International Science Index

International Journal of Environmental and Ecological Engineering

The use of Information Technology in the Government of a State
Decision-making is the primary function of management at any level, including the state. Preparation of the decision is based on the triad of goal setting (determining the goal or system of goals), establishing the criteria for evaluating the effectiveness of solutions and elaboration of possible alternatives. The article proposes to use a new method of decision-making and information technology to manage sustainable development of the state.
Preparation of Fe, Cr Co-Doped TiO₂ Nanostructure for Phenol Removal from Wastewaters
Phenol is a hazardous material found in many industrial wastewaters. Photocatalytic degradation and furthermore catalyst doping are promising techniques in purpose of effective phenol removal, which has been studied comprehensively in this decade. In this study, (Fe, Cr)-co-doped TiO2 were prepared by sol-gel method and its photocatalytic activity where investigated through degradation of phenol under visible light. The catalyst was characterized by XRD, SEM, FT-IR, BET and EDX. The results showed that nanoparticles possess anatase phase and the average size of nanoparticles was about 21nm. Also, photocatalyst has significant surface area. Effect of experimental parameters such as pH, irradiation time, pollutant concentration and catalyst concentration were investigated using Expert Design software. 98% of phenol degradation was achieved after 6 hr of irradiation.
Low Energy Technology for Leachate Valorisation
Landfills present long-term threats to soil, air, groundwater and surface water due to formation of greenhouse gases (methane gas and carbon dioxide) and leachate from decomposing garbage. The composition of leachate differs from site to site and also within the landfill. The leachates alter with time (from weeks to years) since the landfilled waste is biologically highly active and their composition varies. Mainly the composition of the leachate depends on factors such as characteristics of the waste, the moisture content, climatic conditions, degree of compaction and the age of the landfill. Therefore, the leachate composition cannot be generalized, and a unique treatment option cannot be suggested. Although leachate composition is highly variable, what different leachates have in common is hazardous constituents and their potential eco-toxicological effects on human health and on terrestrial ecosystems. Since leachate has distinct compositions, each landfill or dumping site would represent a different type of risk on its environment. Nevertheless, leachates consist always of high organic concentration, conductivity, heavy metals and ammonia nitrogen. Leachate could affect the current and future quality of water bodies due to uncontrolled infiltrations. Therefore, control and treatment of leachate is one of the biggest issues in urban solid waste treatment plants and landfills design and management. This work presents a treatment model that will be carried out "in-situ" using a cost-effective novel technology that combines solar evaporation/condensation plus forward osmosis. The plant is powered by renewable energies (solar energy, biomass and residual heat), which will minimize the carbon footprint of the process. The final effluent quality is very high, allowing reuse (preferred) or discharge into watercourses. In the particular case of this work, the final effluents will be reused for cleaning and gardening purposes. A minority semi-solid residual stream is also generated in the process. Due to its special composition (rich in metals and inorganic elements), this stream will be valorized in ceramic industries to improve the final products characteristics.
Life Cycle datasets for the ornamental stone sector
The environmental impact related to ornamental stones (such as marbles and granites) is largely debated. Before the industrial revolution, ornamental stones were mostly worked and employed locally. The development of canals and railways led to the internationalization of trades and the recent mechanization of machineries (in the 70s’) led to a more intensive exploitation of this natural resource. As a consequence, the environmental impact of the extraction and processing of stones has increased. Nevertheless, if compared with other building materials, ornamental stones are generally more durable, natural and recyclable. From the scientific point of view, studies on stone life cycle sustainability have been carried out, but these are often partial or not very significant because of the high percentage of approximations and assumptions in calculations. This is due to the lack, in life cycle databases (e.g. Ecoinvent, Thinkstep, ELCD) of datasets about the specific technologies employed in the stone production chain. For example, databases do not contain information about diamond wires, chains or explosives, materials commonly used in quarries and transformation plants. The project presented in this paper aims to populate the life cycle databases with specific data of specific stone processes. The study analyses the stone sector through the Life Cycle Assessment (LCA) approach, following the standardized requirements of UNI 14040-14044 and the ILCD Handbook guidelines of the European Commission. The system boundaries are from-cradle-to-gate, meaning that are analyzed the processes taking place during the phases of extraction of benches, transportation within the quarry and to the transformation plants, cutting of blocks into slabs and tiles, and surface finishing. Primary data have been collected in Italian quarries and transformation plants which use technologies representative of the current state-of-the-art. Since the technologies varies according to the hardness of the stone, the case studies comprehend both soft stones (marbles) and hard stones (gneiss). In particular, data about energy, materials and emissions were collected in marble basins of Carrara and in beola and serizzo basins located in the province of Verbano Cusio Ossola. Data were then elaborated through an appropriate software to build a life cycle model. The model was realized setting free parameters that allow an easy adaptation to specific productions. Through this model, the study aims to boost the direct participation of stone companies and encourage the use of LCA tool to assess and improve the stone sector environmental sustainability. At the same time, the realization of accurate Life Cycle Inventory data aims at making available, to researchers and stone experts, ILCD compliant datasets of the most significant processes and technologies related to the ornamental stone sector.
