International Science Index
International Journal of Economics and Management Engineering
The Role of Islamic Finance and Socioeconomic Factors in Financial Inclusion: A Cross Country Comparison
While religion is only a very minor factor contributing to financial exclusion in most countries, the World Bank 2014 Global Financial Development Report highlighted it as a significant barrier for having a financial account in some Muslim majority countries. This is in part due to the perceived incompatibility between traditional financial institutions practices and Islamic finance principles. In these cases, the development of financial institutions and products that are compatible with the principles of Islamic finance may act as an important lever to increasing formal account ownership. However, there is significant diversity in the relationship between a country’s proportion of Muslim population and its level of financial inclusion. This paper combines data taken from the Global Findex Database, World Development Indicators, and the Pew Research Center to quantitatively explore the relationship between individual and country level religious and socioeconomic factor to financial inclusion. Results from regression analyses show a complex relationship between financial inclusion and religion-related factors in the population both on the individual and country level. Consistent with prior literature, on average the percentage of Islamic population positively correlates with the proportion of unbanked populations who cites religious reasons as a barrier to getting an account. However, its impact varies across several variables. First, a deeper look into countries’ religious composition reveals that the average negative impact of a large Muslim population is not as strong in more religiously diverse countries and less religious countries. Second, on the individual level, among the unbanked, the poorest quintile, least educated, older and the female populations are comparatively more likely to not have an account because of religious reason. Results also show indications that in this case, informal mechanisms partially substitute formal financial inclusion, as indicated by the propensity to borrow from family and friends. The individual level findings are important because the demographic groups that are more likely to cite religious reasons as barriers to formal financial inclusion are also generally perceived to be more vulnerable socially and economically and may need targeted attention. Finally, the number of Islamic financial institutions in a particular country is negatively correlated to the propensity of religious reasons as a barrier to financial inclusion. Importantly, the number of financial institutions in a country also mitigates the negative impact of the proportion of Muslim population, low education and individual age to formal financial inclusion. These results point to the potential importance of Islamic Finance Institutions in increasing global financial inclusion, and highlight the potential importance of looking beyond the proportion of Muslim population to other underlying institutional and socioeconomic factor in maximizing its impact.
Prospects and Problems of Islamic Banking: A Case Study of Aurangabad District
Islamic banking is a finance system based on the principles of Shariah law. Charging interest is prohibited in Islam. Instead of charging interest the lender shares some part of profit or loss with the borrower, there is a great need for Islamic banking after the collapse of leading Wall Street institutions notably Lehman Brothers and other global finance institution, economic recession, Islamic banking have emerged as an alternative to conventional banking. Islamic banking is growing at the rate of more than 15% not only in Muslim countries, but also in secular and modern industrialized countries like U.K. Japan, France, Singapore, Hongkong. India with a total population of about 184 million about $ 1.5% Muslim deposit interest is lying unclaimed in different Indian banks, as there are no banks based on shariah laws approved by the RBI. When we take the example of Kerala state in India, almost 26.2% population is Muslim. Thus thousands of crore of rupees earned in interest is suspended accounts. In Kerala alone Rs. 40,000 crore and in Jammu and Kashmir Rs. 50,000 crore as interest earned on deposit of Muslim are lying unclaimed. By 2050, Indian Muslim population would be the largest in the world. It will surpass Indonesia. The Muslim population is likely to exceed 18% i.e. 310 mn. Muslim population will increase four percentage points from 14% to 18%. This paper studies the problems and prospects of Islamic banking in India. India has 29 states and Maharashtra is one of them. In the Maharashtra state is Aurangabad district. According to census 2011, Aurangabad city population is 51.07% is Hindu .Muslim is the second most popular religion with approximately 30.79. There are branches of Islamic banking run by Anjuman e Islam in many parts of India by the name of Al- Khair Baitul Mal which is a nongovernment organization. Its branch is in Aurangabad. The main objectives of this study are: 1. To find the scope of Islamic banking. 2. To study and analyze the prospects and problems of such organizations in Aurangabad district. 3. To create awareness about Islamic banking. 4. To study the functions of the organizations based on Islamic banking rules. 5. To encourage non-Muslims to invest in Islamic banking. The methodology used will be primary as well as secondary data. This is helping the weaker section of the society to obtain sources for trade and business. This paper finds that there is sufficient scope of Islamic banking in the region.
First Digit Lucas, Fibonacci and Benford Number in Financial Statement
Background: This study aims to explore if there is fraud in the company's financial report distribution using the number first digit Lucas, Fibonacci and Benford. Research methods: In this study, the author uses a number model contained in the first digit of the model Lucas, Fibonacci and Benford, to make a distinction between implementation by using the scale above and below 5%, the rate of occurrence of a difference against the digit number contained on Lucas, Fibonacci and Benford. If there is a significant difference above and below 5%, then the process of follow-up and detection of occurrence of fraud against the financial statements can be made. Findings: From research that has been done can be concluded that the number of frequency levels contained in the financial statements of PT Bank BRI Tbk in a year in the same conscientious results for model Lucas, Fibonacci and Benford.
