International Science Index

International Journal of Energy and Power Engineering

Design an Intelligent Fire Detection System Based on Neural Network and Particle Swarm Optimization
In-time detection of fire in buildings is of great importance. Employing intelligent methods in data processing in fire detection systems leads to a significant reduction of fire damage at lowest cost. In this paper, the raw data obtained from the fire detection sensor networks in buildings is processed by using intelligent methods based on neural networks and the likelihood of fire happening is predicted. In order to enhance the quality of system, the noise in the sensor data is reduced by analyzing wavelets and applying SVD technique. Meanwhile, the proposed neural network is trained using particle swarm optimization (PSO). In the simulation work, the data is collected from sensor network inside the room and applied to the proposed network. Then the outputs are compared with conventional MLP network. The simulation results represent the superiority of the proposed method over the conventional one.
A Multiobjective Damping Function for Coordinated Control of Power System Stabilizer and Power Oscillation Damping
This paper deals with the coordinated tuning of the PSS (Power System Stabilizer) controller and POD (Power Oscillation Damping) Controller of FACTS (Flexible AC Transmission System) in a multi-machine power systems. The coordinated tuning is based on the eigenvalues critical of the power system and a model reduction technique where the Hankel Singular Value method is applied. Through the linearized system model and the parameter-constrained nonlinear optimization algorithm, it can compute the parameters of both controllers. Moreover, the parameters are optimized simultaneously obtaining the gains of both controllers. Then running the nonlinear simulation to observe the time response of the controllers.
Conversion of HVAC Lines into HVDC in Transmission Expansion Planning
This paper presents a transmission planning methodology that considers the conversion of HVAC transmission lines to HVDC as an alternative of expansion of power systems, as consequence of restrictions for the construction of new lines. The transmission expansion planning problem formulates an optimization problem that minimizes the total cost that includes the investment cost to convert lines from HVAC to HVDC and possible required reinforcements of the power system prior to the conversion. The costs analysis assesses the impact of the conversion on the reliability because transmission lines are out of service during the conversion work. The proposed methodology is applied to a test system considering a planning horizon of 10 years.
Geothermal Energy Potential Estimates of Niger Delta Basin from Recent Studies
In this work, geothermal energy resource maps of the Niger Delta Basin were constructed using borehole thermal log data from over 300 deep wells. Three major geothermal anomalies were delineated and quantitatively interpreted in both onshore and offshore parts of the Niger Delta. The geothermal maps present the distribution of geothermal energy stored in the sedimentary rock mass in two ways: the accessible resources in depth interval 0-4000 m and static geothermal energy resources stored in the complete sedimentary infill of the basin (from the ground surface to the basement). The first map shows two major onshore anomalies, one in the north (with maximum energy values, 800 GJ/m2), another in the east to northeastern part (maximum energy values of 1250–1500 GJ/m2). Another two major anomalies occur offshore, one in the south with values of 750-1000 GJ/m2, occurring at about 100 km seawards and the other, in the southwest offshore with values 750-1250 GJ/m2, still at about 100 km from the shore. A second map of the Niger Delta shows a small anomaly in the northern part with the maximum value of 1500 GJ/m2 and a major anomaly occurring in the eastern part of the basin, onshore, with values of 2000-3500 GJ/m2. Offshore in the south and southwest anomalies in the total sedimentary rock mass occur with highest values up to 4000GJ/m2, with the southwestern anomaly extending west to the shore. It is much of interest to note the seaward–westward extension of these anomalies both in size, configuration, and magnitude for the geothermal energy in the total sedimentary thickness to the underlying basement. These anomalous fields show the most favourable locations and areas for further work on geothermal energy resources.
Investigation of Geothermal Gradient of the Niger Delta from Recent Studies
In this paper, subsurface temperature measured from continuous temperature logs were used to determine the geothermal gradient of NigerDelta sedimentary basin. The measured temperatures were corrected to the true subsurface temperatures by applying the American Association of Petroleum Resources (AAPG) correction factor, borehole temperature correction factor with La Max’s correction factor and Zeta Utilities borehole correction factor. Geothermal gradient in this basin ranges from 1.20C to 7.560C/100m. Six geothermal anomalies centres were observed at depth in the southern parts of the Abakaliki anticlinorium around Onitsha, Ihiala, Umuaha area and named A1 to A6 while two more centre appeared at depth of 3500m and 4000m named A7 and A8 respectively. Anomaly A1 describes the southern end of the Abakaliki anticlinorium and extends southwards, anomaly A2 to A5 were found associated with a NW-SE structural alignment of the Calabar hinge line with structures describing the edge of the Niger Delta basin with the basement block of the Oban massif. Anomaly A6 locates in the south-eastern part of the basin offshore while A7 and A8 are located in the south western part of the basin offshore. At the average exploratory depth of 3500m, the geothermal gradient values for these anomalies A1, A2, A3, A4, A5, A6, A7, and A8 are 6.50C/100m, 1.750C/100m, 7.50C/100m, 1.250C/100m, 6.50C/100m, 5.50C/100m, 60C/100m, and 2.250C/100m respectively. Anomaly A8 area may yield higher thermal value at greater depth than 3500m. These results show that anomalies areas of A1, A3, A5, A6 and A7 are potentially prospective and explorable for geothermal energy using abandoned oil wells in the study area. Anomalies A1, A3.A5, A6 occur at areas where drilled boreholes were not exploitable for oil and gas but for the remaining areas where wells are so exploitable there appears no geothermal anomaly. Geothermal energy is environmentally friendly, clean and reversible.