Influence of Agricultural Utilization of Sewage Sludge Vermicompost on Plant Growth
Impacts of excess sludge vermicompost on the germination and early growth of plant were tested. The better effect of cow dung vermicompost (CV) on seed germination and seedling growth proved that cow dung was indeed the preferred additive in sludge vermicomposting as reported by plentiful researchers worldwide. The effects and the best amount of application of CV were further discussed. Results demonstrated that seed germination and seedling growth (seedlings number, plant height, stem diameter) were the best and heavy metal (Zn, Pb, Cr and As) contents of plant were the lowest when soil amended with CV by 15%. Additionally, CV fostered higher contents of chlorophyll a and chlorophyll b compared to the control when concentration ranged from 5 to 15%, thereafter a slight increase in chlorophyll content was observed form 15% to 25%. Thus, CV at the optimum proportion of 15% could serve as a feasible and satisfactory way of sludge agricultural utilization of sewage sludge. In summary, sewage sludge can be gainfully utilized in producing organic fertilizer via vermicomposting, thereby not only providing a means of sewage sludge treatment and disposal, but also stimulating the growth of plant and the ability to resist disease.
Coagulation-flocculation Process with Metal Salts, Synthetic Polymers and Biopolymers for the Removal of Trace Metals (Cu, Pb, Ni, Zn) from Wastewater
As a consequence of their potential to cause harm, there are strong regulatory drivers that require metals to be removed as part of the wastewater treatment process. Bioavailability-based standards have recently been specified for copper (Cu), lead (Pb), nickel (Ni) and zinc (Zn) and are expected to reduce acceptable metal concentrations. In order to comply with these standards, wastewater treatment works may require new treatment types to enhance metal removal and it is, therefore, important to examine potential treatment options. A substantial proportion of Cu, Pb, Ni and Zn in effluent is adsorbed to and/or complexed with macromolecules (eg. proteins, polysaccharides, aminosugars etc.) that are present in the colloidal size fraction. Therefore, technologies such as coagulation-flocculation (CF) that are capable of removing colloidal particles have good potential to enhance metals removal from wastewater. The present study investigated the effectiveness of CF at removing trace metals from humus effluent using the following coagulants; ferric chloride (FeCl3), the synthetic polymer polyethyleneimine (PEI), and the biopolymers chitosan and Tanfloc. Effluent samples were collected from a trickling filter treatment works operating in the UK. Using jar tests, the influence of coagulant dosage and the velocity and time of the slow mixing stage were studied. Chitosan and PEI had a limited effect on the removal of trace metals (
Influence of Long-Term Variability in Atmospheric Parameters on Ocean State over the Head Bay of Bengal
The atmosphere-ocean is a dynamically linked system that influences the exchange of energy, mass, and gas at the air-sea interface. The exchange of energy takes place in the form of sensible heat, latent heat, and momentum commonly referred to as fluxes along the atmosphere-ocean boundary. The large scale features such as El Nino and Southern Oscillation (ENSO) is a classic example on the interaction mechanism that occurs along the air-sea interface that deals with the inter-annual variability of the Earth’s Climate System. Most importantly the ocean and atmosphere as a coupled system acts in tandem thereby maintaining the energy balance of the climate system, a manifestation of the coupled air-sea interaction process. The present work is an attempt to understand the long-term variability in atmospheric parameters (from surface to upper levels) and investigate their role in influencing the surface ocean variables. More specifically the influence of atmospheric circulation and its variability influencing the mean Sea Level Pressure (SLP) has been explored. The study reports on a critical examination of both ocean-atmosphere parameters during a monsoon season over the head Bay of Bengal region. A trend analysis has been carried out for several atmospheric parameters such as the air temperature, geo-potential height, and omega (vertical velocity) for different vertical levels in the atmosphere (from surface to the troposphere) covering a period from 1992 to 2012. The Reanalysis 2 dataset from the National Centers for Environmental Prediction-Department of Energy (NCEP-DOE) was used in this study. The study signifies that the variability in air temperature and omega corroborates with the variation noticed in geo-potential height. Further, the study advocates that for the lower atmosphere the geo-potential heights depict a typical east-west contrast exhibiting a zonal dipole behavior over the study domain. In addition, the study clearly brings to light that the variations over different levels in the atmosphere plays a pivotal role in supporting the observed dipole pattern as clearly evidenced from the trends in SLP, associated surface wind speed and significant wave height over the study domain.
Coastal Vulnerability Index and its Projection for Odisha Coast, East Coast of India
Tropical cyclones are one among the worst natural hazards that results in a trail of destruction causing enormous damage to life, property and coastal infrastructures. In a global perspective, the Indian Ocean is considered as one among the six major cyclone prone regions in the world with an annual average strike rate of about 5-6 cyclones. More specifically, the Bay of Bengal is a very active cyclogenesis region, and almost 80% of the cyclones that originate in this basin have their landfall in the east coast of India. In particular, the State of Odisha located in the East coast of India and bordering the Bay of Bengal is highly susceptible to tropical cyclone landfall. Based on historical records it is clearly evident that the frequency of cyclones has reduced in this basin, however, in the recent decades the intensity and size of tropical cyclones have increased. This is a matter of concern as the risk and vulnerability level of Odisha coast exposed to high wind speed and gusts during cyclone landfall have increased. Some of the classic examples are the 1999 Odisha Super Cyclone and 2013 Phailin Cyclone. At present, the Power Dissipation Index (PDI) is an accepted metric to depict the destructive potential of a tropical cyclone. It takes into account essential parameters like the cyclone intensity and radius of outer storm limit, and interestingly the integrated picture of PDI analyzed for cyclones in the past few decades show an increasing trend. A decadal scale analysis clearly shows that during the present decade there is an increase by 600% in PDI for cyclones that made landfall over the East coast of India. In this context, there is a need to assess and evaluate the severity of coastal risk, area of exposure under risk, and associated vulnerability with a higher dimension in a multi-risk perspective. Also as a matter of serious concern, there is a need to have coastal vulnerability projections in a changing climate scenario. With this motivation the study attempts to evaluate the projections of Coastal Vulnerability Index (CVI) using statistical trend of PDI for this region. Eleven essential parameters are considered for this study such as cyclone intensity, storm surge, onshore inundation, mean tidal range, continental shelf slope, topographic elevation onshore, rate of shoreline change, maximum wave height, relative sea level rise, rainfall distribution, and coastal geomorphology. The study signifies that over a decadal scale, the CVI depends largely on the incremental change in variables such as cyclone intensity, storm surge, and associated inundation. A critical analysis was performed to further examine the modulation of PDI on storm surge and inundation characteristics for the entire coastal belt of Odisha State. Interestingly, the study brings to light that a linear correlation exists between the storm-tide with PDI. The trend analysis of PDI and its projection for coastal Odisha have direct practical applications in effective coastal zone management and vulnerability assessment.