Features of Formation and Development of Risk Management Systems of the Owner of the Organization in the Russian Economy
This paper analyzes the features and key aspects of formation and development of risk management systems of the owner of the organization in the Russian economy. The relevance of this study is determined by the radically of changes in the last 25 years in the Russian economy. As a result of economic transformations which took place in Russia at the turn of XX-XXI centuries led to the formation of a particular class of owners’ associations. The process of interaction of the owner with control system owned by the organization is associated with a significant number of risks and threats. Risk management requires the formation of special systems and mechanisms for the participation of the owner in the process of their identification, analysis and evaluation. In modern conditions the owner of the organization is one of the participants of the management model of the enterprise, which is not directly operated business, and directs top management to the strategic objectives and monitor the situation, asking the landmark action taken by its management decision. New models of analysis, evaluation, organization, regulation and risk management are in the process of functioning of the organizations and entrepreneurs, business consultants and firms providing professional services. These entities control, directly and indirectly, create new control patterns, the owners' risk, as they have a wide range of research practices, the emergence of different types of business threats, which allows them to redefine the strategic importance and value of formation and development of control systems owners' risk. Based on the analysis of problems of perfection of the architecture of control systems owners' risk in domestic and foreign management science, the authors offer their own interpretation of the main directions of this development
Relative Composition of Executive Compensation Packages, Corporate Governance and Financial Reporting Quality
Most executive compensation packages consist of four major components: base fixed salary, annual and long-term non-equity incentive plans, share-based and option-based awards and pension value. According to agency theory, the relative composition of executive compensation packages is one of the mechanisms that firms use to align the interests of executives and shareholders in order to mitigate agency costs. This paper tests the effect of the relative composition of executive compensation packages on financial reporting quality. Financial reporting quality is measured by the value relevance of accounting earnings. Corporate governance is a moderating variable in the model. Using data from Canadian firms composing S&P/TSX index of the year 2013 and governance scores based on Board Games, the analysis shows that, only for firms with good governance, there is an optimal level of the proportion of executive equity-based compensation in relation to total compensation that enhances the quality of financial reporting.
Modeling Heat-Related Mortality Based on Greenhouse Emissions in OECD Countries
Greenhouse emissions by human activities are known to irreversibly increase global temperatures through the greenhouse effect. This study seeks to propose a mortality model with sensitivity to heat-change effects as one of the underlying parameters in the model. As such, the study sought to establish the relationship between greenhouse emissions and mortality indices in five OECD countries (USA, UK, Japan, Canada & Germany). Upon the establishment of the relationship using correlation analysis, an additional parameter that accounts for the sensitivity of heat-changes to mortality rates was incorporated in the Lee-Carter model. Based on the proposed model, new parameter estimates were calculated using iterative algorithms for optimization. Finally, the goodness of fit for the original Lee-Carter model and the proposed model were compared using deviance comparison. The proposed model provides a better fit to mortality rates especially in USA, UK and Germany where the mortality indices have a strong positive correlation with the level of greenhouse emissions. The results of this study are of particular importance to actuaries, demographers and climate-risk experts who seek to use better mortality-modeling techniques in the wake of heat effects caused by increased greenhouse emissions.
Asymmetrical Informative Estimation for Macroeconomic Model: Special Case in the Tourism Sector of Thailand
This paper used an asymmetric informative concept to apply in the macroeconomic model estimation of tourism sector in Thailand. Yearly times-series data including tourism revenues, tourists’ expenditures, private investments in service sectors, government expenditures in tourism, Thailand service exports, Thailand service imports, and net services income and transfers was collected during 2002 to 2015. The tourism multiplier and accelerator were estimated by two statistical approaches. The former was the result of the Generalized Method of Moments model (GMM) based on the assumption which the tourism market in Thailand had perfect information (Symmetrical data). The new estimation was the result of the Maximum Entropy Bootstrapping approach based on the process that attempted to deal with imperfect information and reduced uncertainty in the tourism market (Asymmetrical data). In addition, the tourism leakages were investigated by a simple model based on the injections and leakages theory. The empirical findings represented the parameters computed from the Maximum Entropy Bootstrapping approach which is different from the GMM method. However, either the new estimation or former estimation suggests that Thailand tourism sectors are in a period capable of stimulating the economy.
Transformation of the Business Model in an Occupational Health Care Company in the Emerging Personal Data Ecosystem: A Case Study in Finland
Information technology has long been used as an enabler of exchange for goods and services. Services are evolving from generic to personalized, and the reverse use of customer data has been discussed in both academia and industry for the past few years. This article presents results of an empirical case study in the area of preventive health care services. The primary data was gathered in workshops, in which the future personal data based services were conceptualized by analyzing future scenarios from the business perspective. The aim of this study is to understand the impacts of personal data management in the business models focusing on the business opportunities in the selected case company. The results have implications to theory and practice, indicating that adopting the personal data management principles requires transformation of the business model, which, if successfully managed, may provide access to more resources, potential to offer better value, and additional customer channels. These advantages correlate to the broadening of the business ecosystem. Expanding the scope of this study to include more actors would improve the validity of the research. The results draw from existing literature and are based on findings from case study and the economic properties of the healthcare industry in Finland.
