International Science Index

International Journal of Civil and Environmental Engineering

Displacement Based Design of a Dual Structural System
The traditional seismic design is the methodology of Forced Based Design (FBD). The Displacement Based Design (DBD) is a seismic design that considers structural damage to achieve a failure mechanism of the structure before the collapse. It is easier to quantify damage of a structure with displacements rather than forces. Therefore, a structure to achieve an inelastic displacement design with good ductility, it is necessary to be damaged. The first part of this investigation is about differences between the methodologies of DBD and FBD with some DBD advantages. In the second part, there is a study case about a dual building 5-story, which is regular in plan and elevation. The building is located in a seismic zone, which acceleration in firm soil is 45% of the acceleration of gravity. Then it is applied both methodologies into the study case to compare its displacements, shear forces and overturning moments. In the third part, the Dynamic Time History Analysis (DTHA) is done, to compare displacements with DBD and FBD methodologies. Three accelerograms were used and the magnitude of the acceleration scaled to be spectrum compatible with design spectrum. Then, using ASCE 41-13 guidelines, the hinge plastics were assigned to structure. Finally, both methodologies results about study case are compared. It is important to take into account that the seismic performance level of the building for DBD is greater than FBD method. This is due to drifts of DBD are in the order of 2.0% and 2.5% comparing with FBD drifts of 0.7%. Therefore, displacements of DBD is greater than the FBD method. Shear forces of DBD result greater than FBD methodology. These strengths of DBD method ensures that structure achieves design inelastic displacements, because those strengths were obtained due to a displacement spectrum reduction factor which depends on damping and ductility of the dual system. Also, the displacements for the study case for DBD results to be greater than FBD and DTHA. In that way, it proves that the seismic performance level of the building for DBD is greater than FBD method. Due to drifts of DBD which are in the order of 2.0% and 2.5% compared with little FBD drifts of 0.7%.
Bond Behavior of Tension Lap Splice Steel in RC Beams under Repeated Loading
Concrete structures are often affected by repeated loading, like earthquakes, resulting in varying degrees of damages. On the other hand, it needs an adequate lap length when the length of reinforcing rebar is not sufficient to accommodate over full length of a structural member. Hence, the strength of lap splice under repeated loading is worthy to discuss farther. The study designs two kinds of loading, single and multiple cycle repeated loads, to analyze the bond behavior of tension lap splice steel in reinforced concrete beams. There are two beam specimens cast in the dimension of 200 mm x 250 mm x 920 mm to be tested. The results show that the bond strength of tension lap splice under repeated loading is not influenced. The beam specimens with single and multiple cycle repeated loading have approximate maximum loadings of 12541 kgf and 13898 kgf separately. The beam specimens also have similar ductility and do not present the bonding failure.
Analysis of Determinate and Indeterminate Structures: Applications of Non-Economical Structure
Generally, constructions of structures built in India are indeterminate structures. The purpose of this study is to investigate the application of a structure that is proved to be non-economical. The testing practice involves the application of different types of loads on both, determinate and indeterminate structure by computing it on a software system named Staad and also inspecting them practically on the construction site, analyzing the most efficient structure and diagnosing the utilization of the structure which is not so beneficial as compared to other. Redundant structures (indeterminate structure) are found to be more reasonable. All types of loads were applied on the beams of both determinate and indeterminate structures parallelly on the software and the same was done on the site practically which proved that maximum stresses in statically indeterminate structures are generally lower than those in comparable determinate structures. These structures are found to have higher stiffness resulting in lesser deformations so indeterminate structures are economical and are better than determinate structures to use for construction. On the other hand, statically determinate structures have the benefit of not producing stresses because of temperature changes. Therefore, our study tells that indeterminate structure is more beneficial but determinate structure also has used as it can be used in many areas; it can be used for the construction of two hinged arch bridges where two supports are sufficient and where there is no need for expensive indeterminate structure. Further investigation is needed to contrive more implementation of the determinate structure.
Analysis of Determinate and Indeterminate Structures: Applications of Non-Economic Structure
Generally, constructions of structures built in India are indeterminate structures. The purpose of this study is to investigate the application of a structure that is proved to be non-economical. The testing practice involves the application of different types of loads on both, determinate and indeterminate structure by computing it on a software system named Staad and also inspecting them practically on the construction site, analyzing the most efficient structure and diagnosing the utilization of the structure which is not so beneficial as compared to other. Redundant structures (indeterminate structure) are found to be more reasonable. All types of loads were applied on the beams of both determinate and indeterminate structures parallelly on the software and the same was done on the site practically which proved that maximum stresses in statically indeterminate structures are generally lower than those in comparable determinate structures. These structures are found to have higher stiffness resulting in lesser deformations so indeterminate structures are economical and are better than determinate structures to use for construction. On the other hand, statically determinate structures have the benefit of not producing stresses because of temperature changes. Therefore, our study tells that indeterminate structure is more beneficial but determinate structure also has used as it can be used in many areas; it can be used for the construction of two hinged arch bridges where two supports are sufficient and where there is no need for expensive indeterminate structure. Further investigation is needed to contrive more implementation of the determinate structure.