Ethno-Botanical Diversity and Conservation Status of Medicinal Flora at High Terrains of Garhwal (Uttarakhand) Himalaya–India: A Case Study in Context to Multifarious Tourism Growth and Peri-Urban Encroachments
The high terrains of Garhwal (Uttarakhand) Himalaya are the niches of a number of rare and endemic plant species of great therapeutic importance. However, the wild flora of the area is still under a constant threat due to rapid upsurge in human interferences, especially through multifarious tourism growth and peri-urban encroachments. After getting the status of a ‘Special State’ of the country since its inception in the year 2000, this newly borne State led to very rapid infrastructural growth and development. Consequently, its townships started expanding in an unmanaged way grabbing nearby agricultural lands and forest areas into peri-urban landscapes. Simultaneously, a boom in tourism and pilgrimage in the state and the infrastructural facilities raised by the government for tourists/pilgrims are destroying its biodiversity. This boom in tourism associated with peri-urban encroachments adversely affecting biodiversity of the area. As many as 242 plant species of therapeutic significance were identified in the area mostly being utilized by local inhabitants as traditional medicine since ages. On conservation scale, 6 species (2.2%) were identified as critically endangered, 19 species (7.1%) as the endangered ones, 8 species (3.0%) under rare category, 17 species (6.4%) as threatened and 14 species (5.2%) as vulnerable. Though the Government of India has brought mega-biodiversity hot-spots of the state under Biosphere Reserve, National Parks, etc. restricting all kinds of human interferences including tourism & pilgrimage, however,the two most sacred shrines of Hindus and Sikhs viz. Shri Badrinath and Shri Hemkunt Sahib, and two great attractions of tourists viz.The Valley of Flowers and Auli-Joshimathskiing field falling in protected areas obliging the government to maintain an equilibrium between entry of visitors vis-à-vis biodiversity conservation in the area.
The Management of Climate Change by Indigenous People: A Focus on Himachal Pradesh, India
Climate change is a major challenge in terms of agriculture, food security and rural livelihood for thousands of people especially the poor in Himachal, which falls in North-Western Himalayas. Agriculture contributes over 45 per cent to net state domestic product. It is the main source of income and employment. Over 93 per cent of population is dependent on agriculture which provides direct employment to 71 percent of its people. Area of operation holding is about 9,79 lakh hectares owned by 9.14 lakh farmers. About 80 per cent area is rain-fed and farmers depend on weather gods for rains. Region is a home of diverse ethnic communities having enormous socio-economic and cultural diversities, gifted with range of farming systems and rich resource wealth, including biodiversity, hot spots and ecosystems sustaining millions of people living in the region. But growing demands of ecosystem goods and services are posing threats to natural resources. Climate change is already making adverse impact on the indigenous people. The rural populace is directly dependent for all its food, shelter and other needs on the climate. Our aim should be to shift the focus to indigenous people as primary actors in terms of global climate change monitoring, adaptations and innovations. Objective of this paper is to identify the climate change related threats and vulnerabilities associated with agriculture as a sector and agriculture as people’s livelihood. Broadly it analyses the connections between the nature and rural consumers the ethnic groups.
Climate Impact-Minimizing Road Infrastructure Layout for Growing Cities
City road transport contributes significantly to the climate change, and the ongoing world urbanization is only increasing the problem. The paper describes a city planning concept minimizing the number of vehicles on roads while increasing the overall mobility. This becomes possible by utilizing a recently invented two-level road junction with a unique property of serving both as an intersection of uninterrupted traffic and an easily accessible transport hub capable of accumulating private vehicles, therefore, becoming an especially effective park-and-ride solution, a logistics or business center. Optimized layouts of city road infrastructure, living and work areas and major roads are presented. The layouts are suitable both for the development of new cities as well as for expansion of existing ones. Costs of the infrastructure and a positive impact on climate are evaluated in comparison to current city growth patterns.
Determination of Non-CO2 Greenhouse Gas (GHG) Emission in Electronics Industry
At the Paris Climate Conference (COP21) in December 2015, every attending country adopted ‘the Paris Agreement’. The Paris Agreement (APA) adopts bottom-up approach for reducing GHG emission; the countries can set up Nationally Determined Contribution (NDC), which means many countries can participate according to their ability, and each country can quickly cope with the internal issues. Also, the agreement introduces ‘the Global Stocktake’ system; for countries to assess implementation of each country’s NDC and submit more ambitious targets every five years. Therefore, the countries need to establish a system for accurately measuring GHG emission as an evidence to be submitted, especially industrial Non-CO2 GHG with high Global Warming Potential (GWP). In this study, a measurement method for Non-CO2 GHG emission in electronics industry is established, as Non-CO2 GHG is extensively used during the industrial process. The determined results are compared with IPCC Guideline (2006) and EPA Greenhouse Gas Emissions Model (GEM).