Comparing Performance Indicators among Mechanistic, Organic, and Bureaucratic Organizations
With globalization, organizations had to adjust to an unstable environment in order to survive in a competitive arena. Typically within the field of management, different types of organizations include mechanistic, bureaucratic and organic ones. In fact, bureaucratic and mechanistic organizations have some characteristics in common. Bureaucracy is one type of Thailand organization which adapted from mechanistic concept to develop an organization that is suitable for the characteristic and culture of Thailand. The objective of this study is to compare the adjustment strategies of both organizations in order to find key performance indicators (KPI) suitable for improving organization in Thailand. The methodology employed is binary logistic regression. The results of this study will be valuable for developing future management strategies for both bureaucratic and mechanistic organizations.
Human Resource Management: A Study of Human Resource Practices in 'Maharatna' Central Public Sector Enterprises in India
The paper discusses best practices developed and followed by 07 'Maharatna' Central Public sector Enterprises in India. The paper begins with brief analyses of the contribution of ‘Maharatna’ companies in the growth story of India Inc. Progressively; it enlists Human Resource practices and approach of these 'Maharatna' companies in the areas such as Recruitment, Pay structure, Employee Benefits and Development, Rewards and Recognition practices, Performance Management Systems, etc. In the later part of the paper, HR factors that led some of these 'Maharatna' companies from average employers to 'Best Place at Work' are discussed in brief.
The Relationship between Organizational Structure and Intellectual Capital in Saman Bank (Case Study: Management Branch of Tehran)
This study aimed to investigate the relationship between organizational structure and intellectual capital of Saman banks of Tehran of IRAN.
This cross-sectional study was carried on 205 staff of banks of Tehran With random sampling method in the year 2015. The research method was descriptive-correlation, Demographic/prenatal characteristics, structure and intellectual capital questionnaire were completed by the participants. The statistical analysis was performed with various statistical tests such as Pearson correlation coefficient, t test, one way ANOVA, and linear regression using SPSS statistical software (version 16).
Results showed that there is an indirect significant relationship (P < 0.001) between Structure and intellectual capital in staff of Saman bank of Tehran. The total mean score of intellectual capital was 3.5096. The results showed a significant negative relationship between structure and intellectual capital. The total mean score of structure was 3.2826.
Based on finding, the more (Centralized, complex, formal), the less thinking and learning organization. Bank Manager must change the structure of organization, they must change Mechanical structures to organic structures.
Organizational structure, intellectual capital, bank, staff
Organizational Agility in 22 Districts of Tehran Municipality
Background: Today variable and dynamic environment doubles importance of using suitable solutions for confronting these changes in th4e organizations. One of the best ways for coping with environmental changes is directing the organization towards agility. Current research aims at investigating status of organizational agility in Tehran municipality (22 districts).
Research Methodology: This research is applied research in terms of purpose of study and it is survey in terms of collection of descriptive data. A sample (n = 377) was selected from Tehran Municipality (22 districts) employees using multistage sampling method (cluster and regular). Data were collected using organizational agility standard questionnaire, and they were analyzed using statistical tests in SPSS software as well as inferential statistics such as one-sample t-test and Friedman test and descriptive statistics such as mean and median. Findings: Research findings showed organizational agility status in the organizations under study is in relatively optimal status and competence has highest priority in terms of ranking and priority of organizational agility indexes.
Conclusion: It is necessary that managers provide suitable conditions for promoting organizational agility status in the organizations under study by identifying factors affecting change in the organizational environments and using available potentials for better coping with changes and higher flexibility and speed.
Relationship between Growth of Non-Performing Assets and Credit Risk Management Practices in Indian Banks
The study attempts to analyze the impact of credit risk management practices of Indian scheduled commercial banks on their non-performing assets (NPAs). The data on credit risk practices was collected by administering a questionnaire to risk managers/executives at different banks. The data on NPAs (from 2012 to 2016) is sourced from Prowess, a database compiled by the Centre for Monitoring Indian Economy (CMIE). The model was estimated using cross-sectional regression method. As expected, the findings suggest that there is a negative relationship between credit risk management and NPA growth in Indian banks. The study has implications for Indian banks given the high level of losses, and the implementation of Basel III norms by the central bank, i.e. Reserve Bank of India (RBI). Evidence on credit risk management in Indian banks, and their relationship with non-performing assets held by them.
