International Science Index

International Journal of Chemical and Materials Engineering

Effects of Flame Retardant Nano Bio-Filler on the Fire Behaviour of Thin Film Intumescent Coatings
This paper analyzes the fire protection performance, char formation and heat release characteristics of the thin film intumescent coatings that incorporate waste eggshell (ES) as a nano bio-filler. In this study, the Bunsen burner and the fire propagation (BS 476: Part 6) tests of coatings were measured. Experiments on the samples were also tested to evaluate their fire behavior using a cone calorimeter according to ISO 5660-1 specifications. On exposure, the samples B, C and D had been certified to be Class 0 due to the fire propagation indexes of the samples were less than 12. Samples B and D showed a significant reduction in total heat rate (B=11.6 MJ/m² and D=12.0 MJ/m²) and uniform char structures with the addition of 3.30 wt.% and 2.75 wt.% ES nano bio-filler, respectively. As a result, ES nano bio-filler composition good to slow down the fire expanding and demonstrate better fire protection due to its positive synergistic effect with flame retardant ingredients on physical and chemical reactions in fire protection.
Efficient Ni(II)-Containing Layered Triple Hydroxide-Based Catalysts: Synthesis, Characterisation and Their Role in the Heck Reaction
Nickel can efficiently replace palladium in the Heck, Suzuki and Negishi reactions. This study focuses on the synthesis and catalytic application of Ni(II)-containing layered double hydroxides (LDHs) and layered triple hydroxides (LTHs). Our goals were to incorporate Ni(II) ions among the layers of LDHs or LTHs, or binding it to their surface or building it into their layers in such a way that their catalytic activities are maintained or even increased. The LDHs and LTHs were prepared by the co-precipitation method using ethylene glycol as co-solvent. In several cases, post-synthetic modifications (e.g., thermal treatment) were performed. After optimizing the synthesis conditions, the composites displayed good crystallinity and were free of byproducts. The success of the syntheses and the post-synthetic modifications was confirmed by relevant characterization methods (XRD, SEM, SEM-EDX and combined IR techniques). Catalytic activities of the produced and well-characterized solids were investigated through the Heck reaction. The composites behaved as efficient, recyclable catalysts in the Heck reaction between 4-bromoanisole and styrene. Through varying the reaction parameters, we were able to obtain acceptable conversions under mild conditions. Our study highlights the possibility of the application of Ni(II)-containing composites as efficient catalysts in coupling reactions.
Efficiency of Visible Light Induced Photocatalytic Oxidation of Toluene and Benzene by a Photocatalytic Textile
This study investigated the efficiency of photocatalytic textile to remove the Volatile Organic Compounds (VOCs) present in indoor air. Functionalization of the fabric was achieved by adding a photocatalyst material active in the visible spectrum of light. This is a modified titanium dioxide photocatalyst doped with non-metal ions synthesized via sol-gel process, which should allow the degradation of the pollutants – ideally into H₂O and CO₂ – using photocatalysis based on visible light and no additionnal external energy source. The visible light photocatalytic activity of textile sample was evaluated for toluene and benzene gaseous removal, under the visible irradiation, in a test chamber with the total volume of 1m³. The suggested approach involves experimental investigations of the global behavior of the photocatalytic textile. The experimental apparatus permits simultaneous measurements of the degradation of pollutants and presence of eventually formed by-products. It also allows imposing and measuring concentration variations with respect to selected time scales in the test chamber. The observed results showed that the amount of TiO₂ incorporation improved the photocatalytic efficiency of functionalized textile significantly under visible light. The results obtained with such textile are very promising.
