International Science Index

International Journal of Educational and Pedagogical Sciences

The Effect of Distance Education Based on Mooc in Academic Engagement and Its Components on Kerman Students University
The aim of this study was to determine the effect of distance education (based on Mooc) on the components of academic engagement of Kerman PNU. The research was quasi-experimental method that cluster sampling with an appropriate volume was used in this study (one class in experimental group and one class in controlling group). Sampling method is single-stage cluster sampling. The statistical society is students of Kerman Payam Noor University, which) were selected 40 of them as sample (20 students in the control group and 20 students in experimental group). To test the hypothesis, it was used the analysis of univariate and multivariate covariance to offset the initial difference (difference of control) in the experimental group and the control group. The instrument used in this study is academic engagement questionnaire of Zerang (1391) that contains component of cognitive, behavioral and motivational engagement. The results showed that there is no significant difference between mean scores of academic components of academic engagement in experimental group and the control group on the post-test, after elimination of the pre-test. The adjusted mean scores of components of academic engagement in the experimental group were higher than the adjusted average of scores after the test in the control group. The use of technology-based education in distance education has been effective in increasing cognitive engagement, motivational engagement and behavioral engagement among students. Experimental variable with the effect size 0.26, predicted 26% of cognitive engagement component variance. Experimental variable with the effect size 0.47, predicted 47% of the motivational engagement component variance. Experimental variable with the effect size 0.40, predicted 40% of behavioral engagement component variance. So teaching with technology (Mooc) has a positive impact on increasing academic engagement and academic performance of students in educational technology. The results suggest that technology (Mooc) is used to enrich the teaching of other lessons of PNU.
Teacher Characteristics That Influence Development of Oral Language Skills among Pre-Primary School Pupils: Case Study of Nairobi City County, Kenya
Development of oral language skills is a precursor to writing and reading acquisition. Oral skill is a means of communication through which people express their desires, ideas, excitements, amusements, disappointments and exchange information. In addition, oral skills have been found to be an important tool for thinking and concept development in children. Research carried out in industrialised countries have identified some appropriate teaching strategies used to enhance acquisition of oral language skills such as repetition, substitution, explanation, contrast, exemplification and code-switching. However, these studies’ geographical locations do not reflect the diversity of the Kenyan society. In addition, studies conducted in Kenya in the past have not established why pre-primary school teachers are not using appropriate teaching strategies. The purpose of this study was to find out whether teachers’ experience, academic qualification and type of training influences their choice of teaching strategies in the development of oral language skills inside and out of the classroom in selected preschools in Kibra Sub-County, Nairobi County. In addition, this study aimed at finding out the strategies used by teachers in Kibra Sub-County to promote oral skills development among pre-primary school children. The study was guided by Holdaway’s theory of language acquisition. Descriptive survey design was employed during this study. Questionnaires and observation schedules were used to collect data. Eighty-three (83) preschool teachers were sampled using multistage sampling methods for observation. Data was analysed using SPSS version 20. The researcher carried out content analysis on the qualitative data. The main descriptive methods used were tabulation of frequencies and percentages. Chi squire test was the inferential statistic used to test the relationship between variables. The main findings of the study indicate that teaching strategies that were mostly used by pre-primary school teachers were code-switching, examples, repetition, substitution and explanation. While questions, direction, expansion of children words and contrast were the least used teaching strategies when teaching oral language skills. The study revealed that the there is a slight correlation between the type of training of teachers and the teaching strategies as most of DICECE trained teachers used more teaching strategies when teaching oral skills compared to other teachers. The findings also revealed that there was a partial significant correlation between teacher’s academic qualifications and a few teaching strategies. A similar correlation was also observed between teaching experience and a few teaching strategies. Since the strategies used by pre-primary school teachers under the study were less than half of the recommended teaching strategies to promote oral skills, the study recommends that teachers should be encouraged to use more in structural strategies to improve children’s oral language skills.
The Use of Different Methodological Approaches to Teaching Mathematics at Secondary Level
The article describes methods of preparation of future teachers that includes the entire diversity of traditional and computer-oriented methodological approaches. The authors reveal how, in the specific educational environment, a teacher can choose the most effective combination of educational technologies based on the nature of the learning task. The key conditions that determine such a choice are that the methodological approach corresponds to the specificity of the problem being solved and that it is also responsive to the individual characteristics of the students. The article refers to the training of students in the proper use in mathematical electronic tools for educational purposes. The preparation of future mathematics teachers should be a step-by-step process, building on specific examples. At the first stage students optimally solve problems aided by electronic means of teaching. At the second stage, the main emphasis is on modeling lessons. At the third stage, students develop and implement strategies in the study of one of the topics within a school mathematics curriculum. The article also recommended the implementation of this strategy in preparation of future teachers and stated the possible benefits.