Challenges of Startup Businesses in a Crisis Context
The study is about the challenges faced by startup businesses and entrepreneurs in a crisis context and in turbulent economies. The scope is to determine which factors, if any, are related to the success of a new business venture, such as innovation. The methodology to be used is both qualitative and quantitative with the aim of identifying important factors that can contribute positively to a startup business succeeds and that will allow businesses to acquire resilience and survive economic adversities. The study will focus on businesses of the Greek economy, the country with the longer lasting economic crisis and the findings will be lessons to learn for other economies.
The Relationship of Entrepreneurial Competencies and Business Success of Malaysian SMEs: The Mediating Role of Innovation and Brand Equity
The aim of this paper is to examine the relationship of entrepreneurial competencies on business success in the context of Malaysian SMEs. In the recent study, when the business environment is hostile and dynamic, the entrepreneurial competencies are identified as the most important factor in business success. Entrepreneurial competencies are also connected directly to business performance. Beside entrepreneurial competencies, the entrepreneurs should also be competent to create an innovation and brand equity for business growth. The innovation and brand equity contributed to competitive advantages that lead to business growth and success. This paper adopts the Resource Based Theory (RBT) which emphasize that entrepreneurial competencies, innovation and brand equity are valuable and intangible resources that lead towards the success of business; and Brand Equity Creation Process Model (BECPM). A quantitative methodology was used to collect the data from owner/managers of Malaysian SMEs. Data were analyzed by using SPSS and SEM software. Hence, findings of the present study would be essential for owner/managers and strategy makers to enhance the entrepreneurial competencies; innovation and brand equity of SMEs in Malaysia towards global competition.
A Conceptual Model of Social Entrepreneurial Intention Based on the Social Cognitive Career Theory
Entrepreneurial intention play a major role in entrepreneurship academia and practice. The spectrum ranges from the first model of the so-called Entrepreneurial Event, then the Theory of Planned Behavior, the Theory of Planned Behavior Entrepreneurial Model, and the Social Cognitive Career Theory to some typical empirical studies with more or less diverse results. However, little is known so far about the intentions of entrepreneurs in the social areas of venture creation. It is surprising that, since social entrepreneurship is an emerging field with growing importance. Currently, all around the world, there is a big challenge with a lot of urgent soaring social and environmental problems such as poor households, people with disabilities, HIV/AIDS infected people, the lonely elderly, or neglected children, some of them even actual in the Western countries. In addition, the already existing literature on entrepreneurial intentions demonstrates a high level of theoretical diversity in general, especially the missing link to the social dimension of entrepreneurship. Seeking to fill the mentioned gaps in the social entrepreneurial intentions literature, this paper proposes a conceptual model of social entrepreneurial intentions based on the Social Cognitive Career Theory with two main factors influencing entrepreneurial intentions namely self-efficacy and outcome expectation. Moreover, motives, goals and plans do not arise from empty nothingness, but are shaped by interacting with the environment. Hence, personalities (i.e., agreeableness, conscientiousness, extraversion, neuroticism, openness) as well as contextual factors (e.g., role models, education, and perceived support) are also considered as the antecedents of social entrepreneurship intentions.
The Relationship between Market Orientation, Human Resource Management, Adoption of Information Communication Technology, Performance of Small and Medium Enterprises and Mediating Cash Management
Transformation of Economic Development is aimed to transform Malaysia to become a high-income developed nation with a knowledge-based economy by 2020. To achieve this national agenda, the country needs to further strengthen its economic development, growth and well-being. Therefore, this study aspires to examine the relationship between market orientation, human resource management and adoption of information communication technology and SMEs performance and cash management as a mediator. This study will employ quantitative approaches. Questionnaires will be distributed to managers and owners in service sectors. The data collected will be analyzed using SPSS and Structural Equation Modelling. Resource Based Theory (RBT) adopts as an integral part of management literature that explains the performance of organizations through building resources and implement of their strategies.
Public Values in Service Innovation Management: Case Study in Elderly Care in Danish Municipality
Background: The importance of innovation management has traditionally been ascribed to private production companies, however, there is an increasing interest in public services innovation management. One of the major theoretical challenges arising from this situation is to understand public values justifying public services innovation management. However, there is not single and stable definition of public value in the literature. The research question guiding this paper is: What is the supposed added value operating in the public sphere? Methodology: The study takes an action research strategy. This is highly contextualized methodology, which is enacted within a particular set of social relations into which on expects to integrate the results. As such, this research strategy is particularly well suited for its potential to generate results that can be applied by managers. The aim of action research is to produce proposals with a creative dimension capable of compelling actors to act in a new and pertinent way in relation to the situations they encounter. The context of the study is a workshop on public services innovation within elderly care. The workshop brought together different actors, such as managers, personnel and two groups of users-citizens (elderly clients and their relatives). The process was designed as an extension of the co-construction methods inherent in action research. Scenario methods and focus groups were applied to generate dialogue. The main strength of these techniques is to gather and exploit as much data as possible by exposing the discourse of justification used by the actors to explain or justify their points of view when interacting with others on a given subject. The approach does not directly interrogate the actors on their values, but allows their values to emerge through debate and dialogue. Findings: The public values related to public services innovation management in elderly care were identified in two steps. In the first step, identification of values, values were identified in the discussions. Through continuous analysis of the data, a network of interrelated values was developed. In the second step, tracking group consensus, we then ascertained the degree to which the meaning attributed to the value was common to the participants, classifying the degree of consensus as high, intermediate or low. High consensus corresponds to strong convergence in meaning, intermediate to generally shared meanings between participants, and low to divergences regarding the meaning between participants. Only values with high or intermediate degree of consensus were retained in the analysis. Conclusion: The study shows that the fundamental criterion for justifying public services innovation management is the capacity for actors to enact public values in their work. In the workshop, we identified two categories of public values, intrinsic value and behavioural values, and a list of more specific values.