Store Surplus Electricity as Renewable Gaseous or Liquid Fuels
Renewable energy production is increasing nowadays as a result of requirements for increasing energy security and reducing climate change. However, renewable energy such as wind and solar energy are intermittent and fluctuate. Thus, a method of storing surplus electricity is crucial. One method to store surplus electricity is to change the energy vector from electricity to gaseous or liquid fuel. This can be done through electrolysis to produce hydrogen, with a further methanation step combining the produced hydrogen with CO2 (potentially from a biogas facility). Such a process is known as Power to Gas (P2G) or Power to Liquid (P2L). This not only provides an alternative storage solution for electricity but can potentially offset biogas upgrading costs for an anaerobic digester if biological P2G or P2L is used. The final products from P2G can be methane, and from P2L can be methanol, ethanol or isobutanol. Such P2G and P2L methods have significant potential to balance and facilitate high levels of variable renewable electricity. These end products can be used as fuel in the heat and transport sectors. This work assesses the energy requirement to produce 1 GJ of each fuel. The assessment is based on stoichiometric equations and the relative efficiencies of each pathway. The preliminary assessment undertaken shows that the electricity required to produce 1GJ of biological methane; catalytic methane; methanol; ethanol or isobutanol is 1.64 GJ, 2.00 GJ, 1.95 GJ, 2.23 GJ and 4.70 GJ, respectively, which means to produce 1GJ of fuel, methane requires less energy input.
Synergistic Erosion–Corrosion Behavior of Petroleum Pipelines at Various Conditions
The effects of flow velocity, sand concentration, sand size and temperature on erosion-corrosion of petroleum pipelines (carbon steel) in oil sands slurry were studied by electrochemical polarization measurements. It was found that, the anodic excursion spans of carbon steel in oil sands slurry are characterized by the occurrence of a well-defined anodic peak, followed by a passive region. The data reveal that increasing flow velocity, sand concentration and temperature enhances the anodic peak current density (jAP) and shifts pitting potential (Epit) towards more negative values. The variation of sand particle size does not have apparent effect on polarization behavior of carbon steel. The ratios of the erosion rate to corrosion rate (E/C) were calculated and discussed. The ratio of erosion to corrosion rates E/C increased with increasing the flow velocity, sand concentration, sand size and temperature indicating that an increasing slurry flow velocity, sand concentration, sand size and temperature resulted in an enhancement of the erosion effect.
Mobile Based Long Range Weather Prediction System for the Farmers of Rural Areas of Pakistan
Unexpected rainfall has always been an issue in the lifetime of crops and brings destruction for the farmers who harvest them. Unfortunately, Pakistan is one of the countries in which untimely rain impacts badly on crops like wash out of seeds and pesticides etc. Pakistan’s GDP is related to agriculture, especially in rural areas farmers sometimes quit farming because leverage of huge loss to their crops. Through our surveys and research, we came to know that farmers in the rural areas of Pakistan need rain information to avoid damages to their crops from rain. We developed a prototype using ICTs to inform the farmers about rain one week in advance. Our proposed solution has two ways of informing the farmers. In first we send daily messages about weekly prediction and also designed a helpline where they can call us to ask about possibility of rain.
Controlled Synthesis of Pt3Sn-SnOx/C Electrocatalysts for Polymer Electrolyte Membrane Fuel Cells
One of the greatest challenges of the implementation of polymer electrolyte membrane fuel cells (PEMFCs) is to find active and durable electrocatalysts. The cell performance is always limited by the oxygen reduction reaction (ORR) on the cathode, since it is at least 6 orders of magnitude slower than the hydrogen oxidation on the anode, therefore high loading of Pt is required. Catalyst corrosion is also more significant on the cathode, especially in case of mobile applications, where rapid changes of loading has to be tolerated. Pt-Sn bulk alloys and SnO2-decorated Pt3Sn nanostructures are among the most studied bimetallic systems for fuel cell applications. Exclusive formation of supported Sn-Pt alloy phases with different Pt/Sn ratios can be achieved by using controlled surface reactions (CSRs) between hydrogen adsorbed on Pt sites and tetraethyltin. In this contribution our results for commercial and a home-made 20 wt.% Pt/C catalysts modified by tin anchoring via CSRs are presented. The parent Pt/C catalysts were synthesized by modified NaBH4-assisted ethylene-glycol reduction method using ethanol as a solvent, which resulted either in dispersed and highly stable Pt nanoparticles or evenly distributed raspberry-like agglomerates according to the chosen synthesis parameters. The 20 wt.% Pt/C catalysts prepared that way showed improved electrocatalytic performance in the ORR and stability in comparison to the commercial 20 wt.% Pt/C catalysts. Then, in order to obtain Sn-Pt/C catalysts with Pt/Sn= 3 ratio, the Pt/C catalysts were modified with tetraethyltin (SnEt4) using three and five consecutive tin anchoring periods. According to in situ XPS studies in case of catalysts with highly dispersed Pt nanoparticles, pre-treatment in hydrogen even at 170°C resulted in complete reduction of the ionic tin to Sn0. No evidence of the presence of SnO2 phase was found by means of the XRD and EDS analysis. These results demonstrate that the method of CSRs is a powerful tool to create Pt-Sn bimetallic nanoparticles exclusively, without tin deposition onto the carbon support. On the contrary, the XPS results revealed that the tin-modified catalysts with raspberry-like Pt agglomerates always contained a fraction of non-reducible tin oxide. At the same time, they showed increased activity and long term stability in the ORR than Pt/C, which was assigned to the presence of SnO2 in close proximity/contact with Pt-Sn alloy phase. It has been demonstrated that the content and dispersion of the fcc Pt3Sn phase within the electrocatalysts can be controlled by tuning the reaction conditions of CSRs. The bimetallic catalysts displayed an outstanding performance in the ORR. The preparation of a highly dispersed 20Pt/C catalyst permits to decrease the Pt content without relevant decline in the electrocatalytic performance of the catalysts.