Impact of Climatic Hazards on the Jamuna River Fisheries and Coping and Adaptation Strategies
The continuous variability of climate and the risk associated with it have a significant impact on the fisheries leading to a global concern for about half a billion fishery-based livelihoods. Though in the context of Bangladesh mounting evidence on the impacts of climate change on fishery-based livelihoods or their socioeconomic conditions are present, the country’s inland fisheries sector remains in a negligible corner as compared to the coastal areas which are spotted on the highlight due to its higher vulnerability to climatic hazards. The available research on inland fisheries, particularly river fisheries, has focussed mainly on fish production, pollution, fishing gear, fish biodiversity and livelihoods of the fishers. This study assesses the impacts of climate variability and changes on the Jamuna (a transboundary river called Brahmaputra in India) River fishing communities and their coping and adaptation strategies. This study has used primary data collected from Kalitola Ghat and Debdanga fishing communities of the Jamuna River during May, August and December 2015 using semi-structured interviews, oral history interviews, key informant interviews, focus group discussions and impact matrix as well as secondary data. This study has found that both communities are exposed to storms, floods and land erosions which impact on fishery-based livelihood assets, strategies, and outcomes. The impact matrix shows that human and physical capitals are more affected by climate hazards which in turn affect financial capital. Both communities have been responding to these exposures through multiple coping and adaptation strategies. The coping strategies include making dam with soil, putting jute sac on the yard, taking shelter on boat or embankment, making raised platform or ‘Kheua’ and involving with temporary jobs. While, adaptation strategies include permanent migration, change of livelihood activities and strategies, changing fishing practices and making robust houses. The study shows that migration is the most common adaptation strategy for the fishers which resulted in mostly positive outcomes for the migrants. However, this migration has impacted negatively on the livelihoods of existing fishers in the communities. In sum, the Jamuna river fishing communities have been impacted by several climatic hazards and they have traditionally coped with or adapted to the impacts which are not sufficient to maintain sustainable livelihoods and fisheries. In coming decades, this situation may become worse as predicted by latest scientific research and an enhanced level of response would be needed.
Impacts and Trade-Offs of Soil Management under Different Climate and Soil Domains in Tanzania
The West Usambara Mountains is a biodiversity hotspot which provides a livelihood for > 70% of the resident population, most being smallholder farmers. The lands in this area have been experiencing declining soil fertility and agricultural productivity because of severe soil erosion and population pressure. This study used two models, the Decision Support System for Agrotechnology Transfer (DSSAT) and the Trade-offs Analysis for Multi- Dimensional Impact Assessment (TOA-MD) to examine how adoptions of prioritized soil management technologies can affect net returns, crop productivity, food security and population poverty rates, under different soil domains. We selected four simulation domains: (i) control (CT), (ii) application of organic fertiliser (OF), (iii) application of inorganic fertiliser (IF), (iv) application of combined organic and inorganic fertiliser (OI) and (v) using an irrigation system (IR). Average yields increased for all practices, especially the combination of organic and inorganic fertiliser OI achieved highest yield levels. Simulation results show that most climates from historical time series obtain high yields (AA), in our simulations they would be recognised by farmers as good years for their crop production, i.e. for the control simulations of farmers’ typical crop management 65% of years are above the average-range of yields for normal years (AV). Positive economic impacts, with significantly higher benefits, was shown for households cultivating maize than beans, with net farm income increases by a minimum 47%, and percentage of vulnerable farms decreases by up to 50%. Inorganic Fertiliser (IF) presents greatest trade-offs characterized by high economic returns in the short term and negative long-term environmental benefits. Farmers can balance inter-annual yield variability by adapting management practices based on site domains that imply climate, soil health, and agronomic management.
Community Adaptation of Drought Disaster in Grobogan District, Central Java Province, Indonesia
Major part of Grobogan District, Central Java Province, Indonesia, always suffers from drought every year. The drought has implications toward almost all of the community activities, both domestic, agriculture, livestock, and industrial. The aim of this study was to determine (1) the drought distribution area in Grobogan District in 2015; (2) the impact of drought; and (3) the community adaptation toward the drought. The subject of the research was people who were impacted by the drought, purposive sampling technique was used to draw the sample. The data collection method was using field observation and in-depth interview while the data analysis was using descriptive analysis. The results showed that (1) in 2015, there were 14 districts which were affected by the drought and only 5 districts which do not suffer from drought, (2) the drought impacted to the reduction of water for domestic compliance, reduction of agricultural production, reduction of public revenue, (3) community adaptation to meet domestic water need was by making collective deep-wells and building water storages, adaptation in agriculture was done by setting the cropping pattern, while adaptation on economics was by allocating certain amount of funds for the family in anticipation of drought, which was mostly to purchase water.
Meta analysis of Particulate Matter Production in Developing and Developed Countries
Industrial development and urbanization have significant impacts on air emissions, and their relationship diverges at different stages of economic progress. The revolution further propelled these activities as principal paths to economic and social transformation; nevertheless, the paths also promoted environmental degradation. Resultantly, both developed and developing countries undergone through fast-paced development; in which developed countries implemented legislation towards environmental pollution control however developing countries took the advantage of technology without caring about the environment. In this study, meta-analysis is performed on production of particulate matter (i.e., PM10 and PM2.5) from urbanized cities of first, second and third world countries to assess the air quality. The cities were selected based on ranked set principles. In case of PM10, third world countries showed highest PM level (~95% confidence interval of 0.74-1.86) followed by second world countries but with managed situation. Besides, first, world countries indicated the lowest pollution (~95% confidence interval of 0.12-0.2). Similarly, highest level of PM2.5 was produced by third world countries followed by the second and first world countries. Hereby, level of PM2.5 was not significantly different for both second and third world countries; however, first world countries showed minimum PM load. Finally, the study revealed different that levels of pollution status exist among different countries; whereas developed countries also devised better strategies towards pollution control while developing countries are least caring about their environmental resources. It is suggested that although industrialization and urbanization are directly involved with interference in natural elements, however, production of nature appears to be more societal rather hermetical.
