primarily a human-driven process: climate trends may be providing additional influences.
Comparative Study of Water Quality Parameters in the Proximity of Various Landfills Sites in India
The rapid urbanization in the developing countries is generating an enormous amount of waste leading to the creation of unregulated landfill sites at various places at its disposal. The liquid waste, known as leachate, produced from these landfills sites is severely affecting the surrounding water quality. The water quality in the proximity areas of the landfill is found affected by various physico-chemical parameters of leachate such as pH, alkalinity, total hardness, conductivity, chloride, total dissolved solids (TDS), total suspended solids (TSS), sulphate, nitrate, phosphate, fluoride, sodium and potassium, biological parameters such as biochemical oxygen demand (BOD), chemical oxygen demand (COD), Faecal coliform, and heavy metals such as cadmium (Cd), lead (Pb), iron (Fe), mercury (Hg), arsenic (As), cobalt (Co), manganese (Mn), zinc (Zn), copper (Cu), chromium (Cr), nickel (Ni). However, all these parameters are distributive in leachate that produced according to the nature of waste being dumped at various landfill sites, therefore, it becomes very difficult to predict the main responsible parameter of leachate for water quality contamination. The present study is endeavour the comparative analysis of the physical, chemical and biological parameters of various landfills in India viz. Okhla landfill, Ghazipur landfill, Bhalswa ladfill in NCR Delhi, Deonar landfill in Mumbai, Dhapa landfill in Kolkata and Kodungayaiyur landfill, Perungudi landfill in Chennai. The statistical analysis of the parameters was carried out using the Statistical Packages for the Social Sciences (SPSS) and LandSim 2.5 model to simulate the long term effect of various parameters on different time scale. Further, the uncertainties characterization of various input parameters has also been analysed using fuzzy alpha cut (FAC) technique to check the sensitivity of various water quality parameters at the proximity of numerous landfill sites. Finally, the study would help to suggest the best method for the prevention of pollution migration from the landfill sites on priority basis.
Arsenic Removal from Drinking Water by Hybrid Hydrogel-Biochar Matrix: An Understanding of Process Parameters
Arsenic (As) contamination in drinking water is a serious concern worldwide resulting in severe health maladies. To tackle this problem, several hydrogel based matrix which selectively uptake toxic metals from contaminated water has increasingly been examined as a potential practical method for metal removal. The major concern in hydrogels is low stability of matrix, resulting in poor performance. In this study, the potential of hybrid hydrogel-biochar matrix synthesized from natural plant polymers, specific for As removal was explored. Various compositional and functional group changes of the elements contained in the matrix due to the adsorption of As were identified. Moreover, to resolve the stability issue in hydrogel matrix, optimum and effective mixing of hydrogel with biochar was studied. Mixing varied proportions of matrix components at the time of digestion process was tested. Preliminary results suggest that partial premixing methods may increase the stability and reduce cost. Addition of nanoparticles and specific catalysts with different concentrations of As(III) and As(V) under batch conditions was performed to study their role in performance enhancement of the hydrogel matrix. Further, effect of process parameters, optimal uptake conditions and detailed mechanism derived from experimental studies were suitably conducted. This study provides an efficient, specific and a low-cost As removal method that offers excellent regeneration abilities which can be reused for value.
Treatment of Leather Industry Wastewater with Advance Treatment Methods
Textile products produced by leather have been indispensable for human consumption. Various chemicals are used to enhance the durability of end-products in the processing of leather products. The wastewaters from the leather industry which contain these chemicals exhibit toxic effects on the receiving environment and threaten the natural ecosystem. In this study, leather industry wastewater (LIW), which has high loads of contaminants, was treated using advanced treatment techniques instead of conventional methods. During the experiments, the performance of electrochemical methods was investigated. During the electrochemical experiments, the performance of batch electrooxidation (EO) using boron-doped diamond (BDD) electrodes with monopolar configuration for removal of chemical oxygen demand (COD) from LIW were investigated. The influences of electrolysis time, current density (which varies as 5 mA/cm², 10 mA/cm², 20 mA/cm², 30 mA/cm², 50 mA/cm²) and initial pH (which varies as 3,80 (natural pH of LIW), 7, 9) on removal efficiency were investigated in a batch stirred cell to determine the best treatment conditions. The current density applied to the electrochemical reactors is directly proportional to the consumption of electric energy, so electrical energy consumption was monitored during the experiment. The best experimental conditions obtained in electrochemical studies were as follows: electrolysis time = 60 min, current density = 30.0 mA/cm², pH 7. Using these parameters, 53.59% COD removal rates for LIW was achieved and total energy consumption was obtained as 13.03 kWh/m³. It is concluded that electrooxidation process constitutes a plausible and developable method for the treatment of LIW.