Downtime Modelling for the Post-Earthquake Building Assessment Phase
Downtime is one of the major sources (alongside damage and injury/death) of financial loss incurred by a structure in an earthquake. The length of downtime associated with a building after an earthquake varies depending on the time taken for the reaction (to the earthquake), decision (on the future course of action) and execution (of the decided course of action) phases. Post-earthquake assessment of buildings is a key step in the decision making process to decide the appropriate safety placarding as well as to decide whether a damaged building is to be repaired or demolished. The aim of the present study is to develop a model to quantify downtime associated with the post-earthquake building-assessment phase in terms of two parameters; i) duration of the different assessment phase; and ii) probability of different colour tagging. Post-earthquake assessment of buildings includes three stages; Level 1 Rapid Assessment including a fast external inspection shortly after the earthquake, Level 2 Rapid Assessment including a visit inside the building and Detailed Engineering Evaluation (if needed). In this study, the durations of all three assessment phases are first estimated from the total number of damaged buildings, total number of available engineers and the average time needed for assessing each building. Then, probability of different tag colours is computed from the 2010-11 Canterbury earthquake Sequence database. Finally, a downtime model for the post-earthquake building inspection phase is proposed based on the estimated phase length and probability of tag colours. This model is expected to be used for rapid estimation of seismic downtime within the Loss Optimisation Seismic Design (LOSD) framework.
Delivering on Infrastructure Maintenance for Socio-Economic Growth: Exploration of South African Infrastructure for a Sustained Maintenance Strategy
In South Africa, similar to nations globally, the prevailing tangible link between people and the state is public infrastructure. Services delivered through infrastructure to the people and to the state form a critical enabler for social development in communities and economic development in the country. In this regard, infrastructure, being the backbone to a nation’s prosperity, ideally should be effectively maintained for seamless delivery of services. South African infrastructure is in a state of deterioration, which is leading to infrastructure dysfunction and collapse and is negatively affecting development of the economy. This infrastructure deterioration stems from deficiencies in maintenance practices and strategies. From the birth of South African democracy, government has pursued socio-economic transformation and the delivery of critical basic services to decrease the broadening boundaries of disparity. In this regard, the National Infrastructure Plan borne from strategies encompassed in the National Development Plan is given priority by government in delivering strategic catalytic infrastructure projects. The National Infrastructure Plan is perceived to be the key in unlocking opportunities that generate economic growth, kerb joblessness, alleviate poverty, create new entrepreneurial prospects, and mitigate population expansion and rapid urbanisation. Socio-economic transformation benefits from new infrastructure spend is not being realised as initially anticipated. In this context, South Africa is currently in a state of weakening economic growth, with further amassed levels of joblessness, unremitting poverty and inequality. Due to investor reluctance, solicitation of strategic infrastructure funding is progressively becoming a debilitating challenge in all government institutions. Exacerbating these circumstances further, is substandard functionality of existing infrastructure subsequent to inadequate maintenance practices. This in-depth multi-sectoral study into the state of infrastructure is to understand the principal reasons for infrastructure functionality regression better; furthermore, prioritised investigations into progressive maintenance strategies is focused upon. Resultant recommendations reveal enhanced maintenance strategies, with a vision to capitalize on infrastructure design life, and also give special emphasis to socio-economic development imperatives in the long-term. The research method is principally based on descriptive methods (survey, historical, content analysis, qualitative).
Numerical Simulation of Flexural Strength of Steel Fiber Reinforced High Volume Fly Ash Concrete by Finite Element Analysis
It is well-known that fly ash can be used in high volume as a partial replacement of cement to get beneficial effects on concrete. High volume fly ash (HVFA) concrete is currently emerging as a popular option to strengthen by fiber. Although studies have supported the use of fibers with fly ash, a unified model along with the incorporation into finite element software package to estimate the maximum flexural loads need to be developed. In this study, nonlinear finite element analysis of steel fiber reinforced high strength HVFA concrete beam under static loadings was conducted to investigate their failure modes in terms of ultimate load. First of all, the experimental investigation of mechanical properties of high strength HVFA concrete was done and validates with developed numerical model with the appropriate modeling of element size and mesh by ANSYS 16.2. To model the fiber within the concrete, three-dimensional random fiber distribution was simulated by spherical coordinate system. Three types of high strength HVFA concrete beams were analyzed reinforced with 0.5, 1 and 1.5% volume fractions of steel fibers with specific mechanical and physical properties. The result reveals that the use of nonlinear finite element analysis technique and three-dimensional random fiber orientation exhibited fairly good agreement with the experimental results of flexural strength, load deflection and crack propagation mechanism. By utilizing this improved model, it is possible to determine the flexural behavior of different types and proportions of steel fiber reinforced HVFA concrete beam under static load. So, this paper has the originality to predict the flexural properties of steel fiber reinforced high strength HVFA concrete by numerical simulations.
Linear Semi Active Controller of Magneto-Rheological Damper for Seismic Vibration Attenuation
In structural vibration caused principally by an earthquake excitation, the most vibration’s attenuation system used recently is the semi active control with a Magneto Rheological Damper device. This control was a subject of many researches and works in the last years. The big challenges of searchers in this case is to propose an adequate controller with a robust algorithm of current or tension adjustment. In this present paper, a linear controller is proposed to control the MR damper using to reduce a vibrations of three story structure exposed to El Centro’s 1940 and Boumerdès 2003 earthquakes. In this example, the MR damper is installed in the first floor of the structure. The numerical simulations results of the proposed linear control with a feedback law based on clipped optimal algorithm showed the feasibility of the semi active control to protecting civil structures. The comparison of the controlled structure and uncontrolled structures responses illustrate clearly the performance and the effectiveness of the simple proposed approach.