REDD+ and Conservation: Challenges and Opportunities of the Landscape Governance Approach
Implementation of the Reducing Emissions from Deforestation and forest Degradation (REDD+) program will not only lead to significant net gains in greenhouse gas reduction but also gains in biodiversity conservation. However, the looming paradigm shift in the program in the form of the proposed landscape governance approach could change this inclination. The concern lies with the fact that pursue of carbon credits by governments and private entities under the proposed landscape approach could encourage obstinate land use behaviors that are detrimental to the cause of biodiversity conservation and ecosystem services. Yet, the landscape approach could also stimulate governments to develop and implement land use management policies for climate change adaptation and mitigation. Using two potential areas of land use under the proposed landscape approach – carbon farming in grasslands and carbon farming in plantations – this paper provides a balanced analytical review of conservation challenges and opportunities for forest governance and beyond under the proposed landscape approach to REDD+. The paper argues that such a balanced view will enable policymakers and other stakeholders to better present their arguments in their efforts to shape the course of the REDD+ program in the post-Paris Agreement era.
Dependence of the Concentration of Heavy Metals on the Particle Size of Fly Ash from the Combustion of Empty Fruit Bunches
Empty fruit bunches (EFB) are a residue that is produced during the production of palm oil. It can be used as fuel in biomass combustion plants for the generation of heat and power. The fly ash from the de-dusting of the combustion off-gas as well as the bottom ash from the combustion process can be utilized as soil conditioner on agricultural land and forest soil if the concentrations of heavy metals are below certain limits. In this study cyclone fly ash from a 4 MW grate-fired combustion plant using EFB as fuel was split into six particle size classes using a laboratory classifier. The mass median diameters of the size fractions produced were 2.1 µm, 4.6 µm, 9.7µm, 19 µm, 32 µm and 59 µm. After an aqua regia digestion procedure the particle classes were analyzed by inductively coupled plasma optical emission spectroscopy for Na, K, Mg, Ca, Sr, Ba, Ti, V, Mn, Fe, Co, Cu, Zn, Cd, B, Al, Pb, As and Bi. The measured concentrations of Cr, Mo and Ni cannot be used because during the classification procedure the fly ash gets contaminated with these elements due to some erosion of the classifier wheel. Generally, the concentration of heavy metals was quite low in all size fractions. In comparison to literature date for the heavy metal concentration of fly ash from the combustion of wood the measured concentrations were noticeable lower. For several components a considerable dependence of the concentration on the particle size was observed. Significantly increased concentrations in the fine size fractions were found for Ba, Cd, Cu and Pb. The concentrations of these components in the finest size fractions were approximately six times higher compared to the concentrations in the coarsest size fraction. The enrichment of As, B, Bi, Zn and K in the fine size fractions was less significant. The concentrations of Al, Ca, Co, Mn, Sr and Ti were nearly constant in all size fractions and the concentration of Mg was higher in the coarse size fractions. For the concentrations of Fe, Na and V no distinct trend could be observed. In summary, it can be stated that the fly ash from EFB combustion is comparatively little contaminated by heavy metals. This is also true for the fine size fractions where some heavy metals were enriched.
Application and Comparison of Analytical Hierarchy Process (AHP) and Network Methods in Routing of Pipeline Water Transmission System, from Taleghan Dam to Hashtgerd New City, Tehran, Iran
Determine the optimal path of the water pipeline where technical and engineering considerations, economic, environmental and techniques that need to be applied to all parameters simultaneously consider in determining the path. In this study By first of influential factors in determining the path (the conditions topography (slope, altitude), vegetation, land use, population density, length of pipeline, river and road, areas and important areas, residential, environmentally sensitive areas and centers (religious-culture) determined and Using the base map and extract the locus of points of interest from Google Earth to take action Field Operations navigation and to harvest land navigation. Then the data layer related target parameters in GIS to load And then apply the specific weighting the cost of map production operations based on Analytical Hierarchy Process (AHP) Rate, Mix and ultimately the optimal path using the lowest cost algorithm is determined. Compare determine the optimal path using ArcGIS software and Idris shows the two paths coincide and compare the designed path in This study (of Taleghan Dam to Hashtgerd New City) with ABFA path indicates that the path is 5/6976 km shorter than the ABFA path, despite optimal route cost only apply to influence some of the layers of the ABFA route is more. Two paths are compared on the basis of total cost and compare them indicates that the optimal path towards the ABFA route costs will be reduced by 14 percent. ABFA major additional cost path is resulting intersection more with the river and the road, passing through unauthorized areas, passing through different users with higher costs and ultimately increase the pipeline.
Impacts of Human Settlement Development on Highland View Wetland in Bizana, South Africa
The increasing population and urbanization, with the demand for land and development, has had adverse impacts on wetland areas which has resulted in changing the hydrology and water chemistry of wetlands, affecting the water supply and water quality in urban areas like the Highland View, a residential area in Mbizana, South Africa. The settlement development in Highland View has led to wetland degradation due to land uses like agriculture and conversion of wetland for settlement development. Interviews with the local community were conducted to show how settlement development on wetland affects them. The results indicated that the environmental rights of people as according to Section 24 of the South African Constitution are compromised, and sustainable development was not put into consideration during development. With the results from the survey - through questionnaires for the Mbizana Local Municipality and the community, it was clear that the community needs education and capacity building on wetland management and conservation. Geographic Information Systems (GIS) was used to map physical properties of the Highland View wetland and houses built on the wetland. With all the information gathered from the research, it was clear that local municipality, together with hydrologists, needs to develop an environmental management framework to protect the wetlands.