The Optimum Operating Conditions for the Synthesis of Zeolite from Waste Incineration Fly Ash by Alkali Fusion and Hydrothermal Methods
The fly ash of waste incineration processes is usually hazardous and the disposal or reuse of waste incineration fly ash is difficult. In this study, the waste incineration fly ash was converted to useful zeolites by the alkali fusion and hydrothermal synthesis method. The influence of different operating conditions (the ratio of Si/Al, the ratio of hydrolysis liquid to solid, and hydrothermal time) was investigated to seek the best-operating conditions for the synthesis of zeolite from waste incineration fly ash. The results showed that concentrations of heavy metals in the leachate of Toxicity Characteristic Leaching Procedure (TCLP) were all lower than the regulatory limits except lead. The optimum operating conditions for the synthesis of zeolite from waste incineration fly ash by the alkali fusion and hydrothermal synthesis method were Si/Al=40, NaOH/ash=1.5, alkali fusion at 400ᵒC for 40 mins, hydrolysis with L/S=200 at 105ᵒC for 24 hrs, and hydrothermal synthesis at 105ᵒC for 24 hr. The specific surface area of fly ash could be significantly increased from 8.59 m²/g to 651.51 m²/g (synthesized zeolite). The influence of different operating conditions on the synthesis of zeolite from waste incineration fly ash followed the sequence of Si/Al ratio > hydrothermal time > hydrolysis L/S ratio. The synthesized zeolites can be reused as good adsorbents to control the air or wastewater pollutants. The purpose of fly ash detoxification, reduction and waste recycling/reuse is achieved successfully.
Assessment of Amphibian Diversity and Status of Their Habitats through Physico-Chemical Parameters in Sindh, Pakistan
Our study aimed to assess diversity and habitats of amphibian fauna in Sindh province as amphibians are among most vulnerable animals and the risk of their extinction is increasing in many parts of world mainly due to habitat degradation. Present study consisted of field surveys and laboratory analytical work; field surveys were carried out to confirm amphibian diversity and collection of water samples from their habitats, whereas laboratory work was conducted for identification of species and analysis of water quality of habitats through physico-chemical parameters. For identification of amphibian species, morphology was thoroughly examined using taxonomic key, whereas water quality was assessed via physico-chemical parameters including pH, electric conductivity (EC), total dissolved solids (TDS), total hardness (T. Hard), total alkalinity (T. Alk), chloride (Cl), carbon dioxide (CO₂), sulfate (SO₄), phosphate (PO₄), nitrite (NO₂) and nitrate (NO₃) using material and methods of analytical grade. pH value was analyzed using pH meter, whereas levels of EC and TDS were recorded using conductivity meter and TDS meter, respectively. Other parameters with exception of non-metallic parameters (SO₄, PO₄, NO₂, and NO₃) were analyzed through distinct titration methods. Concentration of non-metallic parameters was evaluated using ultra-violet spectrophotometer. This study revealed existence of four amphibian species including Hoplobatrachus tigerinus, Euphlyctis cyanophlyctis, Allopa hazarensis belonging to Family Ranidae and Bufo stomaticus (Family Bufonidae) randomly distributed in district Ghotki, Jamshoro, Kashmor, Larkana, Matiari and Shikarpur in Sindh. Assessment