Study of Nucleation and Growth Processes of Ettringite in Supersaturated Diluted Solutions
Ettringite Ca₆Al₂(SO₄)₃(OH)₁₂26H₂O is one of the major hydrates formed during cement hydration. Ettringite forms in Portland cement from the reaction between tricalcium aluminate Ca₃Al₂O₆ and calcium sulfate. Ettringite is also present in calcium sulfoaluminate cement in which it is the major hydrate, formed by the reaction between yeelimite Ca₄(AlO₂)₆SO₄ and calcium sulfate. About the formation of ettringite, numerous results are available in the literature even if some issues are still under discussion. However, almost all published work about ettringite was done on cementitious systems. Yet in cement, hydration reactions are very complex, the result of dissolution-precipitation processes and are submitted to various interactions. Understanding the formation process of a phase alone, here ettringite, is the first step to later understand the much more complex reactions happening in cement. This study is crucial for the comprehension of early cement hydration and physical behavior. Indeed formation of hydrates, in particular, ettringite, will have an influence on the rheological properties of the cement paste and on the need for admixtures. To make progress toward the understanding of existing phenomena, a specific study of nucleation and growth processes of ettringite was conducted. First ettringite nucleation was studied in ionic aqueous solutions, with controlled but different experimental conditions, as different supersaturation degrees (β), different pH or presence of exogenous ions. Through induction time measurements, interfacial ettringite crystals solution energies (γ) were determined. Growth of ettringite in supersaturated solutions was also studied through chain crystallization reactions. Specific BET surface area measurements and Scanning Electron Microscopy observations seemed to prove that growth process is favored over the nucleation process when ettringite crystals are initially present in a solution with a low supersaturation degree. The influence of stirring on ettringite formation was also investigated. Observation was made that intensity and nature of stirring have a high influence on the size of ettringite needles formed. Needle sizes vary from less than 10µm long depending on the stirring to almost 100µm long without any stirring. During all previously mentioned experiments, initially present ions are consumed to form ettringite in such a way that the supersaturation degree with regard to ettringite is decreasing over time. To avoid this phenomenon a device compensating the drop of ion concentrations by adding some more solutions, and therefore always have constant ionic concentrations, was used. This constant β recreates the conditions of the beginning of cement paste hydration, when the dissolution of solid reagents compensates the consumption of ions to form hydrates. This device allowed the determination of the ettringite precipitation rate as a function of the supersaturation degree β. Taking samples at different time during ettringite precipitation and doing BET measurements allowed the determination of the interfacial growth rate of ettringite in m²/s. This work will lead to a better understanding and control of ettringite formation alone and thus during cements hydration. This study will also ultimately define the impact of ettringite formation process on the rheology of cement pastes at early age, which is a crucial parameter from a practical point of view.
Mechanical and Hydraulic Behavior of Arid Zone Soils Treated with Lime: Case of Abadla, Bechar Clays, South of Algeria
Stabilization of clay with lime as bearing stratum is an alternative to replacement of that material. When lime is added to clay soils, calcium ions are combined initially with or adsorbed by clay minerals which leads to an improvement in soil workability, that is, to modify soil properties. The paper investigates the effect of hydrated lime on the behaviour of lime treated, arid zones clay (Abadla Clay). A number of mechanical and hydraulic tests were performed to identify the effect of lime dosage and compaction water content on the compressibility, permeability and shear strength parameters of the soil. The results are presented in terms of modern interpretation of the behaviour of treated soils, in comparison with the parameters of the untreated soil.
Process Modified Geopolymer Concrete: A Sustainable Material for Green Construction Technology
The fly ash based geopolymer concrete generally requires heat activation after casting, which has been considered as an important limitation for its practical application. Such limitation can be overcome by a modification in the process at the time of mixing of ingredients (fly and activator fluid) for geopolymer concrete so that curing can be made at ambient temperature. This process modified geopolymer concrete shows an appreciable improvement in structural performance compared to conventional heat cured geopolymer concrete and control cement concrete. The improved durability performance based on water absorption, sulphate test, and RCPT is also noted. The microstructural properties analyzed through Field Emission Scanning Electron Microscope (FESEM) with Energy Dispersive X-ray Spectroscopy (EDS) and X-ray Diffraction (XRD) techniques show the better interaction of fly ash and activator solution at early ages for the process modified geopolymer concrete. This accelerates the transformation of the amorphous phase of fly ash to the crystalline phase.
Emissivity Analysis of Hot-Dip Galvanized Steel in Fire
Once a fire resistance rating is necessary, it has to be proofed that the load bearing behavior of a steel construction under the exposure of fire still fits the static demands. High costs of passive fire protection, which satisfies the requirements, frequently result in a concrete solution. To optimize these expenses, one method is to determine the critical temperature according to the Eurocode DIN EN 1993-1-2. For this purpose, positive effects of hot-dip galvanized surface layers on the temperature development of steel members in the accidental situation of fire exposure has been investigated. The test results show a significant better heating behavior of hot-dip galvanized steel components compared to normal steel specimen. This leads in many cases to a R30 (30 minutes of ISO-fire) fire protection requirement of unprotected steel members and therefore to an economic added value.