Strategic Planning and Performance Measurement for Public Universities in Indonesia: A Qualitative Approach
This study investigated the strategic planning and performance measurement within public higher education institutions in Indonesia particularly Sulawesi island. The objectives of this study were to: examine the process of strategic planning; examine whether the objectives and goals of public universities are congruent with the Higher Education Long Term Strategy (HELTS) of Indonesia; evaluate the relationship between strategic planning, implementation and organisational performance; examine the relationships between strategic planning and performance measurement; and determine the performance measurement indicators employed by public higher education in Sulawesi. The methodology of this study was qualitative by conducting individual and focus group semi-structured interviews, as well as the analyses of relevant documents. The data were collected from five selected public universities on Sulawesi Island. The interview participants were selected from the academic staff and educational leaders. Triangulation was pursued through the multiple sources of evidence. The findings of the interviews indicated that the process of strategic planning in public universities utilised top-down and bottom-up approaches. The consistency of strategic planning with HELTS guidelines, to some extent, due to the issue of compulsion. Regarding the relationship between strategic planning and organisational performance, strategic planning provides a clear direction to shape a university’s performance. Performance measurement can develop into an effective tool to evaluate the achievement of strategic planning. In terms of the performance indicators, the indicators collected from universities can be categorised into four perspectives in the balanced scorecard approach and can be used to map performance measurement in universities. The results of the documentary analyse justified the congruency between the universities’ strategic planning and the HELTS guidelines. The performance measurement report described the parity of the strategic planning targets achieved. The performance measurement indicators from the reports can also be categorised into the four perspectives of the balanced scorecard approach. The study indicates that the strategic planning process in public universities is effective from the formulation process to the strategic plan document. It is important to reach world class university status so that universities in Indonesia can be internationally recognised. Generally, universities in Indonesia should improve the number of international journal publications and increase funding for research and innovation in Information Technology so that they can improve their positions in the world rankings. Another specific improvement was that universities needed to have qualified academic staff, for example, by having more academic staff study abroad for higher degrees and build collaborations with global universities for research and journal publications. Universities had prominent strategies such as improving their image, improving quality by developing research, enhancing facilities and infrastructure, increasing research collaboration with other universities and journal publications. However, the outcomes did not reach all the targets that had been set in the strategic planning guidelines from DGHE, particularly on the point of competing globally. The quality of Indonesian universities, particularly in Sulawesi, is still behind international standards and these institutions are currently unable to meet the DGHE expectations.
Internationalization and Multilingualism in Brazil: Possibilities of the Content and Language Integrated Learning and the Intercomprehension Approaches
The study discusses the role of foreign languages in general and of English in particular in the process of internationalization of higher education (IHE), defined as the intentional integration of an international, intercultural or global dimension in the purpose, function or offer of higher education. The study is bibliographical and offers a brief outline of the current political, economic and educational scenarios in Brazil before discussing some possibilities and challenges for the development of multilingualism and internationalization of higher education there. The theoretical background includes a review of Brazilian language and internationalization policies. The review and discussion conclude that the use of the Content and Language Integrated Learning (CLIL) approach and the intercomprehension approach to foreign language teaching/learning are relevant alternatives to foster multilingualism in that context.
Becoming a Good-Enough White Therapist: Experiences of International Students in Psychology Doctoral Programs
As socio-economic globalization impacts education and turns knowledge into a commodity, institutions of higher education are becoming more intentional about infusing a global and intercultural perspective into education via the recruitment of international students. Coming from dissimilar cultures, many of these students are evaluated and held accountable to Euro-American values of independence, self-reliance, and autonomy. Not surprisingly, these students often experience culture shock with deleterious effects on their mental health and academic functioning. Thus, it is critical to understand the experiences of international students with the hope that such knowledge will keep the field of psychology from promulgating Eurocentric ideals and values and prevent the training of these students as good-enough White therapists. Using a critical narrative inquiry framework, this study elicits stories about the challenges encountered by international students as they navigate their clinical training in the presence of acculturative stress and potentially different worldviews. With its emphasis on story-telling as meaning making, narrative research design is hinged on the assumption that people are interpretive beings who make meaning of themselves and their world through the language of stories. Also, dominant socially-constructed narratives play a central role in creating and maintaining hegemonic structures that privilege certain individuals and ideologies at the expense of others. On this premise, narrative inquiry begins with an exploration of the experiences of participants in their lived stories. Bounded narrative segments were read, interpreted, and analyzed using a critical events approach. Throughout the process, issues of reliability and researcher bias were addressed by keeping a reflective analytic memo, as well as triangulating the data using peer-reviewers and check-ins with participants. The findings situate culture at the epicenter of international students’ acculturation challenges as well as their resiliency in psychology doctoral programs. It was not uncommon for these international students to experience ethical dilemmas inherent in learning content that conflicted with their cultural beliefs and values. Issues of cultural incongruence appear to be further exacerbated by visible markers for differences like speech accent and clothing attire. These stories also link the acculturative stress reported by international students to the experiences of perceived racial discrimination and lack of support from the faculty, administration, peers, and the society at large. Beyond the impact on the international students themselves, there are implications for internationalization in psychology with the goal of equipping doctoral programs to be better prepared to meet the needs of their international students. More than ever before, programs need to liaise with international students’ services and work in tandem to meet the unique needs of this population of students. Also, there exists a need for multiculturally competent supervisors working with international students with varying degrees of acculturation. In addition to making social justice and advocacy salient in students’ multicultural training, it may be helpful for psychology doctoral programs to be more intentional about infusing cross-cultural theories, indigenous psychotherapies, and/or when practical, the possibility for geographically cross-cultural practicum experiences in the home countries of international students while taking into consideration the ethical issues for virtual supervision.
Motivational Orientation of the Methodical System of Teaching Mathematics in Secondary School
The article analyzes the composition and structure of the motivationally oriented methodological system of teaching mathematics (purpose, content, methods, forms, and means of teaching), viewed through the prism of the student as the subject of the learning process. Particular attention is paid to the problem of methods of teaching mathematics, which are represented in the form of an ordered triad of attributes corresponding to the selected characteristics. A systematic analysis of possible options and their methodological interpretation enriched existing ideas about known methods and technologies of training, and significantly expanded their nomenclature by including previously unstudied combinations of characteristics. In addition, examples outlined in this article illustrate the possibilities of enhancing the motivational capacity of a particular method or technology in the real learning practice of teaching mathematics through more free goal-setting and varying the conditions of the problem situations. The authors recommend the implementation of different strategies according to their characteristics in teaching and learning mathematics in secondary schools.
