International Science Index

International Journal of Economics and Management Engineering

Logistic Regression Modeling to Predict Supplier Efficiency: A Teaching Case Study
In simple linear regression problems, the dependent variable is continuous with typically no restrictions on the range of values. However, in many fields, including supply chain management, decision-makers are interested in predicting the probability of an event, which can only vary between 0 and 1. For example, a manufacturer might be interested in predicting the probability that a supplier meets all specifications for a critical part. Though the concept of logistic regression can help in such a situation, the current academic and research literature do not clearly explain how to build logistic regression models. To this end, this paper aims to be a teaching case study for both students and practitioners, to illustrate logistic regression analysis. Two examples are provided with step-by-step instructions that include several Excel® and Minitab® screenshots. In the first example, a model is built to predict the probability of on-time delivery based on the number of trucks owned by the supplier. In the second example, the probability of part conformance is estimated based on the age of the machine used by the supplier.
Determinants of the Shadow Economy with an Islamic Orientation: An Application to Organization of Islamic Cooperation and Non-Organization of Islamic Cooperation Countries
The main objective of Islamic Finance is to promote social justice thorough financial inclusion and redistribution of economic resources between rich and poor. The approach of Islamic finance is more comprehensive in nature and covers both formal and informal sectors of the economy, first, through reducing the gap between both sectors, and second by using specific Islamic values to reallocate the wealth between formal and informal sectors. Applying Generalized Method of Movements (GMM) to the annual data spanning from 1995-2015 for 141 countries, this study explores the determinants of informal business sector in Organization of Islamic Cooperation (OIC) countries and then compares with Non-OIC countries. Economic freedom and institutions variables as well as economic growth and money supply are found to reduce informal business sector in both OIC and Non-OIC nations while government expenditure are found to increase informal business sector in both group of nations. Informal Business sector remain the same in both types of countries but still the majority Muslim population in OIC economies create main difference between both groups of nations and justify the potential role of Islamic Finance in informal business sector in OIC nations. The study suggests that institutions quality should be improved and entrepreneurs’ friendly business environment must be provided. This study refines the main features of informal business sector and discuss their implications on policy designing and implementation, particularly in the context of Islamic finance fight against poverty, inequality and improving living standards of informal sector participants in OIC countries.
Impact of Small and Medium Enterprises on Economic Development in the Gulf Cooperation Council: Quantitative Approaches
Both in the developed and developing countries as well as Gulf Cooperation Council (GCC), the small and medium-sized enterprises (SMEs) proven to be main drivers of jobs creation and tools to accelerate economic development and economic diversification. This paper seeks to investigate and identify the strengths and weakness of SME as a veritable tool in economic development. A survey method was used to gather data from 171 SME from Gulf Cooperation Council (GCC). The research methodology uses a quantitative approach (survey) while data were collected with a structured questionnaire and analyzed with several descriptive statistics. The results of the study, therefore, will present sets of the strengths of SME in GCC such as 1) government supported local products (59%), 2) promoting SME local products rather than international products (47%), 3) reduce the legal and administrative procedures of SME establishment (46%) and weakness of SME in GCC such as: 1) lack of funding during the initial phase of the project (46%), 2) lack of liquidity during project continuity (39%), and 3) strong competition in the domestic and global market (38%). The study findings will be guidelines for academia and practitioners such as governments, policymakers, funded organizations, universities and strategic institutions for successful implementation.
An Appraisal of Revenue Collection in Local Government: A Case Study of Boripe Local Government Iragbiji Osun State
Revenue is a fund realized by the government to meet both current and capital expenditures. The study found out the various ways through which local governments in Nigeria generate revenue or obtain funds and determined whether the people of Boripe local government are paying tax as at when due and also evaluated how the revenue generated is being used by the local government. During the course of this study, research questionnaires were drafted and distributed to respondents in the local government secretariat who supplied the information needed to carry out the research work. Data were collected by using simple random sampling technique where members of the population have been given equal chance of being picked as a member of the sample. Data were analysed using chart table; the chart analyzed the figure of the past two years revenue and expenditure of the local government. It was deduced from the result that revenue generated but this was not up to what one expected for this local government to finance the projected expenditure when the size was considered, its location as well as its natural endowment of this local government. This was due to lack of cooperation of the people and staffs within the local government in the local government jurisdiction as well as fraudulent activities the revenue collectors engaged in. Revenue generation is a fuel for development in any organization whether public or private. The ability of revenue drive of Boripe was not strong enough since the targeted revenue from taxation was not enough to meet the projected expenditure for a particular year as in 2016, the difference was carried forward to the next year.
The Significant of Effective Leadership on Management Growth and Survival: A Case Study of Bunato Limited Company, Ring Road Ibadan
The central purpose of management in any organization is that of coordinating the efforts of people towards the achievement of its goal. Effective and productive management is the function of leadership. Leadership plays a critical role in helping groups, organizations and societies to achieve their goals. Factors considered to make leadership to be effective are intelligence, social maturity, inner motivation and achievement drives and lastly, human relations attitudes. The factors affecting leadership style and effectiveness were examined. Also, the study examined which of the various leadership style best befits an organization and discussed the ways in which the style was determined. In order to meet the objectives of this study, different types of methods of data gathering were carried out. The methods include data from primary and secondary sources. The primary sources include personal interview, personal observation, and questionnaire while data from secondary sources were derived from various books, journal write up and other documentary records. Data were collected from respondents through questionnaire, and the field research carried out through oral interview to test each of the related hypotheses. From the data analysed it was determined that 45% strongly agreed that leadership traits are inborn not acquired and 28.3% agreed that leadership traits are inborn, while 11.7% and 10% strongly disagreed and disagreed respectively and 5% were undecided. 48.4% strongly agreed, and 43.3% agreed that environmental factors determined the appropriate style of leadership to be employed while 3.3% strongly disagreed, 1.7% disagreed and 3.3% were undecided. From the study, no single style of leadership is appropriate in any situation instead of concentrating on single leadership style; leader can vary approaches depending on forces in the leaders, characteristic of the subordinates, situational forces of the organization, lastly the expectations and behaviour of superior.