Soil-Geopolymer Mixtures for Pavement Base and Subbase Layers
This research deals with the physical, microstructural, mechanical, and shrinkage characteristics of flyash-based soil-geopolymer mixtures. Medium and high plastic soils were obtained from local construction projects. Class F flyash was used with a mixture of sodium silicate and sodium hydroxide solution to develop soil-geopolymer mixtures. Several mixtures were compacted, cured at different curing conditions, and tested for unconfined compressive strength (UCS), linear shrinkage, and observed under scanning electron microscopy (SEM). The results of the study demonstrated that the soil-geopolymer mixtures fulfilled the UCS criteria of cement treated design (CTD) and cement stabilized design (CSD) as recommended by the department of transportation for pavement base and subbase layers. It was found that soil-geopolymer demonstrated either similar or better UCS and shrinkage characteristics relative to conventional soil-cement mixtures. The SEM analysis revealed that microstructure of soil-geopolymer mixtures exhibited development and steady growth of geopolymerization during the curing period. Based on mechanical, shrinkage, and microstructural characteristics it was suggested that the soil-geopolymer mixtures, has an immense potential to be used as pavement subgrade, subbase, and base layers.
Study of the Relationship between the Civil Engineering Parameters and the Floating of Buoy Model Which Made from Expanded Polystyrene-Mortar
There were five objectives in this study including the study of housing type with water environment, the physical and mechanical properties of the buoy material, the mechanical properties of the buoy models, the floating of the buoy models and the relationship between the civil engineering parameters and the floating of the buoy. The buoy examples made from Expanded Polystyrene (EPS) covered by 5 mm thickness of mortar with the equal thickness on each side. Specimens are 0.05 m cubes tested at a displacement rate of 0.005 m/min. The existing test method used to assess the parameters relationship is ASTM C 109 to provide comparative results. The results found that the three type of housing with water environment were Stilt Houses, Boat House, and Floating House. EPS is a lightweight material that has been used in engineering applications since at least the 1950s. Its density is about a hundredth of that of mortar, while the mortar strength was found 72 times of EPS. One of the advantage of composite is that two or more materials could be combined to take advantage of the good characteristics of each of the material. The strength of the buoy influenced by mortar while the floating influenced by EPS. Results showed the buoy example compressed under loading. The Stress-Strain curve showed the high secant modulus before reached the peak value. The failure occurred within 10% strain then the strength reduces while the strain was continuing. It was observed that the failure strength reduced by increasing the total volume of examples. For the buoy examples with same area, an increase of the failure strength is found when the high dimension is increased. The results showed the relationship between five parameters including the floating level, the bearing capacity, the volume, the high dimension and the unit weight. The study found increases in high of buoy lead to corresponding decreases in both modulus and compressive strength. The total volume and the unit weight had relationship with the bearing capacity of the buoy.
Strategies for a Sustainable Neighbourhood in a Smart City: A Case of Pattoor, Thiruvananthapuram
Planning of neighbourhood development strategies in Tier 2 Indian city is highly significant when it has also been selected as a Smart city by the Ministry of Urban Development in India. Smart city mission of India proposes the development of infrastructure in a city in an inclusive way. Thiruvananthapuram, the capital city of Kerala state, India, has been selected as the city to conduct the research. The master plan for the city of Thiruvananthapuram envisions it as a Compact city and proposes densification as a tool for development. Densification may adversely affect the quality of life after a tipping point. This may lead to urban decay which in turn directly or indirectly affects the surrounding neighbourhoods also, thus spreading blight areas in the city. The author thinks that density in urban planning is not a well detailed subject in India, with respect to its varied links on infrastructure, quality of life, transportation, scope of vertical planning, affordability etc. Neighbourhoods are vital tissues of an urban area, and their development directly affects the development of the region. The methodology would involve skimming of proactive neighbourhood planning principles compatible with the Smart city mission in India. United Nations proposes sustainability as a way of planning development of a neighbourhood. After defining various terminologies involved, a framework shall be developed to analyse an existing neighbourhood and prepare planning guidelines in a sustainable manner. The framework shall comply with international and national policy guidelines. The research shall explore and identify a neighbourhood with the potential to meet the housing demand from the investment regions nearby and analyse its potential and weakness as per this framework. Later, a set of indicators shall be enlisted to guide the development of the neighbourhood, leading to recommendations that shall serve as a replicable model for the other neighbourhoods in the Smart city.
Durability Performances of Epoxy Resin/TiO₂ Composited Alkali-Activated Slag/Fly Ash Pastes in Phosphoric Acid Solution
Laden with phosphates at a low pH value, sewage wastewater aggressive environments constitute a great threat to concrete-based pipes which is made of alkaline cementitious materials such as ordinary Portland cement (OPC). As a promising alternative for OPC-based binders, alkali-activated slag/fly ash (AASF) cementitious binders are generally believed to gain similar or better properties compared to OPC-based counterparts, especially durability. However, there is limited research on the performance of AASF binders in phosphoric acid solution. Moreover, the behavior of AASF binders composited with epoxy resin/TiO₂ when exposed to acidic media has been rarely explored. In this study, the performance of AASF paste with the precursor slag:fly ash (50:50 in mass ratio) enhanced with epoxy resin/TiO₂ composite in phosphoric acid solution (pH = 3.0-4.0) was investigated. The exposure towards acid attack lasted for 90 days. The same AASF mixture without resin/TiO₂ composite was used as a reference. The compressive strength and porous-related properties prior to acidic immersion were tested. The mass variations and degradation depth of the two mixtures of binders were also monitored which is based on phenolphthalein-videomicroscope method. The results show that the binder with epoxy resin/TiO₂ addition gained a higher compressive strength and lower water absorption than the reference. In addition, it also displayed a higher resistance towards acid attack indicated by a less mass loss and less degradation depth compared to the control sample. This improvement can be attributed to a dense microstructure evidenced by the higher compressive strength and related porous structures. It can be concluded that the microstructure can be improved by adding epoxy resin/TiO₂ composite in order to enhance the resistance of AASF binder towards acid attacks.