Effect of Temperature on Corrosion Fatigue Cracking Behavior of Inconel 625 in Steam and Supercritical Water
Inconel 625 is a nickel-based alloy having outstanding corrosion resistance and developed for use at service temperatures ranging from cryogenic to 980°C. It got a wide range of applications in nuclear, petrochemical, chemical, marine, aeronautical, and aerospace industries. Currently, it is one of the candidate materials to be used as a structural material in ultra-supercritical (USC) power plants. In the high-temperature corrosive medium environment, metallic materials are susceptible to corrosion fatigue (CF). CF is an interaction between cyclic stress and corrosive medium environment that acts on a susceptible material and results in initiation and propagation of cracks. For the application of Inconel 625 as a structural material in USC power plants, CF behavior must be evaluated in steam and supercritical water (SCW) environment. Fatigue crack growth rate (FCGR) curves obtained from CF experiments are required to predict residual life of metallic materials used in power plants. In this study, FCGR tests of Inconel 625 were obtained by using compact tension specimen at 550-650 °C in steam (8 MPa) and SCW (25 MPa). The dissolved oxygen level was kept constant at 8000 ppb for the test conducted in steam and SCW. The tests were performed under sine wave loading waveform, 1 Hz loading frequency, stress ratio of 0.6 and maximum stress intensity factor of 32 MPa√m. Crack growth rate (CGR) was detected by using direct current potential drop technique. Results showed that CGR increased with an increase in temperature in the tested environmental conditions. The mechanism concerning the influence of temperature on FCGR are further discussed.
Effect of Pressure and Dissolved Oxygen on Stress Corrosion Cracking Susceptibility of Inconel 617 in Steam and Supercritical Water
Inconel 617, a nickel-based alloy designed for high-temperature applications, got an excellent amalgamation of strength and oxidation resistance at high temperatures. For a better understanding of its suitability to be used in superheater and reheater tubes in ultra-supercritical power plants, stress corrosion cracking (SCC) susceptibility must be evaluated. In the present study, the effect of medium environment on SCC behavior of Inconel 617, in the form of a round bar tensile specimen, was tested via slow strain rate tensile tests in steam and supercritical water (SCW) at 650 °C. The results showed that SCC susceptibility has a linear relationship with exposed pressure and increases monotonically with an increase in pressure. A severe SCC susceptibility was observed in SCW followed by that in a steam environment. Fracture and gage surface showed apparent characteristics of brittle fracture. Intergranular cracks initiated from the edge region and propagated into the matrix through cross section until ductile rupture. When dissolved oxygen contents were decreased in SCW environment, it showed no noticeable effect on mechanical properties but SCC susceptibility slightly decreased. The research revealed the influence of environment on SCC susceptibility of Inconel 617 in steam and SCW.
Dendrimer-Encapsulated N, Pt Co-Doped TiO₂ for the Photodegration of Contaminated Wastewater
Azo dye effluents, released into water bodies are not only toxic to the ecosystem but also pose a serious impact on human health due to the carcinogenic and mutagenic effects of the compounds present in the dye discharge. Conventional water treatment methods such as adsorption, flocculation/coagulation and biological processes are not effective in completely removing most of the dyes and their natural degradation by-products. Advanced oxidation processes (AOPs) have proven to be effective technologies for complete mineralization of these recalcitrant pollutants. Therefore, there is a need for new technology that can solve the problem. Thus, this study examined the photocatalytic degradation of an azo dye brilliant black (BB) using non-metal/metal codoped TiO₂. N, Pt co-doped TiO₂ photocatalysts were prepared by a modified sol-gel method using amine-terminated polyamidoamine dendrimer generation 0 (PAMAM G0), amine-terminated polyamidoamine dendrimer generation 1 ( PAMAM G1) and hyperbranched polyethyleneimine (HPEI) as templates and source of nitrogen. Structural, morphological, and textural properties were evaluated using scanning electron microscopy coupled to energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy (SEM/EDX), high-resolution transmission electron microscopy (HRTEM), X-ray diffraction spectroscopy (XRD), X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS), thermal gravimetric analysis (TGA), Fourier- transform infrared (FTIR), Raman spectroscopy (RS), photoluminescence (PL) and ultra-violet /visible spectroscopy (UV-Vis). The synthesized photocatalysts exhibited lower band gap energies as compared to the Degussa P-25 revealing a red shift in band gap towards the visible light absorption region. Photocatalytic activity of N, Pt co-doped TiO₂ was measured by the reaction of photocatalytic degradation of brilliant black (BB) dye. The N, metal codoped TiO₂ containing 0.5 wt. % of the metal consisted mainly of the anatase phase as confirmed by XRD results of all three samples, with a particle size range of 13–30 nm. The particles were largely spherical and shifted the absorption edge well into the visible region. Band gap reduction was more pronounced for the N, Pt HPEI (Pt 0.5 wt. %) codoped TiO₂ compared to PAMAM G0 and PAMAM G1. Consequently, codoping led to an enhancement in the photocatalytic activity of the materials for the degradation of brilliant black (BB).