OASIS: An Alternative Access to Potable Water, Renewable Energy and Organic Food
The tropical areas are places where there is scarcity of access to potable water and where renewable energies need further development. They also display high undernourishment levels, even though they are one of the resources-richest areas in the world. In these areas, it is common to count on great extension of soils, high solar radiation and raw water from rain, groundwater, surface water or even saltwater. Even though resources are available, access to them is limited, and the low-density habitat makes central solutions expensive and investments not worthy. In response to this lack of investment, rural inhabitants use fossil fuels and timber as an energy source and import agrochemical for soils fertilization, which increase GHG emissions. The OASIS project brings an answer to this situation. It supplies renewable energy, potable water and organic food. The first step is the determination of the needs of the communities in terms of energy, water quantity and quality, food requirements and soil characteristics. Second step is the determination of the available resources, such as solar energy, raw water and organic residues on site. The pilot OASIS project is located in the Vichada department, Colombia, and ensures the sustainable use of natural resources to meet the community needs. The department has roughly 70% of indigenous people. They live in a very scattered landscape, with no access to clean water and energy. They use polluted surface water for direct consumption and diesel for energy purposes. OASIS pilot will ensure basic needs for a 400-students education center. In this case, OASIS will provide 20 kW of solar energy potential and 40 liters per student per day. Water will be treated form groundwater, with two qualities. A conventional one with chlorine, and as the indigenous people are not used to chlorine for direct consumption, second train is with reverse osmosis to bring conservable safe water without taste. OASIS offers a solution to supply basic needs, shifting from fossil fuels, timber, to a no-GHG-emission solution. This solution is part of the mitigation strategy against Climate Change for the communities in low-density areas of the tropics. OASIS is a learning center to teach how to convert natural resources into utilizable ones. It is also a meeting point for the community with high pedagogic impact that promotes the efficient and sustainable use of resources. OASIS system is adaptable to any tropical area and competes technically and economically with any conventional solution, that needs transport of energy, treated water and food. It is a fully automatic, replicable and sustainable solution to sort out the issue of access to basic needs in rural areas. OASIS is also a solution to undernourishment, ensuring a responsible use of resources, to prevent long-term pollution of soils and groundwater. It promotes the closure of the nutrient cycle, and the optimal use of the land whilst ensuring food security in depressed low-density regions of the tropics. OASIS is under optimization to Vichada conditions, and will be available to any other tropical area in the following months.
Investigating Willingness to Pay for Water Services in a Newly Established Municipality in Malamulele, Vhembe District Municipality, South Africa
Currently South Africa is facing a triple challenges of poverty, unemployment and inequality. As such, communities have limited access to basic municipal services such as water, sanitation and electricity. Citizens such as those residing at Malamulele Township will be responsible to pay for the cost of water services that they consume instead of having the costs subsidised by the newly formed Municipality. The question on whether Malamulele residents would be willing to pay for water services provided for them need to be investigated. This study was conducted in Malamulele Township and surrounding villages. The article is based on a survey of 500 randomly selected households from township and villages surrounding Malamulele. The study uses the contingent valuation method to determine households’ willingness to pay for water services as well as the consequences they possibly will encounter in case their response is negative. The obtained results can be used by the Municipality and other Government Departments in order to better identify the affordable rates and the quantity of water service to be provided. Thus, it will make Municipality water supply services stable and sustainable. It will also be used as a tool to provide inform decisions about a range of infrastructure to enhance water supply systems.
Determining the Sources of Sediment at Different Areas of the Catchment: A Case Study of Welbedacht Reservoir, South Africa
Sedimentation includes the processes of erosion, transportation, deposition, and the compaction of sediment. Sedimentation in reservoir results in a decrease in water storage capacity, downstream problems involving aggregation and degradation, blockage of the intake, and change in water quality. A study was conducted in Caledon River catchment in the upstream of Welbedacht Reservoir located in the South Eastern part of Free State province, South Africa. The aim of this research was to investigate and develop a model for an Integrated Catchment Modelling of Sedimentation processes and management for the Welbedacht reservoir. Revised Universal Soil Loss Equation (RUSLE) was applied to determine sources of sediment at different areas of the catchment. The model has been also used to determine the impact of changes from management practice on erosion generation. The results revealed that the main sources of sediment in the watershed are cultivated land (273 ton per hector), built up and forest (103.3 ton per hector), and grassland, degraded land, mining and quarry (3.9, 9.8 and 5.3 ton per hector) respectively. After application of soil conservation practices to developed Revised Universal Soil Loss Equation model, the results revealed that the total average annual soil loss in the catchment decreased by 76% and sediment yield from cultivated land decreased by 75%, while the built up and forest area decreased by 42% and 99% respectively. Thus, results of this study will be used by government departments in order to develop sustainable policies.