of aquatic habitats in different areas found value of parameters as followed: Habitats in district Ghoki (pH: 7.8 ± 0.3, EC: 2165.3 ± 712.6, TDS: 1507.0 ± 413.1, T-Hard: 416.4 ± 67.5, T. Alk: 393.4 ± 78.4, Cl: 362.4 ± 70.1, CO₂: 21.1 ± 3.5, SO₄: 429.3 ± 100.1, PO₄: 487.5 ± 122.5, NO₂: 13.7 ± 1.0, NO₃: 14.7 ± 2.5), district Jamshoro habitats (pH: 8.1 ± 0.4, EC: 2403.8 ± 55.4, TDS: 1697.2 ± 77.0, T. Hard: 548.7 ± 43.2, T. Alk: 294.4 ± 29.0, Cl: 454.7 ± 50.8 CO₂: 16.9 ± 2.4, SO₄: 713.0 ± 49.3, PO₄: 826.2 ± 53.0, NO₂: 15.2 ± 3.4, NO₃: 21.6 ± 3.7), habitats in Kashmor district (pH: 8.0 ± 0.5, EC: 2450.3 ± 610.9, TDS: 1745.3 ± 440.9, T. Hard: 624.6 ± 305.8, T. Alk: 445.7 ± 120.5, Cl: 448.9 ± 128.8, CO₂: 18.9 ± 4.5, SO₄: 619.8 ± 205.8, PO₄: 474.1 ± 94.2, NO₂: 15.2 ± 3.1, NO₃ 14.3 ± 2.6), district Larkana habitats (pH: 8.4 ± 0.4, EC: 2555.8 ± 70.3, TDS: 1784.4 ± 36.9, T. Hard: 623.0 ± 42.5, T. Alk: 329.6 ± 36.7, Cl: 614.3 ± 89.5, CO₂: 17.6 ± 1.2, SO₄: 845.1 ± 67.6, PO₄: 895.0 ± 61.4, NO₂: 13.6 ± 3.8, NO₃: 23.1 ± 2.8), district Matiari habitats (pH: 8.0 ± 0.4 EC: 2492.3 ± 928.1, TDS: 430.0 ± 161.3, T. Hard: 396.7 ± 183.3, T. Alk: 388.1 ± 97.4, Cl: 551.6 ± 73.4, CO₂: 15.8 ± 2.9, SO₄: 576.5 ± 200.0, PO₄: 434.7 ± 100.6, NO₂: 15.8 ± 2.9, NO₃: 15.2 ± 3.0) and habitats in Shikarpur district (pH: 8.1 ± 0.6, EC: 2191.7 ± 765.1, TDS: 1764.9 ± 409.2, T. Hard: 431.9 ± 68.4,T. Alk: 350.3 ± 44.3, Cl: 381.5 ± 29.5, CO₂: 18.0 ± 4.0, SO₄: 518.8 ± 97.9, PO₄: 493.6 ± 64.6, NO₂: 14.0 ± 0.8, NO₃: 16.1 ± 2.8). Values of physico-chemical parameters were found higher than permissible level of Environmental Protectiona Agency (EPA). Monthly variation in concentration of physico-chemical parameters was also prominently recorded at all the study locals. This study discovered poor diversity of amphibian fauna and condition of their habitats was also observed as pitiable. This study established base line information that may be used in execution of an effective management plan and future monitoring of amphibian diversity and their habitats in Sindh.
Variations in Water Supply and Quality in Selected Groundwater Sources in a Part of Southwest Nigeria
The study mapped selected wells in Inisa in the guinea savanna region of southwest Nigeria and determined the water quality considering certain elements. It also assessed the variation in the elevation of the water table surface to depth of the wells in the months of August and November. This is with a view to determine the level of contamination of the water with respect to land use and anthropogenic activities, and also determine whatever variation that occurs in the quantity of the well water in the rainy season and the start of the dry season. Results show a random pattern of the distribution of the mapped wells and shows that there is a shallow water table in the study area. The temporal changes in the elevation shows that there are no significant variations in the depth of water table surface over the period of study implying that there is a sufficient amount of water available to the town all year round. It also shows a high concentration of sodium in the water sample analyzed compared to other elements that were considered, which include iron, copper, calcium, and lead. This is attributed majorly to anthropogenic activities through the disposal of waste in landfill sites. There is a low concentration of lead which is a good indication of a reduced level of pollution.