Preparing Young Adults with Disabilities for Lifelong Inclusivity through a College Level Mentor Program Using Technology: An Exploratory Study
In their pursuit of postsecondary transitions, individuals with disabilities tend to experience, academic, behavioral, and emotional challenges to a greater extent than their typically developing peers. These challenges result in lower rates of graduation, employment, independent living, and participation in college than their peers without disabilities. The lack of friendships and support systems has had a negative impact on those with a disability transitioning to postsecondary settings to include, employment, independent living, and university settings. Establishing friendships and support systems early on is an indicator of potential success and persistence in postsecondary education, employment, and independent living for typically developing college students. It is evident that a deficit in friendships and supports is a key deficit also for individuals with disabilities. To address the specific needs of this group, a mentor program was developed for a transition program held at the university for youth aged 18-21. Pre-service teachers enrolled in the special education program engaged with youth in the transition program in a variety of activities on campus. The mentorship program had two purposes: to assist young adults with disabilities who were transitioning to a workforce setting to help increase social skills, self-advocacy, supports and friendships, and confidence; and to give their peers without disabilities who were enrolled in a secondary special education course as a pre-service teacher the experience of interacting with and forming friendships with peers who had a disability for the purposes of career development. Additionally, according to researchers mobile technology has created a virtual world of equality and opportunity for a large segment of the population that was once marginalized due to physical and cognitive impairments. All of the participants had access to smart phones; therefore, technology was explored during this study to determine if it could be used as a compensatory tool to allow the young adults with disabilities to do things that otherwise would have been difficult because of their disabilities. Additionally, all participants were asked to incorporate technology such as smart phones to communicate beyond the activities, collaborate using virtual platform games which would support and promote social skills, soft-skills, socialization, and relationships. The findings of this study confirmed that a peer mentorship program that harnessed the power of technology supported outcomes specific to young adults with and without disabilities. Mobile technology and virtual game-based platforms, were identified as a significant contributor to personal, academic, and career growth for both groups. The technology encouraged friendships, provided an avenue for rich social interactions, and increased soft-skills. Results will be shared along with the development of the program and potential implications to the field.
Effect of Oral-Written Mode of Assessing Senior Secondary School Two English Language Students’ Achievement in Descriptive Essay
The English Language plays a central and strategic role in the school system because almost all the school subjects are taught using the English language. However, students’ achievement in this subject at senior secondary school is not encouraging. Therefore, this study examined the effects of oral-written mode of assessment on senior secondary school students’ achievement in a descriptive essay. It also examined the moderating effects of students’ gender and class on students’ achievement in a descriptive essay. The study adopted a pretest-posttest, control group, quasi-experimental design with a 2x2x3 factorial matrix. The participant consisted of 140 Senior Secondary II students drawn from four intact classes from four schools randomly selected from four Local Government Areas randomly selected from Oyo town in Oyo State. Two schools were assigned each to the treatment group and the control group. The following instruments were used for the study: Descriptive Essay Achievement Test (r = 0.78); Descriptive Achievement Test Marking Scheme; Check List of Oral-Written Assessment and Teachers’ Instructional Guide on Descriptive Essay (r = 0.81). Seven null hypotheses guided the study and tested at 0.05 level of significance. Data were analyzed using Analysis of Covariance, Estimated Marginal Means and Scheffe post-hoc test. The result revealed that treatment had a significant main effect on students’ achievement in descriptive essay (F(1,127) = 25.407, P < .05, η2 = .167). Students exposed to oral-written assessment had a higher achievement scores ((x ) ̅= 36.15) than those exposed to written assessment ((x ) ̅= 28.55). There was no significant main effect of gender on students’ achievement in descriptive essay (F₍₁, ₁₂₇₎ = .349, P > .05, η2 = .003). The result also revealed that the effects of class was not significant on students’ students’ achievement in descriptive essay (F₍₁, ₁₂₇₎ = .679, P > .05, η2 = .006). Oral-written mode of assessment enhanced students’ achievement in a descriptive essay. It is, therefore, recommended that teachers and curriculum developers should adopt the use of oral-written assessment for better improvement of students’ achievement in a descriptive essay.
A Measurement Instrument to Determine Curricula Competency of Licensure Track Graduate Psychotherapy Programs in the United States
We developed a novel measurement instrument to assess Knowledge of Educational Programs in Professional Psychotherapy Programs (KEP-PPP or KEP-Triple P) within the United States. The instrument was designed by a Panel of Experts (PoE) that consisted of Licensed Psychotherapists and Medical Care Providers. Licensure track psychotherapy programs are listed in the databases of the Commission on Accreditation for Marriage and Family Therapy Education (COAMFTE); American Psychological Association (APA); Council on Social Work Education (CSWE); and the Council for Accreditation of Counseling & Related Educational Programs (CACREP). A complete list of psychotherapy programs can be obtained from these professional databases, selecting search fields of (All Programs) in (All States). Each program has a Web link that electronically and directly connects to the institutional program, which can be researched using the KEP-Triple P. The 29-item KEP Triple P was designed to consist of six categorical fields; Institutional Type: Degree: Educational Delivery: Accreditation: Coursework Competency: and Special Program Considerations. The KEP-Triple P was designed to determine whether a specific course(s) is offered in licensure track psychotherapy programs. The KEP-Triple P is designed to be modified to assess any part or the entire curriculum of licensure graduate programs. We utilized the KEP-Triple P instrument to study whether a graduate course in Addictions was offered in Marriage and Family Therapy (MFT) programs. Marriage and Family Therapists are likely to commonly encounter patients with Addiction(s) due to the broad treatment scope providing psychotherapy services to individuals, couples and families of all age groups. Our study of 124 MFT programs which concluded at the end of 2016 found that we were able to assess 61 % of programs (N = 76) since 27 % (N = 34) of programs were inaccessible due to broken Web links. From the total of all MFT programs 11 % (N = 14) did not have a published curriculum on their Institutional Web site. From the sample study, we found that 66 % (N = 50) of curricula did not offer a course in Addiction Treatment and that 34 % (N =26) of curricula did require a mandatory course in Addiction Treatment. From our study sample, we determined that 15 % (N = 11) of MFT doctorate programs did not require an Addictions Treatment course and that 1 % (N = 1) did require such a course. We found that 99 % of our study sample offered a Campus based program and 1 % offered a hybrid program with both online and residential components. From the total sample studied, we determined that 84 % of programs would be able to obtain reaccreditation within a five-year period. We recommend that MFT programs initiate procedures to revise curricula to include a required course in Addiction Treatment prior to their next accreditation cycle, to improve the escalating addiction crisis in the United States. This disparity in MFT curricula raises serious ethical and legal consideration for national and Federal stakeholders as well as for patients seeking a competently trained psychotherapist.