Promotional Mix as a Determinant of Consumer Buying Decision in the Food and Beverages Industry: A Case Study of Nigeria Bottling Company Plc., Asejire Ibadan
Promotion is indispensible and inestimable property of marketing through which different organizations persuade their prospective customers. The idea of passing information about a product to the consumer at outside the world is known as promotional activities. A study was determined whether there was relationship between promotional mix and consumer buying decision, that is may be customers were influenced by promotion. It was investigated to determine whether promotion can be used to influence competitors’ activities in the market and also research was conducted to determine if there was any problem encountered by Nigeria bottling company plc, in promoting its beverages products. The various forms of promotional mix available for an organization were examined and recommended the appropriate promotional mix that company can adopt to boost the company sales. The research design was depended on the primary and secondary data. The primary data were information collected from the subjects using methods of data collection, that is through the use of questionnaire, interview, direct observation, etc. The secondary data consist of information that already exists having been collected for another purpose by some researchers. These include internal and external sources. The questionnaire was designed and administered to the staff of production and marketing department of Nigeria bottling company plc., which served as the population of this study, out of which sample was drawn randomly from the population, using sample random technique. It was deduced that 90% of the respondents opined that advertising influenced competition in the market and that there was a good sale after they started advert while 10% of them were not sure. At advertising level, 85% of the respondents chose 81-100% as the increase in the percentage recorded in their sales level, while 10% of them agreed that increase in the percentage recorded in their sales was within 61-80% and 5% of them chose 45-60% as the percentage increase in their sales record. Due to unstable economic condition of the Nigeria, many business organizations adopted the promotional strategies. Apart from advertising, it was discovered through research that sales promotion served as an incentive to consumers of Nigeria bottling company plc at a time offer gifts and prizes to consumers which drastically increased their level of sales. Since advertising and sales promotion increased the level of sales, more money should be allocated for this purpose to maintain market share and thereby increase profit.
A Spatial Approach to Model Mortality Rates
Human longevity has been experiencing its largest increase since the end of World War II, and modeling the mortality rates is therefore often the focus of many studies. Among all mortality models, the Lee–Carter model is the most popular approach since it is fairly easy to use and has good accuracy in predicting mortality rates (e.g., for Japan and the USA). However, empirical studies from several countries have shown that the age parameters of the Lee–Carter model are not constant in time. Many modifications of the Lee–Carter model have been proposed to deal with this problem, including adding an extra cohort effect and adding another period effect. In this study, we propose a spatial modification and use clusters to explain why the age parameters of the Lee–Carter model are not constant. In spatial analysis, clusters are areas with unusually high or low mortality rates than their neighbors, where the “location” of mortality rates is measured by age and time, that is, a 2-dimensional coordinate. We use a popular cluster detection method—Spatial scan statistics, a local statistical test based on the likelihood ratio test to evaluate where there are locations with mortality rates that cannot be described well by the Lee–Carter model. We first use computer simulation to demonstrate that the cluster effect is a possible source causing the problem of the age parameters not being constant. Next, we show that adding the cluster effect can solve the non-constant problem. We also apply the proposed approach to mortality data from Japan, France, the USA, and Taiwan. The empirical results show that our approach has better-fitting results and smaller mean absolute percentage errors than the Lee–Carter model.
The Potential Impact of Blockchain Technology on Audit Practice
In today's debate about the disruptive effect of blockchain technology, audit and control professions are not in the spotlight. Indeed, current technical developments, process and service innovation, applications such as smart contracts and publicly-held registers, combined have the potential to radically change audit and control activities. The transparency, traceability, and integration of rules and procedures in the technology itself may impact processes and information production in such ways that audit and control procedures might be changed significantly, or even become obsolete in some cases. At the same time, it offers opportunities for auditors to redesign and updates rules and procedures that could be encoded within transactions. This study based on grounded theory was conducted in order to provide information about the way auditors in Switzerland understand and perceive the impacts of blockchain technology on their daily activities and routines. Based on the findings, three hypotheses have emerged. First, the potential disruptive effect of blockchain technology on the profession is not anticipated, particularly in the case of smaller audit firms. Second, the profession might go through a paradigm shift in two ways: become more IT than accounting oriented and become more forward than backward-looking as it is the case today. Lastly, the profile of the auditors will change.