A Game-Theory-Based Price-Optimization Algorithm for the Simulation of Markets Using Agent-Based Modelling
A price competition algorithm for ABMs based on game theory principles is proposed to deal with the simulation of theoretical market models. The algorithm is applied to the classical Hotelling’s model and to a two-sided market model to show it leads to the optimal behavior predicted by theoretical models. However, when theoretical models fail to predict the equilibrium, the algorithm is capable of reaching a feasible outcome. Results highlight that the algorithm can be implemented in other simulation models to guarantee rational users and endogenous optimal behaviors. Also, it can be applied as a tool of verification given that is theoretically based.
The Effects of July 15 Coup Attempt on Borsa Istanbul
The purpose of this study is to analyze the effect of July 15 coup attempt that occurred in Turkey on Borsa Istanbul (Istanbul Stock Exchange, BIST). As it is known, there has been a military coup attempt by a group that involved in Turkish military forces on July 15, 2016, on Friday. This attempt was suppressed in the same weekend by the objection of Turkish society. In the ensuing period, there have been major events in Turkey. Besides the social problems emerged, Turkish Economy was also affected by the coup attempt. Moreover, as a result of fluctuations in the economy and the investment sector, Fitch and Moody’s lowered the credit rating of Turkey. As it is expected, the coup attempt resulted a negative effect on BIST as well. In the first opening days after July 15, there has been a dramatic decline in share prices in BIST. In this study, the effect of July 15 coup attempt on BIST will be empirically analyzed. In this direction, whether there is a structural break on BIST on July 15 will be examined. In addition to this, the validity of Fama’s efficient markets hypothesis before and after July 15 will be investigated. For this aim, potential structural breaks on BIST 100 index will be determined with Bai-Perron structural break test, and it will test whether there is a break on July 15, 2016. Furthermore, the validity of the efficient market hypothesis will be tested by Augmented Dickey-Fuller and Dickey-Fuller GLS tests in the absence of structural breaks, and by Perron and Zivot-Andrews unit root tests in the presence of structural breaks. Thus, the validity of efficient market hypothesis and a possible change in this efficiency on July 15 will be revealed.
The Usage of Bridge Estimator for Hegy Seasonal Unit Root Tests
The aim of this study is to propose Bridge estimator for seasonal unit root tests. Seasonality is an important factor for many economic time series. Some variables may contain seasonal patterns and forecasts that ignore important seasonal patterns have a high variance. Therefore, it is very important to eliminate seasonality for seasonal macroeconomic data. There are some methods to eliminate the impacts of seasonality in time series. One of them is filtering the data. However, this method leads to undesired consequences in unit root tests, especially if the data is generated by a stochastic seasonal process. Another method to eliminate seasonality is using seasonal dummy variables. Some seasonal patterns may result from stationary seasonal processes, which are modelled using seasonal dummies but if there is a varying and changing seasonal pattern over time, so the seasonal process is non-stationary, deterministic seasonal dummies are inadequate to capture the seasonal process. It is not suitable to use seasonal dummies for modeling such seasonally nonstationary series. Instead of that, it is necessary to take seasonal difference if there are seasonal unit roots in the series. Different alternative methods are proposed in the literature to test seasonal unit roots, such as Dickey, Hazsa, Fuller (DHF) and Hylleberg, Engle, Granger, Yoo (HEGY) tests. HEGY test can be also used to test the seasonal unit root in different frequencies (monthly, quarterly, and semiannual). Another issue in unit root tests is the lag selection. Lagged dependent variables are added to the model in seasonal unit root tests as in the unit root tests to overcome the autocorrelation problem. In this case, it is necessary to choose the lag length and determine any deterministic components (i.e., a constant and trend) first, and then use the proper model to test for seasonal unit roots. However, this two-step procedure might lead size distortions and lack of power in seasonal unit root tests. Recent studies show that Bridge estimators are good in selecting optimal lag length while differentiating nonstationary versus stationary models for nonseasonal data. The advantage of this estimator is the elimination of the two-step nature of conventional unit root tests and this leads a gain in size and power. In this paper, the Bridge estimator is proposed to test seasonal unit roots in a HEGY model. A Monte-Carlo experiment is done to determine the efficiency of this approach and compare the size and power of this method with HEGY test. Since Bridge estimator performs well in model selection, our approach may lead to some gain in terms of size and power over HEGY test.