The Use of Mnemonic and Mathematical Mnemonic Method in Improving Historical Understanding
This paper discusses the use of mnemonic and mathematical methods in enhancing the understanding of history. Mnemonics can help students from all levels including high school and in various disciplines including language, math, and history. At the secondary level, students are exposed to various courses that require them to remember many facts that can be mastered through the application of mnemonic techniques. Researchers use narrative literature studies to illustrate the current state of art and science in the field of research focused. Researchers used narrative literature reviews to build a scientific base of knowledge. Researchers gather all the key points in the discussion and put it here by referring to the specific field where the paper is essentially based. The findings suggest that the use of mnemonic techniques can improve the individual's memory by adding little effort. In implementing mnemonic techniques, it is important to integrate mathematics and history in the course as both are interconnected as mathematics has shaped our history and vice versa. This study shows that memory skills can actually be improved, the human mind can remember something more than expected.
Early Identification and Early Intervention: Pre and Post Diagnostic Tests in Mathematics Courses
This study focuses on early identification of deficiencies in pre-required areas of students who are enrolled in College Algebra and Calculus I classes. The students were given pre-diagnostic tests on the first day of the class before they are provided with the syllabus. The tests consist of prerequisite, uniform and advanced content outlined by the University System of Georgia (USG). The results show that 48% of students in College Algebra are lacking prerequisite skills while 52% of Calculus I students are lacking prerequisite skills but, interestingly these students are prior exposed to uniform content and advanced content. The study is still in progress and this paper contains the outcome from Fall 2017 and Spring 2018. In this paper, early intervention used in these classes: two days vs three days meeting a week and students’ self-assessment using exam wrappers and their effectiveness on students’ learning will also be discussed. A result of this study shows that there is an improvement on Drop, Fail and Withdraw (DFW) rates by 7%-10% compared to those in previous semesters.
MATLAB Supported Learning and Students' Conceptual Understanding of Functions of Two Variables: Experiences from Wolkite University
A non-equivalent group's quasi-experiment research was conducted at Wolkite University to investigate MATLAB supported learning and students' conceptual understanding in learning Applied Mathematics II using four different comparative instructional approaches: MATLAB supported traditional lecture method, MATLAB supported collaborative method, only collaborative method, and only traditional lecture method. Four intact classes of mechanical engineering groups 1 and 2, garment engineering and textile engineering students were randomly selected out of eight departments. The first three departments were considered as treatment groups and the fourth one 'Textile engineering' was assigned as a comparison group. The departments had 30, 29, 35 and 32 students respectively. The results of the study show that there is a significant mean difference in students' conceptual understanding between groups of students learning through MATLAB supported collaborative method and the other learning approaches. Students who were learned through MATLAB technology-supported learning in combination with collaborative method were found to understand concepts of functions of two variables better than students learning through the other methods of learning. These, hence, are informative of the potential approaches universities would follow for a better students’ understanding of concepts.
Critical Reflection in Teaching and Learning Mathematics towards Perspective Transformation: Practices in Public and Private Schools
The study investigated the practices in critical reflection being employed in teaching and learning mathematics in public and private schools for students to achieve perspective transformation in psychological, convictional and behavioral dimensions. There were 1,969 senior high school and college student-respondents selected at random from 33 schools. Process reflection is most commonly practiced in both public and private schools. Convictional dimension of perspective transformation is most frequently achieved. There is no significant difference in practices of process reflection between senior high school and college students. However, there is a significant difference in perspective transformation in behavioral dimension achieved by students from public and private schools. Also, there are significant differences in psychological, convictional and behavioral dimensions of perspective transformation achieved by senior high school and college students. There is a high and significant relationship between critical reflection practices and perspective transformation of students. The researcher concludes that there are teaching strategies that facilitate critical thinking, and there are learning activities that alter perspective of students about mathematics as an abstract field. The researcher further concludes that consistent use of appropriate teaching and learning activities could bring about perspective transformation in students with success.