Photocatalytic Advanced Oxidative Treatment for Waste Water Contaminated by Micropollutants
Many micropollutant products are introduced into the environment by domestic, industrial or hospital wastewaters. It has been observed that many of them are not well removed by traditional biological wastewater treatment plants (WWTP). Our collaborative research elaborated a physicochemical process that has to be placed at the end of existing WWTP. Such processes already exist and are based on an ozone and UV radiation combination to oxidize organic compounds. Our study showed that better degradations could be reached using heterogeneous photocatalysis in addition to ozone and UV radiation. At the laboratory scale, problematic micropollutants of the Water Framework Directive have been chosen to model wastewater (10 µg/L): pharmaceuticals (diclofenac, carbamazepin, sulfamethoxazol), PFOS, anti-corrosive (1H-Benzotriazol), phthalate (DEHP), alkylphenol (bisphenol A), pesticide (diuron, atrazine), flame retardant (PBDE). Their degradations were evaluated by LC-MS/MS and GC-MS/MS. Ten different photocatalysts have been synthesized by organic and aqueous sol-gel methods and deposited as thin films by dip-coating on alkaline-free glass substrate: zinc oxide (ZnO), titanium dioxide (TiO₂) and doped titanium dioxide (with Ag, Pt, Degussa P25, and MnO₂ - nanoparticles, with Zn²⁺ ions and with carbon nanotubes). Characterizations were made by profilometry for films’ thickness and roughness, by GIRXD for photoactive crystalline phase presence, by UV-Vis transmission for band-gap determination (as well as diffuse reflectance from powders), by ICP-AES/MS for dopants percentages in films and in water (leaching concentration through delamination) and by methylene blue degradation test for photoactivity. The best photocatalyst found was silver doped titanium dioxide. A film was then deposited inside a one-meter long alkaline-free tube for pilot trials. Experiments were carried out with 150 L of our model water and with 150 L of waste water at the exit of a WWTP. Both experiments have confirmed laboratory results for efficient degradation of pharmaceutical products in water.
Exploring the Preventative Maintenance of Water Points through Local Circular Economy and Systems Thinking within the Rural Communities in Southern Malawi
In rural Malawi, water resources management is devolved to the local level through the Community Based Management (CBM) approach. This state-led top-down approach for water provision, since its conceptualisation in 1988, has been widely recognised as a failing concept. Despite the wide criticism, the Malawi government has maintained its promotion of CBM at the rural Integrated Water Resource Management (IWRM) level. This has resulted in a decrease in functionality of water points at the rural level meaning communities have no access to safe drinking water. Without regular maintenance, water points can break down throughout the designed lifespan which can be very costly for rural communities. It is proposed to move from a ‘reactive’ maintenance approach (maintenance and repairs once non-functionality occur) to a ‘proactive’ approach (preventative maintenance throughout the life cycle of the water point) as it is a more cost-effective and sustainable solution. In order to understand the complex factors for required for the preventative maintenance of water points in the rural community context, the concepts of ‘Circular Economy’ and ‘Systems Thinking’ are explored. The main characteristics of a ‘Circular Economy’ are the exchange of materials and information between entities within the system. Bringing in the ‘Systems Thinking’ concepts then allows for qualitative and quantitative assessments of the complex linkages in the preventative maintenance system. When preventative maintenance is explored, the various impacting factors associated with water point maintenance and the stakeholders surrounding water points are considered using these concepts. Water point mapping, maintenance model reviews and community level data collected across the two catchment areas in the Chikwawa District, Malawi has been used to develop a qualitative and quantitative assessment of what preventative maintenance would look like at the rural community level. This is an issue crucial to IWRM that is present throughout developing countries across the globe, and must be recognised if Sustainable Development Goal 6 is to be fulfilled by 2030.