The Relationship between Basic Human Needs and Opportunity Based on Social Progress Index
Social Progress Index (SPI) whose fundamentals have been thrown in the World Economy Forum is an index which aims to form a systematic basis for guiding strategy for inclusive growth which requires achieving both economic and social progress. In this research, it has been aimed to determine the relations among “Basic Human Needs” (BHN) (including four variables of ‘Nutrition and Basic Medical Care’, ‘Water and Sanitation’, ‘Shelter’ and ‘Personal Safety’) and “Opportunity” (OPT) (that is composed of ‘Personal Rights’, ‘Personal Freedom and Choice’, ‘Tolerance and Inclusion’, and ‘Access to Advanced Education’ components) dimensions of 2016 SPI for 138 countries which take place in the website of Social Progress Imperative by carrying out canonical correlation analysis (CCA) which is a data reduction technique that operates in a way to maximize the correlation between two variable sets. In the interpretation of results, the first pair of canonical variates pointing to the highest canonical correlation has been taken into account. The first canonical correlation coefficient has been found as 0.880 indicating to the high relationship between BHN and OPT variable sets. Wilk’s Lambda statistic has revealed that an overall effect of 0.809 is highly large for the full model in order to be counted as statistically significant (with a p-value of 0.000). According to the standardized canonical coefficients, the largest contribution to BHN set of variables has come from ‘shelter’ variable. The most effective variable in OPT set has been detected to be ‘access to advanced education’. Findings based on canonical loadings have also confirmed these results with respect to the contributions to the first canonical variates. When canonical cross loadings (structure coefficients) are examined, for the first pair of canonical variates, the largest contributions have been provided by ‘shelter’ and ‘access to advanced education’ variables. Since the signs for structure coefficients have been found to be negative for all variables; all OPT set of variables are positively related to all of the BHN set of variables. In case canonical communality coefficients which are the sum of the squares of structure coefficients across all interpretable functions are taken as the basis; amongst all variables, ‘personal rights’ and ‘tolerance and inclusion’ variables can be said not to be useful in the model with 0.318721 and 0.341722 coefficients respectively. On the other hand, while redundancy index for BHN set has been found to be 0.615; OPT set has a lower redundancy index with 0.475. High redundancy implies high ability for predictability. The proportion of the total variation in BHN set of variables that is explained by all of the opposite canonical variates has been calculated as 63% and finally, the proportion of the total variation in OPT set that is explained by all of the canonical variables in BHN set has been determined as 50.4% and a large part of this proportion belongs to the first pair. The results suggest that there is a high and statistically significant relationship between BHN and OPT. This relationship is generally accounted by ‘shelter’ and ‘access to advanced education’.
Consumer Behaviour and Household Energy Consumption in Covenant University
The consumer behaviour is the most essential basis for any business organisation and the economy; hence, their core behaviour should also be of great significance for a successful economy and financial affluence. The behaviour of consumers on household energy consumption is fast emerging as a contemporary issue with its diverse challenges and opportunities for researchers, practitioners and policy makers especially in the aspects of energy consumption and conservation. The objective of this study attended to energy consumption behaviour and pattern within Covenant University residential areas. The respondents were purposively selected and data collection instrument randomly distributed to each head of household or their representative who had attained the stipulated decision making age; in addition, materials were sourced secondarily. The result of the analysis, having ranked on a 5-point likert scale showed the contributory importance of each factor as perceived by them on energy consumption. Findings indicated that the consumer and his behaviour thus influence energy consumption but at a decreasing rate. The research also revealed those attributes that impinge directly on the residents/consumers welfare and perceptions. This paper, therefore, concludes by suggesting that policy makers and their agencies ensure sustaining and increasing appliance efficiency resulting to controlled energy demand.