Effect of Normal Deformation on the Stability of Sandwich Beams Simply Supported Using a Refined Four-Variable Beam Theory
In this work, a study of the stability of a functionally graduated sandwiches beam using a refined theory of hyperbolic shear deformation of a beam was developed. The effects of transverse shear strains and the transverse normal deformation are considered. The constituent materials of the beam are supposed gradually variable depending on the height direction based on a simple power distribution law in terms of the volume fractions of the constituents; the two materials with which we worked are metals and ceramics. In order to examine the present model, illustrative examples are presented to show the effects of changes in different parameters such as the material graduation, the stretching effect of the thickness and thickness ratio –length on the buckling of FGM sandwich beams.
Freezing-Thawing and Salt Crystallization Resistance of High-Performance Concrete with Basalt Fibres
The study on the physical properties of high performance concrete with basalt fibres was presented in the paper. Its basic characteristics and physical strength parameters, i.e., absorbability, density, porosity, compressive strength, flexural tensile strength, frost resistance, and sodium sulphate corrosion resistance, were defined. The use of basalt fibres results in different wettability and durability of high performance concrete. Five concrete mixtures were prepared in the laboratory using Portland cement CEM I 52.5 R, coarse basalt aggregate 2-16 mm, sand, water, microsilica, superplasticizer, and basalt fibres; the quantity of which varied in percentage (0; 0.25; 0.5; 0.75; 1%). Basalt fibres were characterized by the in length of 24, thickness of 12-18 µm and hardness of 8.5 on the Mohs’ scale. The concrete with 1% basalt fibres addition exhibits the highest porosity, absorptivity, and the lowest density among the tested concretes. The open porosity of concrete was within the range of 1.7-2.9% and corresponded to high performance concretes. The absorptivity of samples is very low and ranges from 0.7 to 1.1%. The addition of 0.75 and 1% fibres causes the highest increase in absorptivity, by more than 37%, while the addition of 0.25% caused an increase by 7%, compared to the non-modified samples. On the basis of the obtained results, an adverse effect of the addition of basalt fibres on concrete compressive strength can be found. For the highest fibres content of 1%, the compressive strength is reduced by 25.5% for the standard concrete and amounted to 96 MPa. With increasing addition of basalt fibres from 0.25 to 1%, the flexural tensile strength was gradually increased from 9% to 31.3% and ranged from 8.3 to 12.05 MPa, respectively. The relation indicating that the higher the basalt fibres content in concretes, the greater the drop in the compressive strength was found. Such a relation would occur in the case of mass loss of concrete after frost and salt test. There was no visible damage to the material surface. After 15 cycles of testing, the mass loss (0.7%) of the samples with a fiber high content was observed. After 180 cycles of freezing-thawing, no cracks in the concrete and corrosion were observed. The greatest mass loss was exhibited by the concrete with 1% fibres; it was 4 times greater than in the case of the concrete without basalt fibres and approximated 3%. This may be related to the differences in the physical properties of frozen water and the solution of salt such as freezing point, deformability or ductility. The following conclusions can be drawn: The degree of ice pore saturation is sufficiently low. The matrix of the concrete with basalt fibres is undamaged. The increased free pores value of the concrete with 1% fibres affected the increase in mass after the salt crystallization test to the greatest degree. All the concretes showed good resistance to salt crystallization. The freezing-thawing cycles cause small cracking and damage of the concrete with the high content of basalt fibres.
The Influence of Partial Replacement of Hydrated Lime by Pozzolans on Properties of Lime Mortars
Hydrated lime, because of the life cycle (return to its natural form as a result of the setting and hardening) has a positive environmental impact. The lime binder is used in mortars. Lime is a slow setting binder with low mechanical properties. The aim of the study was to evaluate the possibility of improving the properties of the lime binder by using different pozzolanic materials as partial replacement of hydrated lime binder. Pozzolan materials are the natural or industrial waste, so do not affect the environmental impact of the lime binder. The following laboratory tests were performed: the analysis of the physical characteristics of the tested samples of lime mortars (bulk density, porosity), flexural and compressive strength, water absorption and the capillary rise of samples and consistency of fresh mortars. As a partial replacement of hydrated lime (in the amount of 10%, 20%, 30% by weight of lime) a metakaolin, silica fume, and zeolite were used. The shortest setting and hardening time showed mortars with the addition of metakaolin. All additives noticeably improved strength characteristic of lime mortars. With the increase in the amount of additive, the increase in strength was also observed. The highest flexural strength was obtained by using the addition of metakaolin in an amount of 20% by weight of lime (2.08 MPa). The highest compressive strength was obtained by using also the addition of metakaolin but in an amount of 30% by weight of lime (9.43 MPa). The addition of pozzolan caused an increase in the mortar tightness which contributed to the limitation of absorbability. Due to the different surface area, pozzolanic additives affected the consistency of fresh mortars. Initial consistency was assumed as plastic. Only the addition of silica fume an amount of 20 and 30% by weight of lime changed the consistency to the thick-plastic. The conducted study demonstrated the possibility of applying lime mortar with satisfactory properties. The features of lime mortars do not differ significantly from cement-based mortar properties and show a lower environmental impact due to CO₂ absorption during lime hardening. Taking into consideration the setting time, strength and consistency, the best results can be obtained with metakaolin addition to the lime mortar.