Preparation and Characterization of Co-Tolerant Electrocatalyst for Pem Fuel Cell
Important requirements for the anode side electrocatalysts of polymer electrolyte membrane (PEM) fuel cells are CO-tolerance, stability and corrosion resistanse. Carbon is still the most common material for electrocatalyst supports due to its low cost, high electrical conductivity and high surface area, which can ensure good dispersion of the Pt. However, carbon becomes degraded at higher potentials and it cause problem during application, therefore it is important to explore alternative materials with improved stability. Molybdenum-oxide can improve the CO-tolerance of the Pt/C catalysts, but it is prone to leach in acidic electrolyte. The Mo was stabilized by isovalent substitution of molybdenum into the rutile phase titanium-dioxide lattice, achieved by a modified multistep sol-gel synthesis method optimized for preparation of Ti0.7Mo.3O2-C composite. High degree of Mo incorporation into the rutile lattice was developed. The conductivity and corrosion resistance across the anticipated potential/pH window was ensured by mixed oxide – activated carbon composite. Platinum loading was carried out using NaBH4 and ethylene glycol, platinum content was 40 wt%. The electrocatalyst was characterized by both material investigating methods (i.e. XRD, TEM, EDS, XPS techniques) and electrochemical methods (cyclic-voltammetry, COads stripping voltammetry, hydrogen oxidation reaction on rotating disc electrode). The electrochemical activity of the sample was compared to commercial 40 wt% Pt/C (Quintech) and PtRu/C (Quintech, Pt= 20 wt%, Ru= 10 wt%) references. Enhanced CO tolerance of the electrocatalyst prepared using the Ti0.7Mo.3O2-C composite material was evidenced by the appearance of a CO-oxidation related “pre-peak” and by pronounced shift of the maximum of the main CO oxidation peak towards less positive potential compared to Pt/C. Fuel cell polarization measurements were also carried out using Bio-Logic and Paxitech FCT-150S test device. All details on the design, preparation, characterization and testing by both electrochemical measurements and fuel cell test device of electrocatalyst supported on Ti0.7Mo.3O2-C composite material will be presented and discussed.
Performance Assessment of the Gold Coast Desalination Plant Offshore Multiport Brine Diffuser during 'Hot Standby' Operation
Alongside the rapid expansion of Seawater Reverse Osmosis (SWRO) technologies arise the concurrent increase in hypersaline brine by-products. Facilitating their adequate disposal, such wastes are commonly disposed via submerged inclined dense jet outfalls situated in open-coastal environments. Despite the vast implementation of this process, design is largely founded by small-scale laboratory experiments under idealistic quiescent conditions and studies concerning their performance in the field are strictly limited. Field experiments were conducted to assess the near-field characteristics of the Gold Coast Desalination Plant (GCDP) offshore multiport diffuser. The aim was to determine the trajectory and dilution characteristics of the plume under various discharge configurations with production ranging 11-100% of plant operative capacity. The field monitoring system employed an unprecedented static array of temperature and electrical conductivity sensors in a three-dimensional grid surrounding a single diffuser port, with their location informed by a combination of preliminary near-field modelling and past field observations. Complimenting these measurements, Acoustic Doppler Current Profilers (ADCPs) were also deployed to record current variability over the depth of the water column and wave characteristics. Recorded data suggests the receiving open-coastal environment was highly active over the experimental duration with temperatures varying between 18.0-22.5 °C and ambient velocities ranging 0-0.5 m s-1 with considerable variability over the depth of the water column. Variations in background electrical conductivity corresponding to salinity fluctuations of ± 2 g kg-1 were also observed. Increases in electrical conductivity were detected during plant operation and appeared to be most pronounced 10-30 m from the diffuser, consistent with trajectory predictions founded by existing literature. Data suggests localized elevations in salinity arising from discharge operations did not exceed background salinity levels by more than 1.5 g kg-1. Plume trajectories and respective dilutions extrapolated from salinity data are compared with empirical scaling arguments derived from quiescent ambient laboratory experiments. With consideration of sensor grid resolution and variability in ambient salinity and velocity, discharge properties adequately correlate with anticipated modelling projections. Temporal and spatial variation of background processes and their subsequent influence upon discharge outcomes will be discussed – facilitating the foundations for the provision of ambient mechanisms in the design of brine outfalls into the future.