Parental Involvement and Motivation as Predictors of Learning Outcomes in Yoruba Language Value Concepts among Senior Secondary School Students in Ibadan, Nigeria
This study investigated parental involvement and motivation as predictors of students’ learning outcomes in value concepts in Yoruba language in Ibadan, Nigeria. Value concepts in Yoruba language aimed at teaching moral lessons and transmitting Yoruba culture. However, feelers from schools and the society reported students’ poor achievement in examinations and negative attitude to the subject. Previous interventions focused on teaching strategies with little consideration for student-related factors. The study was anchored on psychosocial learning theory. The respondents were senior secondary II students with mean age of 15.50 ± 2.25 from 20 public schools in Ibadan, Oyo-State. In all, 1000 students were selected (486 males and 514 females) through proportionate to sample size technique. Instruments used were Students’ Motivation (r=0.79), Parental Involvement (r=0.87), and Attitude to Yoruba Value Concepts (r=0.94) scales and Yoruba Value Concepts Achievement Test (r=0.86). Data were analyzed using descriptive statistics, Pearson product moment correlation and Multiple regressions at 0.05 level of significance. Findings revealed a significant relationship between parental involvement (r=0.54) and students’ achievement in and attitude to (r=0.229) value concepts in Yoruba. The composite contribution of parental involvement and motivation to students’ achievement and attitude was significant, contributing 20.3% and 5.1% respectively. The relative contributions of parental involvement to students’ achievement (β = 0.073; t = 1.551) and attitude (β = 0.228; t = 7.313) to value concepts in Yoruba were significant. Parental involvement was the independent variable that strongly predicts students’ achievement in and attitude to Yoruba value concepts. Parents should inculcate indigenous knowledge in their children and support its learning at school.
Teaching and Doing Research in Higher Education Settings: An Exploratory Study of Vietnamese Overseas-Trained Returnees
A large number of Vietnamese lecturers leave their home institutions every year to pursue an education in Australia and in other countries and most of whom return home to careers back in the Vietnamese work context. However, to the authors’ best knowledge, there is little empirical knowledge about these Vietnamese returnees. Much less is about how these overseas-trained returnees continue doing research while taking a lecturing role, though research has recently received growing heightened attention in Vietnamese Higher Education institutions and returnees are an important source of human resources. The research is mixed-methods in nature with questionnaires and interviews as the main instruments of data collection. Seven-six Vietnamese returnees working from a broad range of disciplines from different higher education institutions in central Vietnam completed a questionnaire on their perceived constraints and affordances in teaching and continuing doing research upon return from their overseas education. Twenty-five of these returnees took part in a subsequent in-depth interview which lasted from 30 minutes to an hour, which further seeks understanding of their lived individual experiences and stories. The overall results show that time constraint, heavy teaching loads, and varied administrative and familial roles are among inhibiting factors. However, these factors were more constraining for some returnees more than others. Their motivations to do research varied, from passion to work pressure and self-perceived responsibilities. Above all, these were mediated by personal, institutional and disciplinary contexts. The paper argues for a nuanced understanding of returnee academics’ life as complex and layered with the multiple identities they associated themselves with and the differing trajectories they embarked on as to what they perceived important as a university lecturer. Implications for Higher Education management and administration and professional development are addressed.
Musical Diversity: The Differences between Public and Private Kindergartens in China
Early childhood music education plays a significant role in an individual’s growth. Music can help children understand themselves and relate to others, and make connections between family, school, and society. In recent years, with the development of early childhood education in China, an increasing number of kindergartens have been established, and many of them pay more attention to music education. This research has two main aims. One is to discover how and why music is used in both public and private kindergartens. The second aim is to make recommendations for widening the use of music in kindergartens. In order to achieve these aims, the research uses two main methods. Firstly, it considers the historical background and cultural context of early childhood education in China; and secondly, it uses an approach that compares public and private kindergartens. In this research, six kindergartens were chosen from Qingdao city in Shandong Province as case studies, including 3 public kindergartens and 3 private kindergartens. This research was based on using three types of data collection methods: observation, semi-structured interviews with teachers, and questionnaires with parents. Participant and non-participant observational methods were used and included in daily routines at the kindergartens in order to experience the situation of music education first-hand. Interviews were associated with teachers’ views of teaching and learning music, the perceptions of the music context, and their strategies of using music. Lastly, the questionnaire was designed to obtain the views of current music education from the children’s parents in the respective kindergartens. The results are shown with three main themes: (1) distinct characteristics of public kindergartens (e.g., similar equipment, low tuition fee, qualified teachers, etc); (2) distinct characteristics of private kindergartens (e.g., various tuition fees, own teaching system, trained teachers, etc); and (3) differences between public and private kindergartens (e.g., funding, requirements for teachers, parents’ demands, etc). According to the results, we can see that the main purpose of using music in China is to develop the musical ability of children, and teachers focus on musical learning, such as singing in tune and playing instruments. However, as revealed in this research, there are many other uses and functions of music in these educational settings, including music used for non-musical learning (e.g., counting, learning language, etc.) or in supporting social routines.
Use of Dynamic Software Geogebra in High Order Linear Differential Equations
In this work, interactive animation creations is proposed through the use of dynamic Geogebra software as a teaching and learning strategy for linear differential equations of third and fourth order. The solutions of the differential equations with constant coefficients can be a combinations of periodic or quasiperiodic (variable amplitudes) and no periodic functions. There are three independent coefficients, which can be changed in order to move from quasiperiodic to no periodic functions. The values and the sign of the coefficients can be changed, but they should be real in order to have always quasiperiodic solutions by pairs. These changes should be correlated with the roots of the corresponding algebraic equation defined by the coefficients of the differential equations. The analysis of the initial conditions will be also performed. Geogebra supported by a well-designed instructional process can result in more than meaningful learning, and as a result, students are motivated to learn. Animation software allows teachers to make their own didactic design and to focus on the points they consider most relevant and important.