The Role of Demographics and Service Quality in the Adoption and Diffusion of E-Government Services: A Study in India
Background and Significance: This study is aimed at analyzing the role of demographic and service quality variables in the adoption and diffusion of e-government services among the users in India. The study proposes to examine the users' perception about e-Government services and investigate the key variables that are most salient to the Indian populace. Description of the Basic Methodologies: The methodology to be adopted in this study is Hierarchical Regression Analysis, which will help in exploring the impact of the demographic variables and the quality dimensions on the willingness to use e-government services in two steps. First, the impact of demographic variables on the willingness to use e-government services is to be examined. In the second step, quality dimensions would be used as inputs to the model for explaining variance in excess of prior contribution by the demographic variables. Present Status: Our study is in the data collection stage in collaboration with a highly reliable, authentic and adequate source of user data. Assuming that the population of the study comprises all the Internet users in India, a massive sample size of more than 10,000 random respondents is being approached. Data is being collected using an online survey questionnaire. A pilot survey has already been carried out to refine the questionnaire with inputs from an expert in management information systems and a small group of users of e-government services in India. The first three questions in the survey pertain to the Internet usage pattern of a respondent and probe whether the person has used e-government services. If the respondent confirms that he/she has used e-government services, then an aggregate of 15 indicators are used to measure the quality dimensions under consideration and the willingness of the respondent to use e-government services, on a five-point Likert scale. If the respondent reports that he/she has not used e-government services, then a few optional questions are asked to understand the reason(s) behind the same. Last four questions in the survey are dedicated to collect data related to the demographic variables. An indication of the Major Findings: Based on the extensive literature review carried out to develop several propositions; a research model is prescribed to start with. A major outcome expected at the completion of the study is the development of a research model that would help to understand the relationship involving the demographic variables and service quality dimensions, and the willingness to adopt e-government services, particularly in an emerging economy like India. Concluding Statement: Governments of emerging economies and other relevant agencies can use the findings from the study in designing, updating, and promoting e-government services to enhance public participation, which in turn, would help to improve efficiency, convenience, engagement, and transparency in implementing these services.
Achieving Sustainable Rapid Construction Using Lean Principles
There is the need to take the holistic approach in achieving sustainable construction for a contemporary practice. Sustainable construction is the practice that involved method of human preservation of the environment, whether economically or socially through responsibility, management of resources and maintenance utilizing support. This paper shows the correlation of achieving rapid construction with sustainable concepts using lean principles. Lean principles being used widely in the manufacturing industry, but this research will demonstrate the principles into building construction. Lean principle offers the benefits of stabilizing work flow and elimination of unnecessary work. Therefore, this principle contributes to time and waste reduction. The correlation shows that pulling factor provides the improvement of progress curve and stabilizing the time-quality relation. The finding shows the lean principles offer the elements of rapid construction synchronized with the elements of sustainability.
Selection of Social and Sustainability Criteria for Effective Public Project Evaluation in Developing Countries
Public investment projects are primarily aimed at achieving development strategies to increase national economies of scale and overall improvement in a country. However, experience shows that public projects, particularly in developing countries, struggle or fail to fulfill the immediate needs of local communities. In many cases, the reason for that is that projects are selected in a subjective manner and that a major part of the problem is related to the evaluation criteria and techniques used. The evaluation process is often based on a broad strategic economic effects rather than real benefits of projects to society or on the various needs from different levels (e.g. national, regional, local) and conditions (e.g. long-term and short-term requirements). In this paper, an extensive literature review of the types of criteria used in the past by various researchers in project evaluation and selection process is carried out and the effectiveness of such criteria and techniques is discussed. The paper proposes substitute social and project sustainability criteria to improve the conditions of local people and in particular the disadvantaged groups of the communities. Furthermore, it puts forward a way for modelling the interaction between the selected criteria and the achievement of the social goals of the affected community groups. The described work is part of developing a broader decision model for public investment project selection by integrating various aspects and techniques into a practical methodology. The paper uses Thailand as a case to review what and how the various evaluation techniques are currently used and how to improve the project evaluation and selection process related to social and sustainability issues in the country. The paper also uses an example to demonstrates how to test the feasibility of various criteria and how to model the interaction between projects and communities. The proposed model could be applied to other developing and developed countries in the project evaluation and selection process to improve its effectiveness in the long run.
A Study of Spatial Analysis on Routes of Youbike in Taipei
In recent years, every national cycling develops popular, in build of cycling lanes and public cycling can see the cycling in the city have different modes of transportation. Taiwan Tourism Bureau (Ministry of Transportation and Communications) in 104-year survey of total number of passengers to Taiwan can be seen the 'Taipei City' as the first choice of foreign tourists. At present, it is not particularly to provide detailed information for Youbike information in Taipei, passenger can only get related folding from Youbike Service Center, then, the provided information in the brochure is only on rental information, rental station, and location. Other tourist information is not displayed within the folding. For those tourists who want to take a stroll the whole Taipei by Youbike, it is not clearly marked money, distance, and time on the folding. In order to make people who ride the Youbike is able to more efficiently travel the attractions of Taipei area and they can spend a minimum of both time and money (or save their both time and money). Their travel will be more abundant. Our study will use GIS software to popular rental station spatial analysis for Taipei City and New Taipei City, combining Tourism Bureau announced major domestic popular tourist attractions during 100-104 years. We will use the buffer analysis and road network analysis, calculating distance, time, and price of the rental station to another station, and rental station to attractions, then, we plan the best route. The study displays the buffer analysis picture of the tenth important bike rental station, providing the rental station to distance of attractions, and passengers spend time and fees. Moreover, we analyze and plan the four best riding route. Finally, using Adobe sensitive software makes tourist folding, and it will provide planning the trip for passengers who ride the Youbike.