Beneficiation of Dye Sensitized Solar Cell as Energy Saving from Apple Skin with TiO2 Electrolysis
In Indonesian climates that have the tropic climate, one of the potential energy sources is coming from solar energy. From the solar energy, we can convert it into the others energy, such as electrical energy. In this topic, we want to do the research about Dye Sensitized Solar Cell (DSSC). The materials that we use as sensitizer is anthocyanin that we extract from apple skin, because the anthocyanin is one of the most effective as a sensitizer for DSSC. The variable in this research is pH. The pH that we used are pH 0,5; pH 1; pH 1,5; pH 2; pH 2,5. The method is electrolysis, and we use TiO2 as sensitized material. The hypothesis from this research is the smaller pH can make higher the efficiency of the absorbent of the solar energy.
Interplay of Material and Cycle Design in a Vacuum-Temperature Swing Adsorption Process for Biogas Upgrading
Natural gas is a major energy source in the current global economy, contributing to roughly 21% of the total primary energy consumption. Production of natural gas starting from renewable energy sources is key to limit the related CO2 emissions, especially for those sectors that heavily rely on natural gas use. In this context, biomethane produced via biogas upgrading represents a good candidate for partial substitution of fossil natural gas. The upgrading process of biogas to biomethane consists in (i) the removal of pollutants and impurities (e.g. H2S, siloxanes, ammonia, water), and (ii) the separation of carbon dioxide from methane. Focusing on the CO2 removal process, several technologies can be considered: chemical or physical absorption with solvents (e.g. water, amines), membranes, adsorption-based systems (PSA). However, none emerged as the leading technology, because of (i) the heterogeneity in plant size, ii) the heterogeneity in biogas composition, which is strongly related to the feedstock type (animal manure, sewage treatment, landfill products), (iii) the case-sensitive optimal tradeoff between purity and recovery of biomethane, and iv) the destination of the produced biomethane (grid injection, CHP applications, transportation sector). With this contribution, we explore the use of a technology for biogas upgrading and we compare the resulting performance with benchmark technologies. The proposed technology makes use of a chemical sorbent, which is engineered by RSE and consists of Di-Ethanol-Amine deposited on a solid support made of γ-Alumina, to chemically adsorb the CO2 contained in the gas. The material is packed into fixed beds that cyclically undergo adsorption and regeneration steps. CO2 is adsorbed at low temperature and ambient pressure (or slightly above) while the regeneration is carried out by pulling vacuum and increasing the temperature of the bed (vacuum-temperature swing adsorption - VTSA). Dynamic adsorption tests were performed by RSE and were used to tune the mathematical model of the process, including material and transport parameters (i.e. Langmuir isotherms data and heat and mass transport). Based on this set of data, an optimal VTSA cycle was designed. The results enabled a better understanding of the interplay between material and cycle tuning. As exemplary application, the upgrading of biogas for grid injection, produced by an anaerobic digester (60-70% CO2, 30-40% CH4), for an equivalent size of 1 MWel was selected. A plant configuration is proposed to maximize heat recovery and minimize the energy consumption of the process. The resulting performances are very promising compared to benchmark solutions, which make the VTSA configuration a valuable alternative for biomethane production starting from biogas.
Downhole Logging and Dynamics Data Resolving Lithology-Related Drilling Behavior
Terms such as “riding a hard streak”, “formation push”, and “fighting formation” are commonly used in the directional drilling world to explain BHA behavior that causes unwanted trajectory change. Theories about downhole directional tendencies are commonly speculated from various personal experiences with little merit due to the lack of hard data to reveal the actual mechanisms behind the phenomenon, leaving interpretation of the root cause up to personal perception. Understanding and identifying in real time the lithological factors that influence the BHA to change or hold direction adds tremendous value in terms reducing sliding time and targeting zones for optimal ROP. Utilizing surface drilling parameters and employing downhole measurements of azimuthal gamma, continuous inclination, and bending moment, a direct measure of the rock related directional phenomenon have been captured and quantified. Furthermore, identifying continuous zones of like lithology with consistent bit to rock interaction has value from a reservoir characterization and completions standpoint. The paper will show specific examples of lithology related directional tendencies from the Spraberry and Wolfcamp in the Delaware Basin.
Wellbore Spiraling Induced through Systematic Micro-Sliding
Stick-Slip is a term that is often overused and commonly diagnosed from surface drilling parameters of torque and differential pressure, but the actual magnitude of the condition is rarely captured at the BHA level as the necessary measurements are seldom deployed. Deployment of an accurate stick-slip measurement downhole has led to an interesting discovery that goes against long held traditional drilling lore. A divide has been identified between stick-slip as independent bit and BHA conditions. This phenomenon in horizontal laterals is common, but few M/LWD systems have been able to capture it. Utilizing measurements of downhole RPM bore pressure, high-speed magnetometer data, bending moment, and continuous inclination, the wellbore spiraling phenomenon is able to be captured, quantified, and intimately tied back to systematic effects of BHA stalling and micro-sliding. An operator in the Permian Basin has identified that this phenomenon is contributing to increased tortuosity and drag. Utilizing downhole torque measurements the root causes of the stick-slip and spiraling phenomenon were identified and able to engineered out of the system.