Preparation of Self-Healable Polyurethane Coatings Using Disulfide Bond Metathesis Reaction
Hydroxyl terminated polybutadiene based polyurethanes with their unique properties such as good weathering resistance, low glass transition temperature, resistance to acidic and basic solutions and good mechanical properties are considered in many industries like coatings and adhesives. The nature of the coatings made them face many mechanical and environmental stresses that reduce their life and increase the costs of the repair and maintenance. Mimicking of the natural systems in autonomous remendability of their damage parts is seemed to be the key solution to overcome the disadvantages of polyurethane coatings. Many efforts have been done to design polyurethanes with high self-healing ability especially in unsaturated polyol based polyurethanes; however, using expensive catalysts or unusual healing condition inhibited the development of these methods in marketing. In this study, disulfide metathesis reaction has been used as a healing agent to achieve self-healable polyurethane coatings. It has been assumed that the low activation energy requirement for performing of the metathesis reaction in disulfide bonds could be helpful to achieve self-healing ability in mild conditions. In this regards, hydroxyl-terminated polybutadiene has been used as polyol due to its good properties. In addition, three functional amino alcohols were used as cross-linker in polyurethane matrix to enhance the mechanical properties of the prepared elastomers. In this study, the disulfide bond containing diamine and dihydroxyl compounds were considered as chain extender and healing agent to study their effects on the healing and mechanical properties of the HTPB- based polyurethanes. The results revealed that the presence of the lewis acid compounds in the polymer matrix led to the performing of the side reactions like thio-ene and radical chain coupling which reduce the efficiency of the self-healing in samples. Using free-lewis acid crosslinker agents like triethanol amines besides of the 2-(hydroxylethyl) disulfide chain extender led to the achieving of the self-healable elastomers. This formulation led the scratched elastomer to recover 41% of its stress strength in comparison to the virgin sample. On the other hand, the Dynamical mechanical thermal analysis (DMTA) analysis showed the metathesis reaction of the disulfide bonds in self-healable samples in contrast to the Lewis acid containing samples that did not exhibit any changes in their viscoelastic behavior. It has been seemed that this study has taken an important step in commercializing the self-healing unsaturated polyol based polyurethane coatings.
Theoretical Modeling of Self-Healing Polymers Crosslinked by Dynamic Bonds
Dynamic polymer networks (DPNs) crosslinked by dynamic bonds have received intensive attention because of their special crack-healing capability. Diverse DPNs have been synthesized using a number of dynamic bonds, including dynamic covalent bond, hydrogen bond, ionic bond, metal-ligand coordination, hydrophobic interaction, and others. Despite the promising success in the polymer synthesis, the fundamental understanding of their self-healing mechanics is still at the very beginning. Especially, a general analytical model to understand the interfacial self-healing behaviors of DPNs has not been established. Here, we develop polymer-network based analytical theories that can mechanistically model the constitutive behaviors and interfacial self-healing behaviors of DPNs. We consider that the DPN is composed of interpenetrating networks crosslinked by dynamic bonds. bonds obey a force-dependent chemical kinetics. During the self-healing process, we consider the The network chains follow inhomogeneous chain-length distributions and the dynamic polymer chains diffuse across the interface to reform the dynamic bonds, being modeled by a diffusion-reaction theory. The theories can predict the stress-stretch behaviors of original and self-healed DPNs, as well as the healing strength in a function of healing time. We show that the theoretically predicted healing behaviors can consistently match the documented experimental results of DPNs with various dynamic bonds, including dynamic covalent bonds (diarylbibenzofuranone and olefin metathesis), hydrogen bonds, and ionic bonds. We expect our model to be a powerful tool for the self-healing community to invent, design, understand, and optimize self-healing DPNs with various dynamic bonds.