The Use of Social Media in the Recruitment Process as HR Strategy
In the 21st century were four generation workforces are working, it’s crucial for organizations to build talent management strategy, as tech-savvy Gen Y has entered the work force. They are more connected to each other than ever – through the internet enabled Social media networks Social media has become important in today’s world. The users of such Social media sites have increased in multiple. From sharing their opinion for a brand/product to researching a company before going for an interview, making a conception about a company’s culture or following a Company’s updates due to sheer interest or for job vacancy, Work force today is constantly in touch with social networks. Thus corporate world has rightly realized its potential uses for business purpose. Companies now use social media for marketing, advertising, consumer survey, etc. For HR professionals, it is used for networking and connecting to the Talent pool- through Talent Community. Social recruiting is the process of sourcing or hiring candidates through the use of social sites such as LinkedIn, Facebook Twitter which provide them with an array of information about potential employee; this study represents an exploratory investigation on the role of social networking sites in recruitment. The primarily aim is to analyze the factors that can enhance the channel of recruitment used by of the recruiter with specific reference to the IT organizations in Mumbai, India. Particularly, the aim is to identify how and why companies use social media to attract and screen applicants during their recruitment processes. It also examines the advantages and limitations of recruitment through social media for employers. This is done by literature review. Further, the papers examine the recruiter impact and understand the various opportunities which have created due to technology, thus, to analyze and examine these factors, both primary, as well as secondary data, are collected for the study. The primary data are gathered from five HR manager working in five top IT organizations in Mumbai and 100 HR consultants’ i.e., recruiter. The data was collected by conducting a survey and supplying a closed-ended questionnaire. A comprehension analysis of the study is depicted through graphs and figures. From the analysis, it was observed that there exists a positive relationship between the level of employee recruited through social media and their organizational commitment. Finally the findings show that company’s i.e. recruiters are currently using social media in recruitment, but perhaps not as effective as they could be. The paper gives recommendations and conditions for success that can help employers to make the most out of social media in recruitment.
Gate Governance in a NPD Stage Gate Process
Gates are an important element of the NPD process as they define the Go/kill decision across Stages. This study aims to understand the ‘Gate Governance’ aspect of the Stage Gate NPD process in an entrepreneurial company, using Nex. Gen Stage Gate as a reference. An in-depth single case research methodology with another similar case for cross validation, has been used. It was found that there were many aspects of Gate governance where the entrepreneurial company was different from what is mentioned in Nex Gen Stage. The first one was insufficient criteria across Gates. Except the stage of Business analysis that carried the criteria of ROI, profitability and sales, none of the other Gates had well-defined criteria. They were arrived at during discussions and not prior to the activity execution. This meant that the projects could pass through the gates, depending on the subjectivity of decisions taken by the Gatekeepers. The second finding was related to Gate keeper profile. Nex Gen Stage advocates that the profile of the Gate keepers be sufficiently senior. But this was not the case with these entrepreneurial companies. The NPD managers were the Gate keepers and they belonged to middle management level. This along with the fact that the Gate criteria were not well defined, made the process of Gatekeeping weak. The next finding was regarding Self- management of Gates. There is a possibility that simpler projects could do with self- Gate management. In this company, the new product development manager was often the Gate keeper and he being lower in hierarchy, could not implement even smaller level decisions independently. Fourthly leaner, simpler gates are recommended by Nex Gen. These emphasise reports on the status of that Gate working, resource requirement etc. But in these organizations, there were no individual gate reports done. There were only verbal discussions regarding decisions taken at that Gate. Finally, electronic virtual gates add to efficiency. These save time and use technology to enhance NPD Process productivity. These organizations, however were very poor in using technology in advancing their NPD speed. This is a pioneering study on the Gate Governance aspect of NPD, for an entrepreneurial organisation. Companies will do well to understand how to effectively implement Gates in order to increase their new product productivity.
Language Effects on the Prestige and Product Image of Advertised Smartphone
in Consumer Purchases in Indonesia
This study will discuss the growth of the market for smartphone technology in Indonesia. This country, with the world’s fourth largest population, has a reputation as the social media capital of the world, and this reputation is largely justified. The penetration of social media is high in Indonesia which has one of the largest global markets. Most Indonesian users of Facebook, Twitter and other social media platforms access the sites from their mobile phones. Indonesia is expected to continue to be a major market for digital mobile devices, such as smartphone and tablets that can access the internet. The aim of this study to describe the way responses of Indonesian consumers to smartphone advertising using English and Indonesian will impact on their perceptions of the prestige and product image of the advertised items and thus influence consumer intention to purchase the item. Advertising for smartphones and similar products is intense and dynamic and often draws on the social attitudes of Indonesians with respect to linguistic and cultural content and especially appeals to their desire to be part of global mainstream culture. The study uses a qualitative method based on in-depth interviews with 30 participants. Content analysis is employed to analyse the responses of Indonesian consumers to smartphone advertising that uses English and Indonesian text. Its findings indicate that consumers’ impressions of English and Indonesian slogans influence their attitudes toward smartphones, suggesting that linguistic context plays a role in influencing consumer purchases.