Renewable Energy Micro-Grid Control Using Microcontroller in Labview
The power systems are transforming and becoming smarter with innovations in technologies to enable embark simultaneously upon the sustainable energy needs, rising environmental concerns, economic benefits and quality requirements. The advantages provided by inter-connection of renewable energy resources are becoming more viable and dependable with the smart controlling technologies. The limitation of most renewable resources have their diversity and intermittency causing problems in power quality, grid stability, reliability, security etc. is being cured by these efforts. A necessitate of optimal energy management by intelligent Micro-Grids at the distribution end of the power system has been accredited to accommodate sustainable renewable Distributed Energy Resources on large scale across the power grid. All over the world Smart Grids are emerging now as foremost concern infrastructure upgrade programs. The hardware setup includes NI cRIO 9022, Compact Reconfigurable Input Output microcontroller board connected to the PC on a LAN router with three hardware modules. The Real-Time Embedded Controller is reconfigurable controller device consisting of an embedded real-time processor controller for communication and processing, a reconfigurable chassis housing the user-programmable FPGA, Eight hot-swappable I/O modules, and graphical LabVIEW system design software. It has been employed for signal analysis, controls and acquisition and logging of the renewable sources with the LabVIEW Real-Time applications. The employed cRIO chassis controls the timing for the module and handles communication with the PC over the USB, Ethernet, or 802.11 Wi-Fi buses. It combines modular I/O, real-time processing, and NI LabVIEW programmable. In the presented setup, the Analog Input Module NI 9205 five channels have been used for input analog voltage signals from renewable energy sources and NI 9227 four channels have been used for input analog current signals of the renewable sources. For switching actions based on the programming logic developed in software, a module having Electromechanical Relays (single-pole single throw) with 4-Channels, electrically isolated and LED indicating the state of that channel have been used for isolating the renewable Sources on fault occurrence, which is decided by the logic in the program. The module for Ethernet based Data Acquisition Interface ENET 9163 Ethernet Carrier, which is connected on the LAN Router for data acquisition from a remote source over Ethernet also has the module NI 9229 installed. The LabVIEW platform has been employed for efficient data acquisition, monitoring and control. Control logic utilized in program for operation of the hardware switching Related to Fault Relays has been portrayed as a flowchart. A communication system has been successfully developed amongst the sources and loads connected on different computers using Hypertext transfer protocol, HTTP or Ethernet Local Stacked area Network TCP/IP protocol. There are two main I/O interfacing clients controlling the operation of the switching control of the renewable energy sources over internet or intranet. The paper presents experimental results of the briefed setup for intelligent control of the micro-grid for renewable energy sources, besides the control of Micro-Grid with data acquisition and control hardware based on a microcontroller with visual program developed in LabVIEW.
Energy Intensity: A Case of Indian Manufacturing Industries
Energy has been recognized as one of the key inputs for the economic growth and social development of a country. High economic growth naturally means a high level of energy consumption. However, in the present energy scenario where there is a wide gap between the energy generation and energy consumption, it is extremely difficult to match the demand with the supply. India being one of the largest and rapidly growing developing countries, there is an impending energy crisis which requires immediate measures to be adopted. In this situation, the concept of Energy Intensity comes under special focus to ensure energy security in an environmentally sustainable way. Energy Intensity is defined as the energy consumed per unit output in the context of industrial energy practices. It is a key determinant of the projections of future energy demands which assists in policy making. Energy Intensity is inversely related to energy efficiency; lesser the energy required to produce a unit of output or service, the greater is the energy efficiency. Energy Intensity of Indian manufacturing industries is among the highest in the world and stands for enormous energy consumption. Hence, reducing the Energy Intensity of Indian manufacturing industries is one of the best strategies to achieve a low level of energy consumption and conserve energy. This study attempts to analyse the factors which influence the Energy Intensity of Indian manufacturing firms and how they can be used to reduce the Energy Intensity. The paper considers six of the largest energy consuming manufacturing industries in India viz. Aluminium, Cement, Iron & Steel Industries, Textile Industries, Fertilizer and Paper industries and conducts a detailed Energy Intensity analysis using the data from PROWESS database of the Centre for Monitoring Indian Economy (CMIE). A total of twelve independent explanatory variables based on various factors such as raw material, labour, machinery, repair and maintenance, production technology, outsourcing, research and development, number of employees, wages paid, profit margin and capital invested have been taken into consideration for the analysis.