The Role of Social Capital in Community-Based Water Resources Management in Kenya's Polycentric Water Resource Governance System
Kenya is a water-stressed country with highly varied socio-ecological environments in its devolved county system, and is currently implementing a polycentric water governance system; this paper examines the importance of social capital in community-based natural resource management and its role in supporting good water governance systems in the Kenya context. Through a robust literature review of theory and case studies, specific aspects of social capital are examined to determine their importance in the implementation of local community-based water management arrangements which support and complement the more formal institutions outlined in the 2002 and 2016 Water Acts of Kenya. Water is an increasingly important and scarce resource not only for Kenya, but for many communities across the globe, and lessons learned in the Kenya context can be useful for other countries and communities faced with similar challenges. Changing climates, increasing populations, and increased per capita consumption of water is contributing to a situation in which the management of water resources will be vital to community resilience. Community-based natural resource management is widely recognized as a building block and component of wider water resource management systems, and when properly conducted can provide a way to enable sustainable use of resources and empower communities. Greater attention to the social and cultural norms and traditional institutions associated with a community’s social capital can lead to better results for Kenya’s polycentric governance of water. The key findings and recommendations from this research show that in Kenya, traditional institutions need to be understood and integrated into governance systems; social values and cultural norms have a significant impact on the implementation of community-based water management efforts; and social capital is a dynamic concept which influences and is influenced by policies and practices. The community-based water management approach will continue to be a key cornerstone for Kenya’s polycentric water governance structure, especially in the more remote arid and semi-arid lands; thus, the successful integration of social capital aspects into planning and implementation will contribute to a strengthened, sustainable, and more equitable national water governance system. Specific observations and recommendations from this study will help practitioners and policymakers to better craft community-based interventions.
Major Gullies Erosion Sites and Volume of Soil Loss in Edo State, Nigeria
This research is on Major Gullies Erosion Sites and Volume of Soil Loss in Edo State, Nigeria. The primary objective was to identify notable gullies sites and quantify the volume of soil loss in the study area. Direct field observation and measurement of gullies dimensions was done with the help of research assistants using a measuring tape, Camera and 3percent accuracy Global Positioning System (GPS). The result revealed that notable gullies in the area have resulted in the loss of lives and properties, destruction of arable lands and wastage of large areas of usable lands. Gullies in Edo North have Mean Volume of Soil Loss of 614, 763.33 m³, followed by Edo South with 79,604.76 m³ and Edo Central is 46,242.98 m³ and as such an average of 1,772, 888.7m3 of soil is lost annually in the study area due to gully erosion problem. The danger of gully erosion in helpless regions like Edo State called for urgent remedies in order to arrest the further loss of soil, buildings and other properties.
Malachite Green and Red Congo Dyes Adsorption onto Chemical Treated Sewage Sludge
In this study, the adsorption of Malachite Green (MG) by chemical treated sewage sludge has been studied. The sewage sludge, collected from drying beds of the municipal wastewater treatment station of IBN ZIED, Constantine, Algeria, was treated by different acids such us HNO₃, H₂SO₄, H₃PO₄ for modifying its aptitude to removal the MG from aqueous solutions. The results obtained shows that the sewage sludge activated by sulfuric acid give the highest elimination amounts of MG (9.52 mg/L) compared by the other acids used. The effects of operation parameters have been investigated, the results obtained show that the adsorption capacity per unit of adsorbent mass decreases from 18.69 to 1.20 mg/g when the mass of the adsorbent increases from 0.25 to 4 g respectively, the optimum mass for which a maximum of elimination of the dye is equal to 0.5g. The increasing in the temperature of the solution results in a slight decrease in the adsorption capacity of the chemically treated sludge. The highest amount of dye adsorbed by CSSS (9.56 mg/g) was observed for the optimum temperature of 25°C. The chemical activated sewage sludge proved its effectiveness for the removal of the Red Congo (RC), but by comparison the adsorption of the two dyes studies, we noted that the sludge has more affinity to adsorb the (MG).