Simulation of Glass Breakage Using Voronoi Random Field Tessellations
Fragmentation analysis of tempered glass gives insight into the quality of the tempering process and defines a certain degree of safety as well. Different standard such as the European EN 12150-1 or the American ASTM C 1048/CPSC 16 CFR 1201 define a minimum number of fragments required for soda-lime safety glass on the basis of fragmentation test results for classification. This work presents an approach for the glass breakage pattern prediction using a Voronoi Tesselation over Random Fields. The random Voronoi tessellation is trained with and validated against data from several breakage patterns. The fragments in observation areas of 50 mm x 50 mm were used for training and validation. All glass specimen used in this study were commercially available soda-lime glasses at three different thicknesses levels of 4 mm, 8 mm and 12 mm. The results of this work form a Bayesian framework for the training and prediction of breakage patterns of tempered soda-lime glass using a Voronoi Random Field Tesselation. Uncertainties occurring in this process can be well quantified, and several statistical measures of the pattern can be preservation with this method. Within this work it was found, that different Random Fields as basis for the Voronoi Tesselation lead to differently well fitted statistical properties of the glass breakage patterns. As the methodology is derived and kept general, the framework could be also applied to other random tesselations and crack pattern modelling purposes.
Investigation of the Material Behaviour of Polymeric Interlayers in Broken Laminated Glass
The use of laminated glass gains increasing importance in structural engineering. For safety reasons, at least two glass panes are laminated together with a polymeric interlayer. In case of breakage of one or all of the glass panes, the glass fragments are still connected to the interlayer due to adhesion forces and a certain residual load-bearing capacity is left in the system. Polymer interlayers used in the laminated glass show a viscoelastic material behavior, e.g. stresses and strains in the interlayer are dependent on load duration and temperature. In the intact stage only small strains appear in the interlayer, thus the material can be described in a linear way. In the broken stage, large strains can appear and a non-linear viscoelasticity material theory is necessary. Relaxation tests on two different types of polymeric interlayers are performed at different temperatures and strain amplitudes to determine the border to the non-linear material regime. Based on the small-scale specimen results further tests on broken laminated glass panes are conducted. So-called ‘through-crack-bending’ (TCB) tests are performed, in which the laminated glass has a defined crack pattern. The test set-up is realized in a way that one glass layer is still able to transfer compressive stresses but tensile stresses have to be transferred by the interlayer solely. The TCB-tests are also conducted under different temperatures but constant force (creep test). Aims of these experiments are to elaborate if the results of small-scale tests on the interlayer are transferable to a laminated glass system in the broken stage. In this study, limits of the applicability of linear-viscoelasticity are established in the context of two commercially available polymer-interlayers. Furthermore, it is shown that the results of small-scale tests agree to a certain degree to the results of the TCB large-scale experiments. In a future step, the results can be used to develop material models for the post breakage performance of laminated glass.
Uncertainty Quantification of Crack Widths and Crack Spacing in Reinforced Concrete
Cracking of reinforced concrete is a complex phenomenon induced by direct loads or restraints affecting reinforced concrete structures as soon as the tensile strength of the concrete is exceeded. Hence it is important to predict where cracks will be located and how they will propagate. The bond theory and the crack formulas in the actual design codes, for example, DIN EN 1992-1-1, are all based on the assumption that the reinforcement bars are embedded in homogeneous concrete without taking into account the influence of transverse reinforcement and the real stress situation. However, it can often be observed that real structures such as walls, slabs or beams show a crack spacing that is orientated to the transverse reinforcement bars or to the stirrups. In most Finite Element Analysis studies, the smeared crack approach is used for crack prediction. The disadvantage of this model is that the typical strain localization of a crack on element level can’t be seen. The crack propagation in concrete is a discontinuous process characterized by different factors such as the initial random distribution of defects or the scatter of material properties. Such behavior presupposes the elaboration of adequate models and methods of simulation because traditional mechanical approaches deal mainly with average material parameters. This paper concerned with the modelling of the initiation and the propagation of cracks in reinforced concrete structures considering the influence of transverse reinforcement and the real stress distribution in reinforced concrete (R/C) beams/plates in bending action. Therefore, a parameter study was carried out to investigate: (I) the influence of the transversal reinforcement to the stress distribution in concrete in bending mode and (II) the crack initiation in dependence of the diameter and distance of the transversal reinforcement to each other. The numerical investigations on the crack initiation and propagation were carried out with a 2D reinforced concrete structure subjected to quasi static loading and given boundary conditions. To model the uncertainty in the tensile strength of concrete in the Finite Element Analysis correlated normally and lognormally distributed random filed with different correlation lengths were generated. The paper also presents and discuss different methods to generate random fields, e.g. the Covariance Matrix Decomposition Method. For all computations, a plastic constitutive law with softening was used to model the crack initiation and the damage of the concrete in tension. It was found that the distributions of crack spacing and crack widths are highly dependent of the used random field. These distributions are validated to experimental studies on R/C panels which were carried out at the Laboratory for Structural Engineering at the University of the German Armed Forces in Munich. Also, a recommendation for parameters of the random field for realistic modelling the uncertainty of the tensile strength is given. The aim of this research was to show a method in which the localization of strains and cracks as well as the influence of transverse reinforcement on the crack initiation and propagation in Finite Element Analysis can be seen.