Creating Smart and Healthy Cities by Exploring the Potentials of Emerging Technologies and Social Innovation for Urban Efficiency: Lessons from the Innovative City of Boston
The wide-spread adoption of the Smart City concept has introduced a new era of computing paradigm with opportunities for city administrators and stakeholders in various sectors to re-think the concept of urbanization and development of healthy cities. With the world population rapidly becoming urban-centric especially amongst the emerging economies, social innovation will assist greatly in deploying emerging technologies to address the development challenges in core sectors of the future cities. In this context, sustainable health-care delivery and improved quality of life of the people is considered at the heart of the healthy city agenda. This paper examines the Boston innovation landscape from the perspective of smart technology platforms for sustainable development especially in healthcare. The paper also investigates the policy implementation process of Healthy City agenda and eHealth economy innovation based on the experience of Massachusetts’s City of Boston initiatives. For the purpose of this conceptual framework, three emerging sectors where emphasized, namely the eHealth concept, the innovation hubs, and the emerging technologies that drive the innovation. Doing so, we perform empirical analysis on results of industry-wide survey about the current initiatives, policy implications, and the enabling environment thus we highlight a number of potential research directions for technology-based model and its adaptation for deploying emerging technologies in healthy city agenda. We conclude that the Boston example of innovation economy and proper understanding of its dynamics by the city administrators, academic community, the solution providers, and other stakeholders is imperative in building smart and healthy cities where quality of life of the citizenry can be improved. Finally, the conceptual framework is proposed as a guide for e-health deployment based on smart innovation in cities for equitable healthcare delivery and other aspects of urban life.
Fabrication of High Energy Hybrid Capacitors from Biomass Waste-Derived Activated Carbon
There is great interest to exploit sustainable, low-cost, renewable resources as carbon precursors for energy storage applications. Research on development of energy storage devices has been growing rapidly due to mismatch in power supply and demand from renewable energy sources This paper reported the synthesis of porous activated carbon from biomass waste and evaluated its performance in supercapicators. In this work, we employed orange peel (waste material) as the starting material and synthesized activated carbon by pyrolysis of KOH impregnated orange peel char at 800 °C in argon atmosphere. The resultant orange peel-derived activated carbon (OP-AC) exhibited a high BET surface area of 1,901 m2 g-1, which is the highest surface area so far reported for the orange peel. The pore size distribution (PSD) curve exhibits the pores centered at 11.26 Å pore width, suggesting dominant microporosity. The OP-AC was studied as positive electrode in combination with different negative electrode materials, such as pre-lithiated graphite (LiC6) and Li4Ti5O12 for making different hybrid capacitors. The lithium ion capacitor (LIC) fabricated using OP-AC with pre-lithiated graphite delivered a high energy density of ~106 Wh kg–1. The energy density for OP-AC||Li4Ti5O12 capacitor was ~35 Wh kg–1. For comparison purpose, configuration of OP-AC||OP-AC capacitors were studied in both aqueous (1M H2SO4) and organic (1M LiPF6 in EC-DMC) electrolytes, which delivered the energy density of 6.6 Wh kg-1 and 16.3 Wh kg-1, respectively. The cycling retentions obtained at current density of 1 A g–1 were ~85.8, ~87.0 ~82.2 and ~58.8% after 2500 cycles for OP-AC||OP-AC (aqueous), OP-AC||OP-AC (organic), OP-AC||Li4Ti5O12 and OP-AC||LiC6 configurations, respectively. In addition, characterization studies were performed by elemental and proximate composition, thermogravimetry, field emission-scanning electron microscopy, Raman spectra, X-ray diffraction (XRD) pattern, Fourier transform-infrared, X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) and N2 sorption isotherms. The morphological features from FE-SEM exhibited well-developed porous structures. Two typical broad peaks observed in the XRD framework of the synthesized carbon implies amorphous graphitic structure. The ratio of 0.86 for ID/IG in Raman spectra infers high degree of graphitization in the sample. The band spectra of C 1s in XPS display the well resolved peaks related to carbon atoms in various chemical environments; for instances, the characteristics binding energies appeared at ~283.83, ~284.83, ~286.13, ~288.56, and ~290.70 eV which correspond to sp2 -graphitic C, sp3 -graphitic C, C-O, C=O and π-π*, respectively. Characterization studies revealed the synthesized carbon to be promising electrode material towards the application for energy storage devices. The findings opened up the possibility of developing high energy LICs from abundant, low-cost, renewable biomass waste.
Optimization of Supercritical CO2 Power Cycle for Waste Heat Recovery from Gas Turbine with Respect to Cooling Condition
This study describes the optimization of supercritical carbon dioxide (S-CO2) power cycle for recovering waste heat from a gas turbine. An S-CO2 cycle that recovers heat from small industrial and aeroderivative gas turbines can outperform a steam-bottoming cycle despite its simplicity and compactness. In using S-CO2 power cycles for waste heat recovery, a split cycle was studied to maximize the net output power by incorporating the utilization efficiency of the waste heat (lowering the temperature of the exhaust gas through the heater) along with the thermal efficiency of the cycle (minimizing the temperature difference for the heat transfer, exergy loss). The cooling condition of the S-CO2 WHR system has a great impact on the performance and the optimum low pressure of the system. Furthermore, the optimum high pressure of the S-CO2 WHR systems for the maximum power from the given heat sources is dependent on the temperature of the waste heat source.