Learning Physics Concepts through Language Syntagmatic Paradigmatic Relations
The work presents a teaching strategy that employs syntagmatic and paradigmatic linguistic relations in order to monitor the understanding of physics students’ concepts. Syntagmatic and paradigmatic relations are theoretical elements of semiotics studies and our research circumstances and justified them within the research program of multi-modal representations. Among the multi-modal representations to learning scientific knowledge, the scope of action of syntagmatic and paradigmatic relations belongs to the discursive writing form. The use of such relations has the purpose to seek innovate didactic work with discourse representation in the write form before translate to another different representational form. The research was conducted with a sample of first year high school students. The students were asked to produce syntagmatic and paradigmatic of Newton’ first law statement. This statement was delivered in paper for each student that should individually write the relations. The student’s records were collected for analysis. It was possible observed in one student used here as example that their monemes replaced and rearrangements produced by, respectively, syntagmatic and paradigmatic relations, kept the original meaning of the law. In paradigmatic production he specified relevant significant units of the linguistic signs, the monemas, which constitute the first articulation and each word substituted kept equivalence to the original meaning of original monema. Also, it was noted a number of diverse and many monemas were chosen, with balanced combination of grammatical (grammatical monema is what changes the meaning of a word, in certain positions of the syntagma, along with a relatively small number of other monemes. It is the smallest linguistic unit that has grammatical meaning) and lexical (lexical monema is what belongs to unlimited inventories; is the monema endowed with lexical meaning) monemas. In syntagmatic production, monemas ordinations were syntactically coherent, being linked with semantic conservation and preserved number. In general, the results showed that the written representation mode based on linguistic relations paradigmatic and syntagmatic qualifies itself to be used in the classroom as a potential identifier and accompanist of meanings acquired from students in the process of scientific inquiry.
Analysis of the Discursive Dynamics of Preservice Physics Teachers in a Context of Curricular Innovation
The aim of this work is to analyze the discursive dynamics of preservice teachers during the implementation of a didactic sequence on topics of Quantum Mechanics for High School. Our research methodology was qualitative, case study type, in which we selected two prospective teachers on the Physics Teacher Training Course of the Sao Carlos Institute of Physics, at the University of Sao Paulo/Brazil. The set of modes of communication analyzed were the intentions and interventions of the teachers, the established communicative approach, the patterns and the contents of the interactions between teachers and students. Data were collected through video recording, interviews and questionnaires conducted before and after an 8 hour mini-course, which was offered to a group of 20 secondary students. As teaching strategy we used an active learning methodology, called: Peer Instruction. The episodes pointed out that both future teachers used interactive dialogic and authoritative communicative approaches to mediate the discussion between peers. In the interactive dialogic dimension the communication pattern was predominantly I-R-F (initiation-response-feedback), in which the future teachers assisted the students in the discussion by providing feedback to their initiations and contributing to the progress of the discussions between peers. Although the interactive dialogic dimension has been preferential during the use of the Peer Instruction method the authoritative communicative approach was also employed. In the authoritative dimension, future teachers used predominantly the type I-R-E (initiation-response-evaluation) communication pattern by asking the students several questions and leading them to the correct answer. Among the main implications the work contributes to the improvement of the practices of future teachers involved in applying active learning methodologies in classroom by identifying the types of communicative approaches and communication patterns used, as well as researches on curriculum innovation in physics in high school.
From Equations to Structures: Linking Abstract Algebra and High-School Algebra for Secondary School Teachers
The high-school curriculum in algebra deals mainly with the solution of different types of equations. However, modern algebra has a completely different viewpoint and is concerned with algebraic structures and operations. A question then arises: What might be the relevance and contribution of an abstract algebra course for developing expertise and mathematical perspective in secondary school mathematics instruction? This is the focus of this paper. The course Algebra: From Equations to Structures is a carefully designed abstract algebra course for Israeli secondary school mathematics teachers. The course provides an introduction to algebraic structures and modern abstract algebra, and links abstract algebra to the high-school curriculum in algebra. It follows the historical attempts of mathematicians to solve polynomial equations of higher degrees, attempts which resulted in the development of group theory and field theory by Galois and Abel. In other words, algebraic structures grew out of a need to solve certain problems, and proved to be a much more fruitful way of viewing them. This theorems in both group theory and field theory. Along the historical ‘journey’, many other major results in algebra in the past 150 years are introduced, and recent directions that current research in algebra is taking are highlighted. This course is part of a unique master’s program – the Rothschild-Weizmann Program – offered by the Weizmann Institute of Science, especially designed for practicing Israeli secondary school teachers. A major component of the program comprises mathematical studies tailored for the students at the program. The rationale and structure of the course Algebra: From Equations to Structures are described, and its relevance to teaching school algebra is examined by analyzing three kinds of data sources. The first are position papers written by the participating teachers regarding the relevance of advanced mathematics studies to expertise in classroom instruction. The second data source are didactic materials designed by the participating teachers in which they connected the mathematics learned in the mathematics courses to the school curriculum and teaching. The third date source are final projects carried out by the teachers based on material learned in the course.
Nonhomogeneous Linear Second Order Differential Equations and Resonance through GeoGebra Program
The aim of this work is the application of the program GeoGebra in teaching the study of nonhomogeneous linear second order differential equations with constant coefficients. Different kind of functions or forces will be considered in the right hand side of the differential equations, in particular, the emphasis will be placed in the case of trigonometrical functions producing the resonance phenomena. In order to obtain this, the frequencies of the trigonometrical functions will be changed. Once the resonances appear, these have to be correlationated with the roots of the second order algebraic equation determined by the coefficients of the differential equation. In this way, the physics and engineering students will understand resonance effects and its consequences in the simplest way. A large variety of examples will be shown, using different kind of functions for the nonhomogeneous part of the differential equations.