CybeRisk Management in Banks: An Italian Case Study
The financial sector is exposed to the risk of cyber attacks like any other industrial sector. Furthermore, the topic of cyberisk has become particularly relevant given that Information Technology (IT) attacks have increased drastically in recent years, both in terms of complexity and resources, and cannot be stopped by single organizations, requiring a response at international and national level. IT risk is never a matter purely for the IT manager, although he clearly plays a key role. A bank's risk management function requires a thorough understanding of the evolving risks as well as the tools and practical techniques available to address them. Upon the request of European and national legislation regarding cyber risk in the financial system, banks are therefore called upon to strengthen the operational model for cyberisk management. This will require an important change with a more intense collaboration with the structures that deal with information security for the development of an ad hoc system for the evaluation and control of this type of risk. The aim of the work is to propose a framework for the management and control of cyber risk that will bridge the gap in the literature regarding the understanding and consideration of cyberisk as an integral part of business management. The IT function has a strong relevance in the management of cyberisk, which is perceived mainly as IT risk, but with a positive tendency on the part of risk management to the identification of cyberisk assessment methods that are increasingly complete, quantitative and able to better describe the possible impacts on the business. The paper provides answers to the research questions. Is it possible to define a ciberisk governance structure able to support the comparison between risk and security? How can the relationships between IT assets be integrated into a cyberisk assessment framework to guarantee a system of protection and risks control? From a methodological point of view, the analysis is carried out a qualitative case study. It is chosen to use an intensive research strategy: an in-depth study of reality. The case study methodology is an empirical approach to explore a complex and current phenomenon that develops over time and still little known in the context where it takes place in such as the one under investigation to this study. The use of cases has also the advantage of allowing the deepening of aspects concerning the ‘how’ and ‘why’ of contemporary events, on which the scholar has little control. The research bases on quantitative data and qualitative information obtained through semi-structured interviews of an open-ended nature and questionnaires to directors, members of the audit committee, risk, IT and compliance managers, and those responsible for internal audit function and anti-money laundering. The added value of the paper can be seen in the development of a framework based on a mapping of IT assets from which it is possible to identify their relationships for purposes of a more effective management and control of cyber risk.
Greedy Approach for Solving Capacitated Vehicle Routing Problem of LNG Distribution to the Power Plants
The efficiency of cargo distributed by ship plays an important role in the maritime supply chain, especially in Indonesia since it is an archipelago country. Conspicuously in LNG (Liquefied Natural Gas) supply chain, the total operational cost will affect LNG sales price to consumer significantly which implies the necessity of reducing operational cost. Hence, in LNG industries, how to decide the number of ships and their routes to every demand location efficiently plays a crucial part to reduce the total operational cost. The consideration for deciding the number of ships and their routes is not only related to transportation cost but also inventory cost. In response to this problem, this paper provides a case study in Papua and proposes a model to determine the number of ships and the optimum ship route to transport LNG from an LNG production terminal to 13 regasification terminals by considering both transportation cost and inventory cost. Distance, power plants demands, transportation cost, and inventory cost were further analyzed by using the greedy approach in order to determine the optimum route for this case. In addition, the ship sizes were limited to four alternatives, which were 2500 m³, 7500 m³, 10000 m³, and 23000 m³. The result recommends the utilization of smaller size vessels with more frequent shipments compared to the earlier research on the same problem. The result is proven to perform better under uncertain weather condition in Papua.
Role of Diplomacy toward Social Welfare, Equity and Economic Growth: Case Study of President Joko Widodo's Economic Diplomacy in Investment Sector in Indonesia
Indonesia with its former presidents has enhanced the bilateral cooperation also multilateral cooperation in terms of economy but the result was not significant towards eradicating poverty, unemployment, income inequality, and economic growth. To eradicate these problems, President Joko Widodo through his several points of Nawacita wants to boost Indonesia’s economic relationship and cooperation which manifested in “Economic Diplomacy” as one of Indonesia’s foreign policy priority and he pitches it in international forums. The economic diplomacy does not only attracts prospective countries but also attracts the foreign businessman and investors. The economic diplomacy includes four sectors which are vital for economic growth, one of them is investment. This paper would like to answer how economic diplomacy can have significant impact towards social welfare, equity and economic growth especially in Indonesia. The purpose of this paper is to explore the role of economic diplomacy and its impact toward Indonesia’s welfare, equity, and economic growth. This paper uses the theory of economic diplomacy to link the current international political economic sphere and the impact of economic diplomacy for Indonesia through case study method. The paper affirms that economic diplomacy in investment sector does have significant impact, especially in the development of infrastructures, foreign direct investment in several sectors, and food security.
Impact of Informal Institutions on Development: Analyzing the Socio-Legal Equilibrium of Relational Contracts in India
Relational Contracts (informal understandings not enforceable by law) are a common feature of most economies. However, their dominance is higher in developing countries. Such informality of economic sectors is often co-related to lower economic growth. The aim of this paper is to investigate whether informal arrangements i.e. relational contracts are a cause or symptom of lower levels of economic and/or institutional development. The methodology followed involves an initial survey of 150 test subjects in Northern India. The subjects are all members of occupations where they frequently transact ensuring uniformity in transaction volume. However, the subjects are from varied socio-economic backgrounds to ensure sufficient variance in transaction values allowing us to understand the relationship between the amount of money involved to the method of transaction used, if any. Questions asked are quantitative and qualitative with an aim to observe both the behavior and motivation behind such behavior. An overarching similarity observed during the survey across all subjects’ responses is that in an economy like India with pervasive corruption and delayed litigation, economy participants have created alternative social sanctions to deal with non-performers. In a society that functions predominantly on caste, class and gender classifications, these sanctions could, in fact, be more cumbersome for a potential rule-breaker than the legal ramifications. It, therefore, is a symptom of weak formal regulatory enforcement and dispute settlement mechanism. Additionally, the study bifurcates such informal arrangements into two separate systems - a) when it exists in addition to and augments a legal framework creating an efficient socio-legal equilibrium or; b) in conflict with the legal system in place. This categorization is an important step in regulating informal arrangements. Instead of considering the entire gamut of such arrangements as counter-development, it helps decision-makers understand when to dismantle (latter) and when to pivot around existing informal systems (former). The paper hypothesizes that those social arrangements that support the formal legal frameworks allow for cheaper enforcement of regulations with lower enforcement costs burden on the state mechanism. On the other hand, norms which contradict legal rules will undermine the formal framework. Law infringement, in presence of these norms, will have no impact on the reputation of the business or individual outside of the punishment imposed under the law. It is especially exacerbated in the Indian legal system where enforcement of penalties for non-performance of contracts is low. In such a situation, the social norm will be adhered to more strictly by the individuals rather than the legal norms. This greatly undermines the role of regulations. The paper concludes with recommendations that allow policy-makers and legal systems to encourage the former category of informal arrangements while discouraging norms that undermine legitimate policy objectives. Through this investigation, we will be able to expand our understanding of tools of market development beyond regulations. This will allow academics and policymakers to harness social norms for less disruptive and more lasting growth.