A Bayesian Parameter Identification Method for Thermorheological Complex Materials
Polymers increasingly gained interest in construction materials over the last years in civil engineering applications. As polymeric materials typically show time- and temperature dependent material behavior, which is accounted for in the context of the theory of linear viscoelasticity. Within the context of this paper, the authors show, that some polymeric interlayers for laminated glass can not be considered as thermorheologically simple as they do not follow a simple TTSP, thus a methodology of identifying the thermorheologically complex constitutive bahavioir is needed. ‘Dynamical-Mechanical-Thermal-Analysis’ (DMTA) in tensile and shear mode as well as ‘Differential Scanning Caliometry’ (DSC) tests are carried out on the interlayer material ‘Ethylene-vinyl acetate’ (EVA). A navoel Bayesian framework for the Master Curving Process as well as the detection and parameter identification of the TTSPs along with their associated Prony-series is derived and applied to the EVA material data. To our best knowledge, this is the first time, an uncertainty quantification of the Prony-series in a Bayesian context is shown. Within this paper, we could successfully apply the derived Bayesian methodology to the EVA material data to gather meaningful Master Curves and TTSPs. Uncertainties occurring in this process can be well quantified. We found, that EVA needs two TTSPs with two associated Generalized Maxwell Models. As the methodology is kept general, the derived framework could be also applied to other thermorheologically complex polymers for parameter identification purposes.
Modified Side Plate Design to Suppress Lateral Torsional Buckling of H-Beam for Seismic Application
One of the method to solve the lateral torsional buckling (LTB) problem is by using side plates to increased the buckling resistance of the beam. Some modifications in designing the side plates are made in this study to simplify the construction in the field and reduce the cost. At certain region, side plates are not added: (1) At the beam end to preserve some spaces for bolt installation, but the beam is strengthened by adding cover plate at both flanges and (2) at the middle span of the beam where the moment is smaller. Three small scale full span beam specimens are tested under cyclic loading to investigate the LTB resistant and the ductility of the proposed design method. Test results show that the LTB deformation can be effectively suppressed and very high ductility level can be achieved. Following the test, a finite element analysis (FEA) model is established and is verified using the test results. An intensive parametric study is conducted using the established FEA model. The analysis reveals that the length of side plates is the most important parameter determining the performance of the beam and the required side plates length is determined by some parameters which are (1) beam depth to flange width ratio, (2) beam slenderness ratio (3) strength and thickness of the side plates, (4) compactness of beam web and flange, and (5) beam yield strength. At the end of the paper, a design formula to calculate the required side plate length is suggested.
Analysis and Treatment of Sewage Treatment Plant Wastewater of El-Karma, Oran
In order to reduce the flow of pollutants in the wastewater of the urban agglomerations of the city of Oran, a preliminary study was carried out at the El-Karma wastewater treatment plant. The primary objective of this study was to estimate the overall physicochemical pollution in the effluents of the El-Karma sewage treatment plant wastewater. It was found that the effluent of El-Karma wastewater treatment plant contains a significant amount of insoluble. Total suspended soli TSS concentrations ranged from 112 to 475 mg/l, with an average of 220.5 mg/l. The chemical oxygen demand (COD) and biochemical oxygen demand (BOD₅) values remain within the reference range for domestic wastewater with an average value of COD < 125 and BOD₅ < 25. The COD/BOD₅ ratio of raw water entering the treatment plant is less than 2. This ratio would predict that the raw sewage from the El-Karma treatment plant is polluted by inorganic pollution strong enough.
Comparative Assessment of Rainwater Management Alternatives for Dhaka City: Case Study of North South University
Dhaka, the capital of Bangladesh, faces two contrasting problems; excess of water during monsoon season and scarcity of water during dry season. The first problem occurs due to rapid urbanization and mismanagement of rainwater whereas the second problem is related to climate change and increasing urban population. Inadequate drainage system also worsens the overall water management scenario in Dhaka city. Dhaka has a population density of 115,000 people per square miles. This results in a 2.5 billion liter water demand every day, 87% of which is fulfilled by groundwater. Over dependency on groundwater has resulted in more than 200 feet drop in the last 50 years and continues to decline at a rate of 9 feet per year. Considering the gravity of the problem, it is high time that practitioners, academicians and policymakers consider different water management practices and look into their cumulative impacts at different scales. The present study assesses different rainwater management options for North South University of Bangladesh and recommends the most feasible and sustainable rainwater management measure. North South University currently accommodates over 20,000 students, faculty members, and administrative staffs. To fulfill the water demand, there are two deep tube wells, which bring up approximately 150,000 liter of water every hour. The annual water demand is approximately 103 million liters. Dhaka receives approximately 1800 mm of rainfall every year. For the current study, two academic buildings and one administrative building consist of 4924 square meters of rooftop area was selected as catchment area. Both rainwater harvesting and groundwater recharge options were analyzed separately. It was estimated that by rainwater harvesting, annually a total of 7.2 million liters of water can be reused which is approximately 7% of the total annual water usage. In the monsoon, rainwater harvesting fulfills 12.2% of the monthly water demand. The approximate cost of the rainwater harvesting system is estimated to be 940975 bdt (USD 11500). For direct groundwater recharge, a system comprises of one de-siltation tank, two recharge tanks and one siltation tank were designed that requires approximately 532788 bdt (USD 6500). The payback period is approximately 7 years and 4 months for the groundwater recharge system whereas the payback period for rainwater harvesting option is approximately 12 years and 4 months. Based on the cost-benefit analysis, the present study finds the groundwater recharge system to be most suitable for North South University. The present study also demonstrates that if only one institution like North South University can add up a substantial amount of water to the aquifer, bringing other institutions in the network has the potential to create significant cumulative impact on replenishing the declining groundwater level of Dhaka city. As an additional benefit, it also prevents large amount of water being discharged into the storm sewers which results in severe flooding in Dhaka city during monsoon.