The Boundary Element Method in Excel for Teaching Vector Calculus and Simulation
This paper discusses the implementation of the boundary element method (BEM) on an Excel spreadsheet and how it can be used in teaching vector calculus and simulation. There are two separate spreadheets, within which Laplace’s equation is solved by the BEM in two dimensions (LIBEM2) and axisymmetric three dimensions (LBEMA). The main algorithms are implemented in the associated programming language within Excel, Visual Basic for Applications (VBA). The BEM only requires a boundary mesh and hence it is a relatively accessible method. The BEM in the open spreadsheet environment is demonstrated as being useful as an aid to teaching and learning. The application of the BEM implemented on a spreadsheet for educational purposes in introductory vector calculus and simulation is explored. The development of assignment work is discussed and sample results from student work are given. The spreadsheets were found to be useful tools in developing the students’ understanding of vector calculus and in simulating heat conduction.
A Cross-Sectional Examination of Children’s Developing Understanding of the Rainbow
Surprisingly little is known from a research perspective about children’s understanding of rainbows and rainbow formation, and how this understanding changes with increasing age. Yet this kind of research is useful when conceptualizing pedagogy, lesson plans, or more general curricula. The present study aims to rectify this shortcoming. In a cross-sectional approach, children of three different age groups (4-5, 7-8 and 10-11 years) were asked to draw pictures that included rainbows. The pictures will be evaluated according to their scientific representation of rainbows, such as the order of colors, as well as according to any non-scientific conceptions, such as solidity. In addition to the drawings, the children took part in small focus groups where they had to discuss various questions about rainbows and rainbow formation. Similar to the drawings, these conversations will be evaluated around the degree of scientific accuracy of the children’s explanations. Gaining a complete developmental picture of children’s understanding of the rainbow may have important implications for pedagogy in early science education. Many other concepts in science, while not explicitly linked to rainbows and rainbow formation, can benefit from the use of rainbows as illustrations – such as understanding light and color, or the use of prisms. Even in non-science domains, such as art and even storytelling, recognizing the differentiation between fact and myth in relation to rainbows could be of value. In addition, research has pointed out that teachers tend to overestimate the proportion of students’ correct answers, so clarifying the actual level of conceptual understanding is crucial in this respect.
Implementation of Project-Based Learning with Peer Assessment in Large Classes under Consideration of Faculty’s Scare Resources
To overcome the negative consequences associated with large class sizes and to support students in developing the necessary competences (e.g., critical thinking, problem-solving, or team-work skills) a marketing course has been redesigned by implementing project-based learning with peer assessment (PBL&PA). This means that students can voluntarily take advantage of this supplementary offer and explore -in addition to attending the lecture where clicker questions are asked- a real-world problem, find a solution, and assess the results of peers while working in small collaborative groups. In order to handle this with little further effort, the process is technically supported by the university’s e-learning system in such a way that students upload their solution in form of an assignment which is then automatically distributed to peer groups who have to assess the work of three other groups. Finally, students’ work is graded automatically considering both, students’ contribution to the project and the conformity of the peer assessment. The purpose of this study is to evaluate students’ perception of PBL&PA using an online-questionnaire to collect the data. More specifically, it aims to discover students’ motivations for (not) working on a project and the benefits and problems students encounter. In addition to the survey, students’ performance was analyzed by comparing the final grades of those who participated in PBL&PA with those who did not participate. Among the 260 students who filled out the questionnaire, 47% participated in PBL&PA. Besides extrinsic motivations (bonus credits), students’ participation was often motivated by learning and social benefits. Reasons for not working on a project were connected to students’ organization and management of their studies (e.g., time constraints, no/wrong information) and teamwork concerns (e.g., missing engagement of peers, prior negative experiences). In addition, high workload and insufficient extrinsic motivation (bonus credits) were mentioned. With regards to benefits and problems students encountered during the project, students provided more positive than negative comments. Positive aspects most often stated were learning and social benefits while negative ones were mainly attached to the technical implementation. Interestingly, bonus credits were hardly named as a positive aspect meaning that intrinsic motivations have become more important when working on the project. Team aspects generated mixed feelings. In addition, students who voluntarily participated in PBL&PA were, in general, more active and utilized further course offers such as clicker questions. Examining students’ performance at the final exam revealed that students without participating in any of the offered active learning tasks performed poorest in the exam while students who used all activities were best. In conclusion, the goals of the implementation were met in terms of students’ perceived benefits and the positive impact on students’ exam performance. Since the comparison of the automatic grading with faculty grading showed valid results, it is possible to rely only on automatic grading in the future. That way, the additional workload for faculty will be within limits. Thus, the implementation of project-based learning with peer assessment can be recommended for large classes.
The Implementation of Social Responsibility with the Approach of Indonesian Realistic Mathematics Education in Teaching and Learning Mathematics on Students' Engagement and Learning
The major objective of this study was to implement and evaluate the use of the implementation of social responsibility with the approach of Indonesian Realistic Mathematics Education (PMRI) in teaching and learning mathematics on students’ engagement and learning. The research problems investigated in this research: 1) What were the effects of the implementation of social responsibility with PMRI approach to learning mathematics? 2) What were the effects of the approach to students’ engagement? An action research and grounded theory methodology were adopted for the study. This study used mixed methods to collect, describe, and interpret the data. The data were collected through focus group discussion, classroom observations, questionnaire, interview, and students’ work. The participants in this study consisted of 45 students. The study revealed that the approach has given students the opportunity to develop their understanding of concepts and procedures, problem-solving ability, and communication ability. Also, students’ involvement in the approach improved their engagement in learning mathematics in the three domains of cognitive engagement, effective engagement, and behavioral engagement. In particular, the data collection from the focus group, classroom observations, and interviews suggest that, during this study, the students became more active participants in the mathematics lessons.