Coastal Environment: Statistical Analysis and Geomorphic Impact on Urban Tourism in Lagos, Portugal
Ponta de Piedade (37º05 ' N, 08º40 ' W) is an area located in the southern part of the Lagos municipality, which include an abrasive and accumulative type of coastline. It is the one of the main touristic destinations of the city. The dynamic development of the attractiveness of the coast, is related with the expansion of the new tourism infrastructure and urban tourism products. These products are: transportation, sightseeing and entertainment in the form of the boat trips. Each type of excursion refers to the different product. This progress brings also many risks associated primarily with landslides cliffs. Natural conditions affecting the coast, create a huge impact on the evolution of urban tourism management. Based on observation, statistical analysis and survey method, author compare the period of six years from 2012 to 2016 in terms of the number of tourists, number and diversity of attractions, most frequently dialled products and infrastructure changes in the city. Carried methodology is based on data belonging to Turismo Portugal and the tourist company Days of Adventure. Main result, is to indicate the essence of the income from coastal tourism into the city development and how does it influence on the marketing and promoting of urban tourism in Lagos.
Forced Migrants in Israel and Their Impact on the Urban Structure of Southern Neighborhoods of Tel Aviv
Migration, the driving force behind increased urbanization, has made cities much more diverse places to live in. Nearly one-fifth of all migrants live in the world’s 20 largest cities. In many of these global cities, migrants constitute over a third of the population. Many of contemporary migrants are in fact ‘forced migrants,’ pushed from their countries of origin due to political or ethnic violence and persecution or natural disasters. During the past decade, massive numbers of labor migrants and asylum seekers have migrated from African countries to Israel via Egypt. Their motives for leaving their countries of origin include ongoing and bloody wars in the African continent as well as corruption, severe conditions of poverty and hunger, and economic and political disintegration. Most of the African migrants came to Israel from Eritrea and Sudan as they saw Israel the closest natural geographic asylum to Africa; soon they found their way to the metropolitan Tel-Aviv area. There they concentrated in poor neighborhoods located in the southern part of the city, where they live under conditions of crowding, poverty, and poor sanitation. Today around 45,000 African migrants reside in these neighborhoods, and yet there is no legal option for expelling them due to dangers they might face upon returning to their native lands. Migration of such magnitude to the weakened neighborhoods of south Tel-Aviv can lead to the destruction of physical, social and human infrastructures. The character of the neighborhoods is changing, and the local population is the main victim. These local residents must bear the brunt of the failure of both authorities and the government to handle the illegal inhabitants. The extremely crowded living conditions place a heavy burden on the dilapidated infrastructures in the weakened areas where the refugees live and increase the distress of the veteran residents of the neighborhoods. Some problems are economic and some stem from damage to the services the residents are entitled to, others from a drastic decline in their standard of living. Even the public parks no longer serve the purpose for which they were originally established—the well-being of the public and the neighborhood residents; they have become the main gathering place for the infiltrators and a center of crime and violence. Based on secondary data analysis (for example: The Israel’s Population, Immigration and Border Authority, the hotline for refugees and migrants), the objective of this presentation is to discuss the effects of forced migration to Tel Aviv on the following tensions: between the local population and the immigrants; between the local population and the state authorities, and between human rights groups vis-a-vis nationalist local organizations. We will also describe the changes which have taken place in the urban infrastructure of the city of Tel Aviv, and discuss the efficacy of various Israeli strategic trajectories when handling human problems arising in the marginal urban regions where the forced migrant population is concentrated.
A Comparative Study of Environmental, Social and Economic Cross-Border Cooperation in Post-Conflict Environments: The Israel-Jordan Border
Cross-border cooperation has long been hailed as a means for stabilizing and normalizing relations between former enemies. Cooperation in problem-solving and realizing of local interests in post-conflict environments can indeed serve as a basis for developing dialogue and meaningful relations between neighbors across borders. Hence the potential for formerly sealed borders to serve as a basis for generating local and national perceptions of interdependence and as a buffer against the resume of conflict. Central questions which arise for policy-makers and third parties are how to facilitate cross-border cooperation and which areas of cooperation best serve to normalize post-conflict border regions. The Israel-Jordan border functions as a post-conflict border, in that it is a peaceful border since the 1994 Israel-Jordan peace treaty yet cross-border relations are defined but the highly securitized nature of the border region and the ongoing Arab-Israel regional conflict. This case study is based on long term qualitative research carried out in the border regions of both Israel and Jordan, which mapped and analyzed cross-border in a wide range of activities – social interactions sponsored by peace-facilitating NGOs, government sponsored agricultural cooperation, municipal initiated emergency planning in cross-border continuous urban settings, private cross-border business ventures and various environmental cooperative initiatives. These cooperative initiatives are evaluated through multiple interviews carried out with initiators and partners in cross-border cooperation as well as analysis of documentation, funding and media. These cooperative interactions are compared based on levels of cross-border local and official awareness and involvement as well as sustainability over time. This research identifies environmental cooperation as the most sustainable area of cross- border cooperation and as most conducive to generating perceptions of regional interdependence. This is a variation to the ‘New Middle East’ vision of business-based cooperation leading to conflict amelioration and regional stability. Environmental cooperation serving the public good rather than personal profit enjoys social legitimization even in the face of widespread anti-normalization sentiments common in the post-conflict environment. This insight is examined in light of philosophical and social aspects of the natural environment and its social perceptions. This research has theoretical implications for better understanding dynamics of cooperation and conflict, as well as practical ramifications for practitioners in border region policy and management.
Biosorption of Phenol onto Water Hyacinth Activated Carbon: Kinetics and Isotherm Study
Batch adsorption experiments were carried out for the removal of phenol from its aqueous solution using water hyancith activated carbon (WHAC) as an adsorbent. The sorption kinetics were analysed using pseudo-first order kinetics and pseudo-second order model, and it was observed that the sorption data tend to fit very well in pseudo-second order model for the entire sorption time. The experimental data were analyzed by the Langmuir and Freundlich isotherm models. Equilibrium data fitted well to the Freundlich model with a maximum biosorption capacity of 31.45 mg/g estimated using Langmuir model. The adsorption intensity 3.7975 represents a favorable adsorption condition.