Green Supply Chain Management Concepts Applied on Brazilian Animal Nutrition Industries
One of the biggest challenges that the industries find nowadays is to incorporate sustainability practices into its operations. The Green Supply Chain Management (GSCM) concept assists industries in such incorporation. For the full application of this concept is important that enterprises of a same supply chain have the GSCM practices coordinated among themselves. Note that this type of analyses occurs on the context of developed countries and sectors considered big impactors (as automotive, mineral, among others). The propose of this paper is to analyze as the GSCM concepts are applied on the Brazilian animal nutrition industries. The method used was the Case Study. For this, it was selected a supply chain relationship composed by animal nutrition products manufacturer (Enterprise A) and its supplier of animal waste, such as blood, viscera, among others (Enterprise B). First, a literature review was carried out to identify the main GSCM practices. Second, it was done an individual analysis of each one selected enterprise of the application of GSCM concept. For the observed practices, the coordination of each practice in this supply chain was studied. And, it was developed propose of GSCM applications for the practices no observed. The findings of this research were: a) the systematization of main GSCM practices, as: Internal Environment Management, Green Consumption, Green Design, Green Manufacturing, Green Marketing, Green Packaging, Green Procurement, Green Recycling, Life Cycle Analysis, Consultation Selection Method, Environmental Risk Sharing, Investment Recovery, and Reduced Transportation Time; b) the identification of GSCM practices on Enterprise A (7 full application, 3 partial application and 3 no application); c) the identification of GSCM practices on Enterprise B (2 full application, 2 partial application and 9 no application); d) the identification of how is the incentive and the coordination of the GSCM practices on this relationship by Enterprise A; e) proposals of application and coordination of the others GSCM practices on this supply chain relationship. Based on the study, it can be concluded that its possible apply GSCM on animal nutrition industries, and when occurs the motivation on the application of GSCM concepts by a supply chain echelon, these concepts are deployed for the others supply chain echelons by the coordination (orchestration) of the first echelon.
Knowledge Sharing Practices in the Health Care Sector: Evidence from Primary Health Care Organizations in Indonesia
Knowledge has been viewed as one of the most important resources in organizations, including those that operate in the healthcare sector. On that basis, Knowledge Management (KM) is crucial for healthcare organizations to improve their productivity and ensure effective utilization of their resources. Despite the growing interests to understand how KM might work for healthcare organizations, there is only a modest amount of empirical inquiries which have specifically focused on the tools and initiatives to share knowledge. Hence, the main purpose of this paper is to investigate the way healthcare organizations, particularly public sector ones, utilize knowledge sharing tools and initiatives for the benefit of patient-care. Employing a qualitative method, 13 (thirteen) Community Health Centers (CHCs) from a high-performing district health setting in Indonesia were observed. Data collection and analysis involved a repetition of document retrievals and interviews (n=41) with multidisciplinary health professionals who work in these CHCs. A single case study was cultivated reflecting on the means that were used to share knowledge, along with the factors that inhibited the exchange of knowledge among those health professionals. The study discovers that all of the thirteen CHCs exhibited and applied knowledge sharing means which included knowledge documents, virtual communication channels (i.e. emails and chatting applications), and social learning forums such as staff meetings, morning briefings, and communities of practices. However, the intensity of utilization was different among these CHCs, in which organizational culture, leadership, professional boundaries, and employees’ technological aptitude were presumed to be the factors that inhibit knowledge sharing processes. Making a distance with the KM literature of other sectors, this study denounces the primacy of technology-based tools, suggesting that socially-based initiatives could be more reliable for sharing knowledge. This suggestion is largely due to the nature of healthcare work which is still predominantly based on the tacit form of knowledge.
Co-Creating Value between Public Financial Management Institutions: An Integrated Approach towards Financial Sustainability
In presence of increasing deficits and public debt among OECD countries, the debate on fiscal disciple and mechanisms to constrain public spending policy heated up and gave rise to the institutionalization of fiscal rules. Considering the notions from political economy literature and the therein advocated axiom of maximization of votes, introduction of institutional mechanisms and rules to govern public spending is likely to be coined by electoral motives. While there exists a series of research concerned with the rise of creative accounting in the presence fiscal rules, implementation of accrual government accounting and its impact on the biting of fiscal rules has to authors’ best knowledge never been explored. This paper serves the illumination of the connection between debt break mechanisms and the adoption of accrual public sector accounting standards such as the IPSAS in the interface of political economy in the Swiss context. By explicitly considering the technical accounting dimension, this paper develops an integrated conceptual view on well-established Public Financial Management (PFM) institutions and elaborates how their interdependencies can co-create value with regard to the contemporary challenge of fiscal sustainability. Derivation of this integrated view follows an explorative approach, taking into account expert interviews with director level staff from cantonal finance administrations and policy documents, as well as literature from both research areas – public sector accounting and political economy.