Movement in a Viscous Medium over an Inclined Plane: Modeling a Physical Phenomenon through the Linear Function
The purpose of this article is to study the behavior a metallic sphere movement immersed in a tube with a viscous medium on an inclined plane. The sphere and an air bubble move inside the tube, which contains glycerin, as the sphere is abandoned from a certain angle. For this experiment, the Physics Laboratory of IFMA Advanced Campus Porto Franco was used. In this experiment, it was possible to determine the type of movement performed and the speed reached by the objects inside the tube. The analysis of the results led to the conclusion that, by modeling the behavior of the graph through an Affine Function, both the air bubble and a metal sphere tend to present a Uniform Rectilinear Motion. From the modeling of movements inside the tube, we obtained the results related to the study of the movement as to the point and moment of the meeting of the furniture under the same rectilinear trajectory, but in opposite directions. By means of a Linear Regression, it was possible to calculate the equations of the bubble and the sphere positions, which allows predicting their position at a given instant. A large approximation between the observed curve and the expected curve was observed, with both tending to linearity. The Pearson Correlation Coefficient was also calculated to confirm the linearity of the movements. Such a study can contribute significantly in the teaching of mathematics, concerning the Linear Functions, as it values interdisciplinarity, assigning meaning to the content that is usually theoretically mediated, and inspiring students to observe mathematics from a practical and pleasurable perspective.
The Spanish Didactic Book 'El Calculo Y La Medida en El Primer Grado De La Escuela Decroly' (1934): A Look at the Mathematical Knowledge
This article aims to investigate the Spanish didactic book, entitled ‘El Calculo y La Medida en El Primer Grado de La Escuela Decroly’, written by Dr. O. Decroly and A. Hamaide, published in Madrid, in the year 1934. In addition to analyzing how mathematical knowledge is present in the proposed Centers of Interest. The textbooks, in addition to pedagogical tools, reflect a certain moment in society and allow the analysis of the theoretical-methodological proposal that can be implemented by the teacher. The study proposed here will be carried out by the lens of Cultural History, supported by Roger Chartier (1991) and by the concepts on textbooks, based on Alain Choppin (2004). The textbook selected for this study exposes a program of ideas associated with the method of Centers of Interest and arithmetic is linked to these interests. In the first courses (six to eight years), most centers can be considered to correspond to occasional calls, as they take advantage of events that arise spontaneously to work with observation, measurement, association and expression exercises. The program of ideas associated with Centers of Interest addresses the biological and social aspects of children, as long as they can express their needs for activities and games, satisfying the natural curiosity. Still, the program of associated ideas offers occasions for problems whose data are taken in observation exercises and concrete expressions (manuals, drawings). In the method applied at the school of L'Ermitage, school created by Decroly in Belgium in 1907, observation, is the basis of each center of interest. It offers the chance to compare and measure. To observe is more than to perceive; it is also to establish relations between the graded aspects of the same object, to seek relations between different intensities; is to verify successions, special and temporary relationships; is to make comparisons, to notice differences and similarities in block or datable (analysis), is to establish a bridge between the world and the thought. To make the observation more precise, it is important to compare, measure, and resort to considered objects as natural units of measure. Measurement and calculation are, therefore, quite naturally subject to observation. Thus, it is possible to make the child enter into the interest in the calculation, linking it to the observation. It was observed that the Centers of Interest, according to Decroly, should respond to the concerns and attend to the motivations of the students and the teaching of arithmetical must obey a logical seriation, considering the interest and the experience of the children. The teaching of arithmetical should not be limited to the schedule, it should cover every quantitative aspect that arises in the other disciplines. The feeling of unity is established in observation, association and expression, which coordinate a whole program of cultural activities, concentrating it around a central idea.
The Impact of Technological Advancement on Academic Performance of Mathematics Students in Tertiary Institutions in Ekiti State, Nigeria
The study investigated the impact of technological advancement on the academic performance of Mathematics students in tertiary institutions in Ekiti State, Nigeria. The quasi-experimental research design was adopted for the study. The population for the study consisted of all the 100 level undergraduates and all Mathematics lecturers in the Department of Mathematics in all the five tertiary institutions in the State. The sample of this study was made of one hundred (100) students and fifty (50) lecturers randomly selected using stratified sampling technique. Hypotheses were postulated to find out whether (i) advancement in technology influences the academic performance of students in Mathematics (ii) teaching method and gender disparity influences the academic performance of students in Mathematics. The study revealed that teaching method, gender, and technology influence academic performance of students in Mathematics. Based on the findings, it is recommended that curriculum and assessment in school Mathematics should explicitly require that all undergraduate become proficient in using digital technologies for mathematical purposes so as to enhance the better performance of students in Mathematics.
Understanding the Nature of Student Conceptions of Mathematics: A Study of Mathematics Students in Higher Education
This study examines the nature of student conceptions of mathematics in higher education using quantitative research methods. This study validates the Short Form of Conception of Mathematics survey as well as reveals the epistemological nature of student conceptions of mathematics. Using a random sample of mathematics students in Australia and New Zealand (N=274), this paper highlighted three key findings, of relevance to lecturers in higher education. Firstly, descriptive data shows that mathematics students in Australia and New Zealand reported that mathematics is about numbers and components, models and life. Secondly, models conceptions of mathematics predicted strong examination performances using regression analyses; and thirdly, there is a positive correlation between high mathematics examination scores and cohesive conceptions of mathematics.