Magnetic Properties of Bis-Lanthanoates: Probing Dimer Formation in Crystalline, Liquid and Glassy Compounds Using SQUID Magnetometry
Magnetic ionic liquids (MILs) are a class of ionic liquid incorporating one or more magnetic atoms into the anion or cation of the ionic liquid, endowing the ionic liquid with magnetic properties alongside the existing properties of ionic liquids. MILs have applications in e.g. fluid-fluid separations, electrochemistry, and polymer chemistry. In this study three different types of Bis-Lanthanoates, that exist in different phases, have been synthesised and characterised (Ln = lanthanide): 1) imidazolium lanthanide acetate – [C4Mim]2[Ln2(OAc)8] – forms a crystalline solid at room temperature, 2) phosphonium lanthanide acetate – [P666 14]2[Ln2(OAc)8] – is in a solid glassy state, and 3) phosphonium lanthanide octanoate – [P666 14]2[Ln2(Oct)8] – is an ionic liquid. X-ray diffraction of the crystalline solid imidazolium lanthanide acetate – [C4Mim]2[Ln2(OAc)8] confirm that the Ln(III) ions form dimers, bridged by carboxyl groups, but cannot yield information about samples phosphonium lanthanide acetate – [P666 14]2[Ln2(OAc)8] (glass) and phosphonium lanthanide octanoate – [P666 14]2[Ln2(Oct)8] (ionic liquid) since these lack long-range order. SQUID magnetometry studies show that all three samples have effective magnetic moments consistent with non-interacting Ln(III) ions at room temperature but deviate from this behavior in the same way below 50 K. Through modeling the magnetic response, we are able to show that we have formed magnetic dimers, in all compounds, that are weakly antiferromagnetically interacting
Fibroblast Compatibility of Core-Shell Coaxially Electrospun Hybrid Poly(ε-Caprolactone)/Chitosan Scaffolds
Tissue engineering is the field of treating defects caused by injuries, trauma or acute/chronic diseases by using artificial scaffolds that mimic the extracellular matrix (ECM), the natural biological support for the tissues and cells within the body. The main aspects of a successful artificial scaffold are (i) large surface area in order to provide multiple anchorage points for cells to attach, (ii) suitable porosity in order to achieve 3 dimensional growth of the cells within the scaffold as well as proper transport of nutrition, biosignals and waste and (iii) physical, chemical and biological compatibility of the material in order to obtain viability throughout the healing process. By hybrid scaffolds where two or more different materials were combined with advanced fabrication techniques into complex structures, it is possible to combine the advantages of individual materials into one single structure while eliminating the disadvantages of each. Adding this to the complex structure provided by advanced fabrication techniques enables obtaining the desired aspects of a successful artificial tissue scaffold. In this study, fibroblast compatibility of poly(ε-caprolactone) (PCL)/chitosan core-shell electrospun hybrid scaffolds with proper mechanical, chemical and physical properties successfully developed in our previous study was investigated. Standard 7-day cell culture was carried out with L929 fibroblast cell line. The viability of the cells cultured with the scaffolds was monitored with 3-(4,5-dimethylthiazol-2-yl)-2,5-diphenyltetrazolium bromide (MTT) viability assay for every 48 h starting with 24 h after the initial seeding. In this assay, blank commercial tissue culture polystyrene (TCPS) Petri dishes, single electrospun PCL and single electrospun chitosan mats were used as control in order to compare and contrast the performance of the hybrid scaffolds. The adhesion, proliferation, spread and growth of the cells on/within the scaffolds were observed visually on the 3rd and the 7th days of the culture period with confocal laser scanning microscopy (CSLM) and scanning electron microscopy (SEM). The viability assay showed that the hybrid scaffolds caused no toxicity for fibroblast cells and provided a steady increase in cell viability, effectively doubling the cell density for every 48 h for the course of 7 days, as compared to TCPS, single electrospun PCL or chitosan mats. The cell viability on the hybrid scaffold was ~2 fold better compared to TCPS because of its 3D ECM-like structure compared to 2D flat surface of commercially cell compatible TCPS, and the performance was ~2 fold and ~10 fold better compared to single PCL and single chitosan mats, respectively, even though both fabricated similarly with electrospinning as non-woven fibrous structures, because single PCL and chitosan mats were either too hydrophobic or too hydrophilic to maintain cell attachment points. The viability results were verified with visual images obtained with CSLM and SEM, in which cells found to achieve characteristic spindle-like fibroblast shape and spread on the surface as well within the pores successfully at high densities.