Effects of pH, Load Capacity and Contact Time in the Sulphate Sorption onto a Functionalized Mesoporous Structure
The intensive use of water in agriculture, industry, human consumption and increasing pollution are factors that reduce the availability of water for future generations; the challenge is to advance in sustainable and low-cost solutions to reuse water and to facilitate the availability of the resource in quality and quantity. The use of new low-cost materials with sorbent capacity for pollutants is a solution that contributes to the improvement and expansion of water treatment and reuse systems. Fly ash, a residue from the combustion of coal in power plants that is produced in large quantities in newly industrialized countries, contains a high amount of silicon oxides and aluminum oxides, whose properties can be used for the synthesis of mesoporous materials. Properly functionalized, this material allows obtaining matrixes with high sorption capacity. The mesoporous materials have a large surface area, thermal and mechanical stability, uniform porous structure, and high sorption and functionalization capacities. The goal of this study was to develop hexagonal mesoporous siliceous material (HMS) for the adsorption of sulphate from industrial and mining waters. The silica was extracted from fly ash after calcination at 850 ° C, followed by the addition of water. The mesoporous structure has a surface area of 282 m2 g-1 and a size of 5.7 nm and was functionalized with ethylene diamine through of a self-assembly method. The material was characterized by Diffuse Reflectance Infrared Fourier Transform Spectroscopy (DRIFTS). The capacity of sulphate sorption was evaluated according to pH, maximum load capacity and contact time. The sulphate maximum adsorption capacity was 146.1 mg g-1, which is three times higher than commercial sorbents. The kinetic data were fitted according to a pseudo-second order model with a high coefficient of linear regression at different initial concentrations. The adsorption isotherm that best fitted the experimental data was the Freundlich model.
Ragging and Sludging Measurement in Membrane Bioreactors
Membrane bioreactor (MBR) technology is challenged by the tendency for the membrane permeability to decrease due to ‘clogging’. Clogging includes ‘sludging’, the filling of the membrane channels with sludge solids, and ‘ragging’, the aggregation of short filaments to form long rag-like particles. Both sludging and ragging demand manual intervention to clear out the solids, which is time-consuming, labour-intensive and potentially damaging to the membranes. These factors impact on costs more significantly than membrane surface fouling which, unlike clogging, is largely mitigated by the chemical clean. However, practical evaluation of MBR clogging has thus far been limited. This paper presents the results of recent work attempting to quantify sludging and clogging based on simple bench-scale tests. Results from a novel ragging simulation trial indicated that rags can be formed within 24-36 hours from dispersed < 5 mm-long filaments at concentrations of 5-10 mg/L under gently agitated conditions. Rag formation occurred for both a cotton wool standard and samples taken from an operating municipal MBR, with between 15% and 75% of the added fibrous material forming a single rag. The extent of rag formation depended both on the material type or origin – lint from laundering operations forming zero rags – and the filament length. Sludging rates were quantified using a bespoke parallel-channel test cell representing the membrane channels of an immersed flat sheet MBR. Sludge samples were provided from two local MBRs, one treating municipal and the other industrial effluent. Bulk sludge properties measured comprised mixed liquor suspended solids (MLSS) concentration, capillary suction time (CST), particle size, soluble COD (sCOD) and rheology (apparent viscosity μₐ vs shear rate γ). The fouling and sludging propensity of the sludge was determined using the test cell, ‘fouling’ being quantified as the pressure incline rate against flux via the flux step test (for which clogging was absent) and sludging by photographing the channel and processing the image to determine the ratio of the clogged to unclogged regions. A substantial difference in rheological and fouling behaviour was evident between the two sludge sources, the industrial sludge having a higher viscosity but less shear-thinning than the municipal. Fouling, as manifested by the pressure increase Δp/Δt, as a function of flux from classic flux-step experiments (where no clogging was evident), was more rapid for the industrial sludge. Across all samples of both sludge origins the expected trend of increased fouling propensity with increased CST and sCOD was demonstrated, whereas no correlation was observed between clogging rate and these parameters. The relative contribution of fouling and clogging was appraised by adjusting the clogging propensity via increasing the MLSS both with and without a commensurate increase in the COD. Results indicated that whereas for the municipal sludge the fouling propensity was affected by the increased sCOD, there was no associated increased in the sludging propensity (or cake formation). The clogging rate actually decreased on increasing the MLSS. Against this, for the industrial sludge the clogging rate dramatically increased with solids concentration despite a decrease in the soluble COD. From this was surmised that sludging did not relate to fouling.