Value Creation of Public Financial Management Reforms through Their Long-Term Impacts
Public Financial Management (PFM) reforms are promoted by various international organizations such as the International Monetary Fund (IMF) or the World Bank, local development banks and the donor country community to strengthen governance and accountability in developing countries across the world. Reform efforts undertaken are often systematically measured against international best practice by the application of standardized analytical instruments such as the Public Expenditure and Financial Accountability Framework (PEFA) or the Poverty Reduction Action Plan (PARP). While those instruments analyze direct achievements of PFM reforms, the long-term benefits of such reforms for society remain untapped. This gives rise to the question why the concept of impact evaluation with its experimental or quasi-experimental settings in the form of randomized control trials has rarely been applied in the context of PFM reforms. To close this gap, this study provides examples where the concept of impact evaluation can be applied to PFM reforms and thereby shifting the focus from outcome towards a long-term impact. As it is a new approach, this study does not attempt to conduct a fully flagged impact evaluation of a certain PFM reform. However, it will outline, as a form of pre-test the applicability of the impact evaluation methodology in this context, for example, by more closely analyzing the commonly used indicators (for example within PEFA or PARP). This would mean to scrutinize these indicators as to how they were designed and how they are related to the long-term impact, they should be producing. The analysis of PFM reform indicators and their relation to long-term impacts should provide practitioners and scholars alike with new insights on how to strengthen the accountability of public service delivery through successful and sustainable PFM reforms.
Using Lean-Six Sigma Philosophy to Enhance Revenues and Improve Customer Satisfaction: Case Studies from Leading Telecommunications Service Providers in India
Providing telecommunications based network services in developing countries like India which has a population of 1.5 billion people, so that these services reach every individual, is one of the greatest challenges the country has been facing in its journey towards economic growth and development. With growing number of telecommunications service providers in the country, a constant challenge that has been faced by these providers is in providing not only quality but also delightful customer experience while simultaneously generating enhanced revenues and profits. Thus, the role played by process improvement methodologies like Six Sigma cannot be undermined and specifically in telecom service provider based operations, it has provided substantial benefits. Therefore, it advantages are quite comparable to its applications and advantages in other sectors like manufacturing, financial services, information technology-based services and Healthcare services. One of the key reasons that this methodology has been able to reap great benefits in telecommunications sector is that this methodology has been combined with many of its competing process improvement techniques like Theory of Constraints, Lean and Kaizen to give the maximum benefit to the service providers thereby creating a winning combination of organized process improvement methods for operational excellence thereby leading to business excellence. This paper discusses about some of the key projects and areas in the end to end ‘Quote to Cash’ process at big three Indian telecommunication companies that have been highly assisted by applying Six Sigma along with other process improvement techniques. While the telecommunication companies which we have considered, is primarily in India and run by both private operators and government based setups, the methodology can be applied equally well in any other part of developing countries around the world having similar context. This study also compares the enhanced revenues that can arise out of appropriate opportunities in emerging market scenarios, that Six Sigma as a philosophy and methodology can provide if applied with vigour and robustness. Finally, the paper also comes out with a winning framework in combining Six Sigma methodology with Kaizen, Lean and Theory of Constraints that will enhance both the top-line as well as the bottom-line while providing the customers a delightful experience.
Employment Mobility and the Effects of Wage Level and Tenure
One result of the growing dynamicity of labor markets in recent decades is a wider scope of employment mobility – i.e., transitions between employers, either within or between careers. Employment mobility decisions are primarily affected by the current employment status of the worker, which is reflected in wage and tenure. Using 34,328 observations from the National Longitudinal Survey of Youth 1979 (NLS79), which were derived from the USA population between 1990 and 2012, this paper aims to investigate the effects of wage and tenure over employment mobility choices, and additionally to examine the effects of other personal characteristics, individual labor market characteristics and macroeconomic factors. The estimation strategy was designed to address two challenges that arise from the combination of the model and the data: (a) endogeneity of the wage and the tenure in the choice equation; and (b) unobserved heterogeneity, as the data of this research is longitudinal. To address (a), estimation was performed using two-stage limited dependent variable procedure (2SLDV); and to address (b), the second stage was estimated using femlogit – an implementation of the multinomial logit model with fixed effects. Among workers who have experienced at least one turnover, the wage was found to have a main effect on career turnover likelihood of all workers, whereas the wage effect on job turnover likelihood was found to be dependent on individual characteristics. The wage was found to negatively affect the turnover likelihood and the effect was found to vary across wage level: high-wage workers were more affected compared to low-wage workers. Tenure was found to have a main positive effect on both turnover types’ likelihoods, though the effect was moderated by the wage. The findings also reveal that as their wage increases, women are more likely to turnover than men, and academically educated workers are more likely to turnover within careers. Minorities were found to be as likely as Caucasians to turnover post wage-increase, but less likely to turnover with each additional tenure year. The wage and the tenure effects were found to vary also between careers. The difference in attitude towards money, labor market opportunities and risk aversion could explain these findings. Additionally, the likelihood of a turnover was found to be affected by previous unemployment spells, age, and other labor market and personal characteristics. The results of this research could assist policymakers as well as business owners and employers. The former may be able to encourage women and older workers’ employment by considering the effects of gender and age on the probability of a turnover, and the latter may be able to assess their employees’ likelihood of a turnover by considering the effects of their personal characteristics.