Biodegradation of Chlorophenol Derivatives Using Macroporous Material
Chlorophenols (CPs) are used as a precursor in the production of higher CPs and dyestuffs, and as a preservative. Contamination by CPs of the ground water is located in the range from 0.15-100mg/L. The EU has set maximum concentration limits for pesticides and their degradation products of 0.1μg/L and 0.5μg/L, respectively. People working in industries which produce textiles, leather products, domestic preservatives, and petrochemicals are most heavily exposed to CPs. The International Agency for Research on Cancers categorized CPs as potential human carcinogens. Existing multistep water purification processes for CPs such as hydrogenation, ion exchange, liquid-liquid extraction, adsorption by activated carbon, forward and inverse osmosis, electrolysis, sonochemistry, UV irradiation, and chemical oxidation are not always cost effective and can cause the formation of even more toxic or mutagenic derivatives. Bioremediation of CPs derivatives utilizing microorganisms results in 60 to 100% decontamination efficiency and the process is more environmentally-friendly compared with existing physico-chemical methods. Microorganisms immobilized onto a substrate show many advantages over free bacteria systems, such as higher biomass density, higher metabolic activity, and resistance to toxic chemicals. They also enable continuous operation, avoiding the requirement for biomass-liquid separation. The immobilized bacteria can be reused several times, which opens the opportunity for developing cost-effective processes for wastewater treatment. In this study, we develop a bioremediation system for CPs based on macroporous materials, which can be efficiently used for wastewater treatment. Conditions for the preparation of the macroporous material from specific bacterial strains (Pseudomonas mendocina and Rhodococus koreensis) were optimized. The concentration of bacterial cells was kept constant; the difference was only the type of cross-linking agents used e.g. glutaraldehyde, novel polymers, which were utilized at concentrations of 0.5 to 1.5%. SEM images and rheology analysis of the material indicated a monolithic macroporous structure. Phenol was chosen as a model system to optimize the function of the cryogel material and to estimate its enzymatic activity, since it is relatively less toxic and harmful compared to CPs. Several types of macroporous systems comprising live bacteria were prepared. The viability of the cross-linked bacteria was checked using Live/Dead BacLight kit and Laser Scanning Confocal Microscopy, which revealed the presence of viable bacteria with the novel cross-linkers, whereas the control material cross-linked with glutaraldehyde(GA), contained mostly dead cells. The bioreactors based on bacteria were used for phenol degradation in batch mode at an initial concentration of 50mg/L, pH 7.5 and a temperature of 30°C. Bacterial strains cross-linked with GA showed insignificant ability to degrade phenol and for one week only, but a combination of cross-linking agents illustrated higher stability, viability and the possibility to be reused for at least five weeks. Furthermore, conditions for CPs degradation will be optimized, and the chlorophenol degradation rates will be compared to those for phenol. This is a cutting-edge bioremediation approach, which allows the purification of waste water from sustainable compounds without a separation step to remove free planktonic bacteria. Acknowledgments: Dr. Berillo D. A. is very grateful to Individual Fellowship Marie Curie Program for funding of the research.
Landscape Management in the Emergency Hazard Planning Zone of the Nuclear Power Plant Temelin: Preventive Improvement of Landscape Functions
The experience of radiological contamination of land, especially after the Chernobyl and Fukushima disasters have shown the need to explore possibilities to the capture of radionuclides in the area affected and to adapt the landscape management to this purpose ex –ante the considered accident in terms of prevention. The project‚ Minimizing the impact of radiation contamination on land in the emergency zone of Temelin NPP‘ (2012-2015), dealt with the possibility of utilization of wetlands as retention sites for water carrying radionuclides in the case of a radiation accident. A model artificial wetland was designed and adopted as a utility model by the Ministry of Industry and Trade of the Czech Republic. The article shows the conditions of construction of designed wetlands in the landscape with regard to minimizing the negative effect on agricultural production and enhancing the hydrological functionality of the landscape.
Study and Simulation of a Sever Dust Storm over West and South West of Iran
In the recent decades, frequencies of dust events have increased significantly in west and south west of Iran. First, a survey on the dust events during the period (1990-2013) is investigated using historical dust data collected at 6 weather stations scattered over west and south-west of Iran. After statistical analysis of the observational data, one of the most severe dust storm event that occurred in the region from 3rd to 6th July 2009, is selected and analyzed. WRF-Chem model is used to simulate the amount of PM10 and how to transport it to the areas. The initial and lateral boundary conditions for model obtained from GFS data with 0.5°×0.5° spatial resolution. In the simulation, two aerosol schemas (GOCART and MADE/SORGAM) with 3 options (chem_opt=106,300 and 303) were evaluated. Results of the statistical analysis of the historical data showed that south west of Iran has high frequency of dust events, so that Bushehr station has the highest frequency between stations and Urmia station has the lowest frequency. Also in the period of 1990 to 2013, the years 2009 and 1998 with the amounts of 3221 and 100 respectively had the highest and lowest dust events and according to the monthly variation, June and July had the highest frequency of dust events and December had the lowest frequency. Besides, model results showed that the MADE / SORGAM scheme has predicted values and trends of PM10 better than the other schemes and has showed the better performance in comparison with the observations. Finally, distribution of PM10 and the wind surface maps obtained from numerical modeling showed that the formation of dust plums formed in Iraq and Syria and also transportation of them to the West and Southwest of Iran. In addition, comparing the MODIS satellite image acquired on 4th July 2009 with model output at the same time showed the good ability of WRF-Chem in simulating spatial distribution of dust.