A Historical Assessment of Turkey's Oil and Gas Import Vulnerability
This study aims at measuring and evaluating Turkey’s oil and gas import vulnerability in a historical perspective. Turkey is one of the most energy import dependent countries in the world. Net import dependency of the country in primary energy has been more than 50% since 1950, reaching to around 75% in recent years. We tried to shed light on this ever-lasting problem of the country’s energy system by creating import vulnerability indices for crude oil and natural gas separately. We applied Principle Component Analysis (PCA) on various factors to create the indices. Our results suggest that Turkey’s energy mix structure, which is dominated by fossil fuels, has been the most important driving factor behind import vulnerability of both oil and gas. Moreover, while import vulnerability of oil has decreased recently, almost no improvement has been recorded in natural gas. The difference in the recent trends of two indices can also be explained by increasing the share of gas and decreasing the share of oil in Turkey’s primary energy mix.
Parameters Influencing the Output Precision of a Lens-Lens Beam Generator Solar Concentrator
The Lens-Lens Beam Generator (LLBG) is a novel Fresnel-based optical concentrating technique which provides flexibility in selecting the solar receiver location compared to conventional techniques through generating a powerful concentrated collimated solar beam. In order to achieve that, two successive lenses are used and followed by a flat mirror. Hence the generated beam emerging from the LLBG has a high power flux which impinges on the target receiver, it is important to determine the precision of the system output. In this present work, mathematical investigation of different parameters affecting the precision of the output beam is carried out. These parameters include deflection in sun-facing lens and its holding arm, delay in updating the solar tracking system, and the flat mirror surface flatness. Moreover, relationships that describe the power lost due to the effect of each parameter are derived in this study.
Experimental Study on Flooding Phenomena in a Three-Phase Direct Contact Heat Exchanger for the Utilisation in Solar Energy (Solar Pond) Applications
Experiments to study the limitation of flooding inception of three-phase direct contact condenser have been carried out in a counter-current small diameter vertical condenser. The total column height was 70 cm and 4 cm diameter. Only 48 cm has been used as an active three-phase direct contact condenser height. Vapour pentane with three different initial temperatures (40, 43.5 and 47.5 °C) and water with a constant temperature (19 °C) have been used as a dispersed phase and a continuous phase respectively. Five different continuous phase mass flow rate and four different dispersed phase mass flow rate have been tested throughout the experiments. Dimensionless correlation based on the previous common flooding correlation is proposed to calculate the up flow flooding inception of the three-phase direct contact condenser.
Aiming at Optimization of Tracking Technology through Seasonally Tilted Sun Trackers: An Indian Perspective
Discussions on concepts of Single Axis Tracker (SAT) are becoming more and more apt for developing countries like India not just as an advancement in tracking technology but due to the utmost necessity of reaching at the lowest Levelized Cost of Energy (LCOE) targets. Recently, solar electricity rates in India touched a record low in a reverse auctioned tender for a 70-MW Solar PV park under NTPC Bhandla where Finland based Fortum Finnsurya Energy won the bidding round by quoting $0.065 a unit (considering dollar rate of INR 67.00). In a study conducted by KPMG, the trend shows that by 2022 the cost of energy from Solar PV will reach $0.057 a unit. With this increasing competition and significant fall in feed-in tariffs of solar PV projects, developers are under constant pressure to secure investment for their projects and eventually earn profits from them. Moreover, being the second largest populated country, India suffers from scarcity of land because of higher average population density of 382 persons per square kilometer. So to mitigate the risk of this dual edged sword with reducing trend of unit (kWh) cost at one side and utilization of land on the other, tracking evolved as the call of the hour. Therefore, the prime objectives of this paper are not only to showcase how tracker proves to be an effective mechanism to get lower LCOE with respect to traditional mounting systems but also to introduce Seasonally Tilted Tracker (STT) technology as a possible option for high latitude locations.
The Application of Polymers in Enhanced Oil Recovery: Recent Trends
In this article, the latest advancements made in the applications of polymers in the enhanced hydrocarbon recovery technologies are investigated. For this purpose, different classes of polymers are reviewed and the latest progresses made in making them suitable for application under harsh reservoir conditions are discussed. The main reservoir conditions whose effects are taken into account include the temperature, rock mineralogy and brine salinity and composition. For profile modification and blocking the thief zones, polymers are used in the form of nanocomposite hydrogels. Polymers are also used as thickeners during CO2 flooding. Also, they are used in enhanced gas recovery, to inhibit the mixing of injection gas with the in-situ natural gas. This review covers the main types of polymers, their functions and the challenges in their applications, some of which are mentioned above. Included in this review are also the latest progresses made in the development of new polymeric surfactants used for surfactant flooding.