Tools and Techniques in Risk Assessment in Public Risk Management Organisations
Risk assessment and the knowledge provided through this process is a crucial part of any decision-making process in the management of risks and uncertainties. Failure in assessment of risks can cause inadequacy in the entire process of risk management, which in turn can lead to failure in achieving organisational objectives. The choice of tools and techniques in risk assessment can influence the degree and scope of decision-making and subsequently the risk response strategy. There are various available qualitative and quantitative tools and techniques that are deployed within the broad process of risk assessment. The sheer diversity of tools and techniques available to practitioners makes it difficult for organisations to consistently employ the most appropriate methods. This adaptation is rendered more difficult in public risk regulation organisations due to the sensitive and complex nature of their activities. This is particularly the case in areas relating to the environment, food, and human health and safety when organisational goals are tied up with societal and individuals’ goals at national and international levels. Hence, recognising, analysing and evaluating different decision support tools and techniques employed in assessing risks in public risk management organisations was considered. This research is part of a mixed method study which aimed to examine the perception of risk assessment and the extent to which organisations practise risk assessment’ tools and techniques. The study adopted a semi-structured questionnaire with qualitative and quantitative data analysis to include a range of public risk regulation organisations from the UK, Germany, France, Belgium and the Netherlands. The results indicated the public risk management organisations mainly use diverse tools and techniques in the risk assessment process. The primary hazard analysis; brainstorming; hazard analysis and critical control points were described as the most practiced risk identification techniques. Within qualitative and quantitative risk analysis, the participants named the expert judgement, risk probability and impact assessment, sensitivity analysis and data gathering and representation as the most practised techniques.
Development of a Risk Disclosure Index and Examination of Its Determinants: An Empirical Study in Indian Context
Worldwide regulators, practitioners and researchers view risk-disclosure as one of the most important steps that will promote corporate accountability and transparency. Recognizing this growing significance of risk disclosures, the paper first develops a risk disclosure index. Covering 69 risk items/themes, this index is developed by employing thematic content analysis and encompasses three attributes of disclosure: namely, nature (qualitative or quantitative), time horizon (backward-looking or forward-looking) and tone (no impact, positive impact or negative impact). As the focus of study is on substantive rather than symbolic disclosure, content analysis has been carried out manually. The study is based on non-financial companies of Nifty500 index and covers a ten year period from April 1, 2005 to March 31, 2015, thus yielding 3,872 annual reports for analysis. The analysis reveals that (on an average) only about 14% of risk items (i.e. about 10 out 69 risk items studied) are being disclosed by Indian companies. Risk items that are frequently disclosed are mostly macroeconomic in nature and their disclosures tend to be qualitative, forward-looking and conveying both positive and negative aspects of the concerned risk. The second objective of the paper is to gauge the factors that affect the level of disclosures in annual reports. Given the panel nature of data, and possible endogeneity amongst variables, Diff-GMM regression has been applied. The results indicate that age and size of firms have a significant positive impact on disclosure quality, whereas growth rate does not have a significant impact. Further, post-recession period (2009-2015) has witnessed significant improvement in quality of disclosures. In terms of corporate governance variables, board size, board independence, CEO duality, presence of CRO and constitution of risk management committee appear to be significant factors in determining the quality of risk disclosures. It is noteworthy that the study contributes to literature by putting forth a variant to existing disclosure indices that not only captures the quantity but also the quality of disclosures (in terms of semantic attributes). Also, the study is a first of its kind attempt in a prominent emerging market i.e. India. Therefore, this study is expected to facilitate regulators in mandating and regulating risk disclosures and companies in their endeavor to reduce information asymmetry.
Global Supply Chain Risk Management: A Simulation Approach for Tactical Planning
Global supply chains are more susceptible to risks than domestic ones. When facing tactical planning, different strategies can be adopted in order to manage and reduce risk. The present paper aims at investigating the impact of two risk management strategies on the logistics cost, considering a supply chain characterized by the distribution of three products in two European markets with the supplier located in the far East. The first strategy involved the use of trains instead of ships for urgent orders, while the second one enables changing the original destination of the shipments when another market has an urgent need. The two strategies have been tested introducing two main sources of uncertainty (customer demand variability and lead time variability); then, in order to compare their performance, 4 different risk measures grounded in the literature were considered. A mix of Agent Based and Monte-Carlo simulation was used to model the problem and compare the identified strategies with the base-line scenario, which is characterized by the absence of any risk management solution. The results from the Monte-Carlo simulation showed that, on one hand, the first strategy can be a good solution to reduce extreme values and to reduce the overall variance, especially when the backlog cost increases, without statistically affecting the mean value. On the other hand, the second strategy turned out to have a negative impact on both the expected value and the associated risk. This model can be further developed to investigate new strategies to cope with risk or consider other uncertainty sources, providing useful insights into this research area.