Experimental and Numerical Modeling of Flow in United States Bureau of Reclamation II Stilling Basin with End Adverse Slope
Hydraulic jump is one of the effective ways of energy dissipation in stilling basins that the ‎energy is highly dissipated by jumping. Adverse slope surface at the end stilling basin is ‎caused to increasing energy dissipation and stability of the hydraulic jump. In this study, the adverse slope ‎has been added to end of USBR II‏ ‏stilling basin in hydraulic model of Nazloochay dam with scale 1:40, and flow simulated into stilling basin using Flow-3D ‎software. The numerical model verified by experimental data of water depth in ‎stilling basin. Then, the parameters of water level profile, Froude Number, pressure, air ‎entrainment and turbulent dissipation investigated for discharging 300 m³/s using K-Ɛ and Re-Normalization Group (RNG) turbulence ‎models. The results showed a good agreement is between numerical and experimental model‎ as ‎numerical model can be used for optimization of stilling basins.‎
Warm Mix and Reclaimed Asphalt Pavement: A Greener Road Approach
Utilization of a high percentage of reclaimed asphalt pavement (RAP) requires higher production temperatures and consumes more energy. High production temperature expedites the aging of bitumen in RAP, which could affect the mixture performance. Warm mix asphalt (WMA) additive enables reduced production temperatures as a result of viscosity reduction. This paper evaluates the integration of a high percentage of RAP with a WMA additive known as RH-WMA. The optimum dosage of RH-WMA was determined from basic properties tests. A total of 0, 30 and 50% reclaimed asphalt pavement contents from two roads sources were modified with RH-WMA. The modified RAP bitumen were examined for viscosity, stiffness, rutting resistance and greenhouse gas emissions. The addition of RH-WMA improved the flow of bitumen by reducing the viscosity, thus decreased the construction temperature. The stiffness of the reclaimed asphalt pavement modified bitumen reduced with the incorporation of RH-WMA. The positive improvement in rutting resistance was observed on bitumen with addition of reclaimed asphalt pavement and RH-WMA in comparison with control. It was estimated that the addition of RH-WMA could potentially reduce the fuel usage and GHG emissions by 22 %. Hence, the synergy of RAP and WMA technology can be an alternative in green road construction.
Feasibility of Ground Alkali-Active Sandstone Powder for Use in Concrete as Mineral Admixture
Alkali-active sandstone aggregate was ground by vertical and ball mill into particles with residue over 45μm less than 12%, and investigations have been launched on particles distribution and characterization of ground sandstone powder, fluidity, heat of hydration, strength as well as hydration products morphology of pastes with incorporation of ground sandstone powder. Results indicated that ground alkali-active sandstone powder with residue over 45μm less than 8% was easily obtainable and specific surface area was more sensitive to characterize its fineness with extension of grinding length. Incorporation of sandstone powder resulted in higher water demand and lower strength, advanced hydration of C₃A and C₂S within 3 days and refined pore structure. Based on its manufacturing, characteristics, and influence on properties of pastes, it was concluded that sandstone powder was a good selection for use in concrete as mineral admixture.
Design and Analysis of Energy-Dissipated Structures with Toggle-Braced Viscous Dampers Having Displacement Amplification Mechanism
In order to deal with the issue that the relative small interstory drift restrains the efficiency of dampers for seismic mitigation, a new type of toggle-braced viscous damper system with displacement amplification mechanism was investigated in this paper. Furthermore, a 6-storey steel frame structure with no damper, diagonal-braced damper system, chevron-braced system and new-type upper toggle-braced system, were modeled and analyzed via the finite element analysis software SAP2000, respectively. And 7 ground motion records were selected and scaled to two different levels corresponding to the moderate and rare earthquake in the Chinese seismic design codes for nonlinear time history analysis of the models. The analytical results show that the maximum interstory drift ratio, the maximum floor displacement and the maximum floor acceleration of the structures with dampers are reduced to some extent, and the control effect of the interstory drift ratio and the maximum floor displacement is obviously better than that of the maximum floor acceleration. In terms of overall effect, the effect of seismic mitigation for the structures with upper toggle-braced damper system is the best. For the other cases, the effect of seismic mitigation for the structures from good to poor are chevron damper system, diagonal damper system and no damper system, respectively.