Lipid Extraction from Microbial Cell by Electroporation Technique and Its Influence on Direct Transesterification for Biodiesel Synthesis
Traditional biodiesel feedstock like edible oils or plant oils, animal fats and cooking waste oil have been replaced by microbial oil in recent research of biodiesel synthesis. The well-known community of microbial oil producers includes microalgae, oleaginous yeast and seaweeds. Conventional transesterification of microbial oil to produce biodiesel is lethargic, energy consuming, cost-ineffective and environmentally unhealthy. This process follows several steps such as microbial biomass drying, cell disruption, oil extraction, solvent recovery, oil separation and transesterification. Therefore, direct transesterification of biodiesel synthesis has been studying for last few years. It combines all the steps in a single reactor and it eliminates the steps of biomass drying, oil extraction and separation from solvent. Apparently, it seems to be cost-effective and faster process but number of difficulties need to be solved to make it large scale applicable. The main challenges are microbial cell disruption in bulk volume and make faster the esterification reaction, because water contents of the medium sluggish the reaction rate. Several methods have been proposed but none of them is up to the level to implement in large scale. It is still a great challenge to extract maximum lipid from microbial cells (yeast, fungi, algae) investing minimum energy. Electroporation technique results a significant increase in cell conductivity and permeability caused due to the application of an external electric field. Electroporation is required to alter the size and structure of the cells to increase their porosity as well as to disrupt the microbial cell walls within few seconds to leak out the intracellular lipid to the solution. Therefore, incorporation of electroporation techniques contributed in direct transesterification of microbial lipids by increasing the efficiency of biodiesel production rate.
A Phase Change Materials Thermal Storage for Ground-Source Heat Pumps: Computational Fluid Dynamics Analysis of Innovative Layouts
The exploitation of the low-temperature geothermal resource via ground-source heat pumps is often limited by the high investment cost mainly due to borehole drilling. From the monitoring of a prototypal system currently used by a commercial building, it was found that a simple upgrade of the conventional layout, obtained including a thermal storage between the ground-source heat exchangers and the heat pump, can optimize the ground energy exploitation requiring for shorter/fewer boreholes. For typical applications, a reduction of up to 66% with respect to the conventional layout can be easily achieved. Results from the monitoring campaign of the prototype are presented in this paper, and upgrades of the thermal storage using phase change materials (PCMs) are proposed using computational fluid dynamics simulations. The PCM thermal storage guarantees an improvement of the system coefficient of performance both for summer cooling and winter heating (up to 25%). A drastic reduction of the storage volume (approx. 1/10 of the original size) is also achieved, making it possible to easily place it within the technical room, avoiding extra costs for underground displacement. A preliminary optimization of the PCM geometry is finally proposed.
Sustainable Biogas Upgrading: Characterization of Adsorption Properties of Tuff
This paper presents experimental results from the analysis of Tuff for CO2 and H2S removal from biogas. Synthetic zeolites, commonly used for biogas upgrading, are characterized by excellent performance in terms of carbon dioxide adsorption, however, cost and environmental footprint represent a negative contribute to their sustainability. Natural zeolites contained in Tuff, a totally inexpensive byproduct of the construction industry, show very interesting selective adsorption properties, associated with its availability in regions, as central Italy, where biogas production from small scale plants is rapidly increasing. An in-house experimental device was assembled to measure the adsorption capacity of Tuff as a function of partial CO2 pressure for different temperatures (i.e. adsorption isotherms). Results show performances as high as 66% with respect to commercial zeolites (13X). A sensitivity analysis of different regeneration processes is also presented. A comparative analysis of natural and synthetic zeolites was finally performed using biogas samples obtained from different types of feedstock and characterized by varying CO2 and H2S content.
Biotechonomy System Dynamics Modelling: Sustainability of Pellet Production
The paper discovers biotechonomy development analysis by use of system dynamics modelling. The research is connected with investigations of biomass application for production of bioproducts with higher added value. The most popular bioresource is wood and therefore the main question today is about future development and eco-design of products. The paper emphasizes and evaluates energy sector which is open for use of wood logs, wood chips, wood pellets etc. The main aim of this research study was to build a framework to analyse development perspectives for wood pellet production. To reach the goal, a system dynamics model of energy wood supplies, processing and consumption is built. Production capacity, energy consumption, changes in energy and technology efficiency, required labour source, prices of wood, energy and labour are taken into account. Validation and verification tests with available data and information have been carried out and indicate that the model constitutes the dynamic hypothesis. It is found that the more is invested into pellets production, the higher the specific profit per production unit compared to wood logs and wood chips. As the result, wood chips production is decreasing dramatically and is replaced by wood pellets. The limiting factor for pellet industry growth is availability of wood sources. This is governed by felling limit set by the government based on sustainable forestry principles.
Gas Condensing Unit with Inner Heat Exchanger
Gas condensing units with inner tubes heat exchangers requests third generation and differ from second generation heat and mass transfer units, which are fulfilled by passive package layer. The first one improves heat and mass transfer by increasing cooled contact surface of gas and condensate drops and film formed in inner tubes heat exchanger. Paper presents a selection of significant factors, which influence heat and mass transfer. Experimental planning based on the main three parameters- velocity of water and gas as well as density of spraying. Empirical mathematical models shows that the coefficient of heat transfer is used as dependent parameter, which depends from two independent variables water and gas velocity. Empirical model is proved by use of experimental data of two independent gas condensing units in Lithuania and Russia. Experimental data are processed by use of heat transfer criteria- Kirpichov number. Results allow to draw graphical nomogram for calculation of heat and mass transfer conditions in the gas condensing unit with inner tubes heat exchanger.