Qualitative Profiling Model and Competencies Evaluation to Fighting Unemployment
Overtaking competence mismatches and fostering career pathways congruent with the individual skills profile would significantly contribute to fighting unemployment. The aim of this paper is to examine the usefulness and efficiency of qualitative tools in supporting and improving the quality of caseworkers’ activities during the jobseekers’ profile analysis and career guidance process. The selected target groups are long-term and middle term unemployed, job seekers, young people at the end of the vocational training pathway and unemployed woman with social disadvantages. The experimentation is conducted in Italy at public employment services in 2017. In the framework of Italian labour market reform, the experimentation represents the first step to develop a customized qualitative model profiling; the final general object is to improve the public employment services quality. The experimentation tests the transferability of an OECD self-assessment competences tool in the Italian public employment services. On one hand, the first analysis results will indicate the user’s perception concerning the tool’s application and their different competence levels (literacy, numeracy, problem solving, career interest, subjective well-being and health, behavioural competencies) with reference to the specific target. On the other hand, the experimentation outcomes will show caseworkers understanding regarding the tool’s usability and efficiency for career guidance and reskilling and upskilling programs.
Economic Stability in a Small Open Economy with Income Effect on Leisure Demand
This paper studies a two-sector growth model with a technology of social constant returns and with a utility that features either a zero or a positive income effect on the demand for leisure. The purpose is to investigate how the existence of aggregate instability or equilibrium indeterminacy depends on both the intensity of the income effect on the demand for leisure and the value of the labor supply elasticity. The main finding is that when there is a factor intensity reversal between the private perspective and the social perspective, indeterminacy arises even if the utility has a positive income effect on leisure demand. Moreover, we find that a smaller value of the labor supply elasticity increases the range of the income effect on leisure demand and thus increases the possibility of equilibrium indeterminacy. JEL classification: E3; O41
Demand-Oriented Supplier Integration in Agile New Product Development Projects
Companies are facing an increasing pressure to innovate faster, cheaper and more radical in last years, due to shrinking product lifecycles and higher volatility of markets and customer demands. Especially established companies struggle meeting those demands. Thus, many producing companies are adapting their development processes to address this increasing pressure. One approach taken by many companies is the use of agile, highly iterative development processes to reduce development times and costs as well as to increase the fulfilled customer requirements and the realized level of innovation. At the same time decreasing depths of added value and increasing focus on core competencies as well as a growing product complexity result in a high dependency on suppliers and external development partners during the product development. Thus, a successful introduction of agile development methods into the development of physical products requires also a successful integration of the necessary external partners and suppliers into the new processes and procedures and an adaption of the organizational interfaces to external partners according to the new circumstances and requirements of agile development processes. For an effective and efficient product development, the design of customer-supplier-relationships should be demand-oriented. A significant influence on the required design has the characteristics of the procurement object. Examples therefore are the complexity of technical interfaces between supply object and final product or the importance of the supplied component for the major product functionalities. Thus, this paper presents an approach to derive general requirements on the design of supplier integration according to the characteristics of supply objects. First, therefore the most relevant evaluation criteria and characteristics have been identified based on a thorough literature review. Subsequently the resulting requirements on the design of the supplier integration were derived depending on the different possible values of these criteria.
An Evaluation of Rational Approach to Management by Objectives in Construction Contracting Organisation
Management By Objectives (MBO) is a management technique in which objectives of an organisation are conveyed to the employees to establish the individual goals. These objectives and goals are then monitored and assessed jointly by management and the employee time to time. This tool can be used for planning, monitoring as well as for performance appraisal. The success of an organisation is largely dependent on its’s Vision. Thus, it is of paramount importance to achieve the realm of vision through a mission which is well crafted within the organisation to address the objectives. The success of the mission depends upon how realistic and action oriented philosophical approach, an organisation caters to; and how the individual goals are set to track and meet the objectives. Thus, focused and passionate efforts of the team, assigned for the mission, are an absolute obligation for achieving the vision of any organisation. Any construction site is generally a controlled disorder having huge investments, resources and logistics involved. The Construction progression is time-consuming with many isolated as well as interconnected activities. Traditional MBO approach can be unsuccessful if planning and control is non-realistic and inflexible. Moreover, the Construction Industry is far behind understanding these concepts. It is important to address the employee engagement in defining and creating awareness to achieve the targets. Besides, current economic environment and competitive world demands refined management tools to achieve profit, growth and survival of the business. Therefore, the necessity of rational MBO becomes vital part towards the success of an organisation. This paper details about the philosophical assumptions to develop the grounded theory in lieu of achieving objectives through RATIONAL MBO approach in Construction Contracting Organisations. The goals and objectives of the Construction Contracting Organisations can be achieved efficiently by adopting this RATIONAL MBO approach, as those are based on realistic, logical and balanced assumptions.
The Relationship between Procurement Strategies and Sustainability Outcomes: A Systematic Literature Review
This study examined and identified the recurring themes, inconsistencies, relationships, and gaps in the literature regarding the relationship between procurement strategies employed in sustainable buildings construction projects and realization of sustainability goals. A systematic literature review of studies on the relationship between various procurement strategies and attainment of sustainability outcomes was conducted. Using specific set terms, papers from 2005 to 2018 were identified and screened according to a set inclusion and exclusion criteria. Currently, evidence from literature reviewed so far reveals that, although the attainment of sustainability goals is achievable with both traditional and contemporary procurement strategies, only projects employing modern procurement strategies are capable of meeting and even exceeding all targeted sustainability objectives. However, traditional procurement strategy remains the preferred method for most of the green building construction projects. Current results from extant literature suggest implications for decision makers in the considerations for the impact of selected procurement strategies on targeted sustainability goals, in the early stages of a sustainable building construction project. The study shows that there is a gap between the reported appropriate procurement strategies and what is being practiced currently. Theoretically, the study expands on the literature on adoption and diffusion of contemporary procurement strategies. Currently, the study is at the literature review stage. Deductions thus far will be extrapolated to basis for field work involving empirical data.
Understanding Risky Borrowing Behavior among Young Consumers: An Empirical Study
Many consumers are uncertain of what financial borrowing behavior may serve their interests in the best way. This is important since consumers’ risky financial decisions may not only negatively affect their short-term liquidity but may haunt them for years after they are made. Obviously, this is especially critical for young adults who often carry large amounts of student loans or credit card debt, which in turn may hinder their future ability to obtain financial healthiness. Even though factors such as financial knowledge, attitudes towards risk, gender, and motivations of borrowing, among others, are known to influence consumer borrowing behavior, no existing model comprehensibly describes the mechanisms behind young adults’ risky borrowing behavior. This is unfortunate since a better understanding of the relationships between such factors and young adults’ risky borrowing behavior may be of value to financial service providers and financial authorities aiming to improve young adults’ borrowing behavior. This research extends prior research by developing a conceptual framework for the purpose of understanding young adults’ risky borrowing behavior. The study is based on two survey samples comprising 488 young adults aged 18-25 who have not obtained a risky loan (sample 1) and 214 young adults aged 18-25 who already have obtained a risky loan (sample 2), respectively. The results suggest several psychological, sociological, and behavioral factors that may influence young adults’ intentional risky borrowing behavior, which in turn is shown to affect actualized risky borrowing behavior. We also found that the relationship between intentional risky borrowing behavior and actualized risky borrowing behavior is negatively moderated by perceived risk – but not by perceived complexity. In particular, the results of this study indicate that public policy makers, banks and financial educators should seek to eliminate less desirable social norms on how to behave financially. In addition, they should seek to enhance young adults’ risky borrowing perceived risk, thereby preventing that intentional risky borrowing behavior translates into actualized risky behavior.
Awareness, Attitude and Perception of the Farmers towards Adaptation to Climate Change: A Case Study in Kedah Malaysia
This article examines the perceptions, consciousness and attitudes of farmers on climate change in Kedah Malaysia. To reach the objectives of this study, a survey was conducted on 350 farmers and the collected data were used to perform multiple regression analysis. The results show that factors such as age, farm income, farm experience, limited agricultural prevalence, inadequacies in credit availability and farm size are factors influencing adjustment practices. Moreover, farmers have a positive attitude through adaptation strategies that are appropriate for climate change issues. However, the study found that various adaptation barriers prevented farmers from implementing climate change adjustment policies. At present, Malaysia does not seem to have a specific policy aimed at counteracting the impacts and productivity of climate change on individual sectors. For this reason, the findings of this study will help policymakers to comply with an appropriate policy framework that takes into account the best fit alignment strategies that can come across all relevant obstacles.
Key Success Factors of Customer Relationship Management: An Empirical Study in Tunisian Firms
Customer Relationship Management has become the main interest of researchers and practitioners especially in the domains of Management and Information Systems (IS). This paper is an overview of success factors that could facilitate successful adoption of CRM. There are 2 factors: the organizational climate and the capacity for innovation. The survey was developed with 200 CRM users. Empirical research is in the positivist paradigm based on the hypothetico-deductive method. Indeed, the approach adopted is the quantitative approach based on a questionnaire complied by Tunisian companies operating in different sectors of activity. For the data analyses, the structural equations method was used to conduct our exploratory and confirmatory analysis. The results revealed that the creative organizational climate and high innovation capacity positively influence the success of CRM practice.
Simulation of Colombian Exchange Rate to Cover the Exchange Risk Using Financial Options like Hedge Strategy
Imperfections in the capital market are used to argue the relevance of the corporate risk management function. With corporate hedge, the value of the company is increased by reducing the volatility of the expected cash flow and making it possible to face a lower bankruptcy costs and financial difficulties, without sacrificing tax advantages for debt financing. With the propose to avoid exchange rate troubles over cash flows of Colombian exporting firms, this dissertation uses financial options, over exchange rate between Peso and Dollar, for realizing a financial hedge. In this study, a strategy of hedge is designed for an exporting company in Colombia with the objective of preventing fluctuations because, if the exchange rate down, the number of Colombian pesos that obtains the company by exports, is less than agreed. The exchange rate of Colombia is measured by the TRM (Representative Market Rate), representing the number of Colombian pesos for an American dollar. First, the TMR is modelled through the Geometric Brownian Motion, with this, the project price is simulated using Montecarlo simulations and finding the mean of TRM for three, six and twelve months. For financial hedging, currency options were used. The 6-month projection was covered with financial options on European-type currency with a strike price of $ 2,780.47 for each month; this value corresponds to the last value of the historical TRM. In the compensation of the options in each month, the price paid for the premium, calculated with the Black-Scholes method for currency options, was considered. Finally, with the modeling of prices and the Monte Carlo simulation, the effect of the exchange hedging with options on the exporting company was determined, this by means of the unit price estimate to which the dollars in the scenario without coverage were changed and scenario with coverage. After using the scenarios: is determinate that the TRM will have a bull trend and the exporting firm will be affected positively because they will get more pesos for each dollar. The results show that the financial options manage to reduce the exchange risk. The expected value with coverage is approximate to the expected value without coverage, but the 5% percentile with coverage is greater than without coverage. The foregoing indicates that in the worst scenarios the exporting companies will obtain better prices for the sale of the currencies if they cover.