Development of Transparent Nano-Structured Super-Hydrophobic Coating on Glass and Evaluation of Anti-Dust Properties
Super-hydrophobicity is an effect in which a surface roughness and chemical composition are combined to produce unusual water and dust repellent surface. The super-hydrophobic surface is widely used in many applications such as windshields of the automobile, aircraft, lens, solar cells, roofing, boat hull, paints, etc. Four coating solutions were prepared by varying compositions of 1,1,1,3,3,3 hexametyldisilazane (HDMS) and tetraethylorthosilicate (TEOS) sol. These solutions were coated on glass slides by a spin coating method and etched at a high temperature ranging 250 -350 oC. All the coatings were studied for its different properties like water repellent, anti-dust, and transparency and contact angle measurements. Stability of coatings was also studied with respect to temperature, external environment, and pH. It was found that all coatings impart a significant super-hydrophobicity on a glass surface with contact angle ranging from 156o to 162o and have good stability in the external environment. The results of the different coatings were observed and compared with each other. On increasing layers of coatings the super-hydrophobicity and anti-dust properties increases but after 3 coatings the transparency of coating starts decreasing.
Preparation of Carbon Nanofiber Reinforced Hdpe Using Dialkylimidazolium as a Dispersing Agent- Effect on Thermal and Rheological Properties
The incorporation of a small amount of nano materials such as carbon nano fibers (CNFs) into the polymer matrix significantly improves the thermal electrical and mechanical performance of the polymeric materials, offering great openings for developing multifunctional polymer composite materials. However, the overall performance of the polymer nanocomposite mainly depends on the effective dispersion into the polymer matrix. High-density polyethylene reinforced with carbon nanofibers (HDPE/CNF) have been prepared via melt processing using dilakylimidazolium tetrafluoroborate (ionic liquid; IL) as a dispersion agent. The prepared samples were characterized by TGA (Thermogravimetric Analysis) and DSC (Differential Scanning Calorimetry) analyses. It was observed that samples blended with imdazolium ionic liquid exhibit higher thermal stability. DSC analysis showed clear miscibility of ionic liquid in the HDPE matrix and showed single endothermic peak. The melt rheological analysis of composites was performed using an oscillatory rheometer. The influence of CNF and ionic liquid concentration (ranging from 0, 0.5, and 1 wt%) on the viscoelastic parameters was investigated at 200°C with an angular frequency range of 0.1 to 100 rad/s. An improvement in the viscoelastic properties is observed as the nanofiber concentration increases for both HDPE/CNF and HDPE/CNF/IL. The complex viscosity and moduli values for HDPE/CNF/IL composites were lower than the HDPE/CNF composites. Therefore it is also significant to note that the reduction in melt viscosity is an additional benefit for polymer composite processing as a result of wetting effect by polymer-ionic liquid combinations.
Kinetic and Thermodynamic Modified Pectin with Chitosan by Forming Polyelectrolyte Complex Adsorbent to Remediate of Pb(II)
Biosorbent, such as pectin and chitosan, are usually produced with low physical stability, thus the materials need to be modified. In this research, the physical characteristic of adsorbent was increased by grafting chitosan using acetate carboxymetyl chitosan (CC). Further, CC and Pectin (Pec) were crosslinked using cross-linking agent BADGE (bis phenol A diglycidyl ether) to get CC-Pec-BADGE (CPB) adsorbent. The cross-linking processes aim to form stable structure and resistance on acidic media. Furthermore, in order to increase the adsorption capacity in removing Pb(II), the adsorbent was added with NaCl to form macroporous adsorbent named CCPec-BADGE-Na (CPB-Na). The physical and chemical characteristics of the porogenic adsorbent structure were characterized by scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FT-IR). The adsorption parameter of CPB-Na to adsorb Pb(II) ion was determined. The kinetics and thermodynamics of the bath sorption of Pb(II) on CPB-Na adsorbent and using chitosan and pectin as a comparison were also studied. The results showed that the CPB-Na biosorbent was stable on acidic media. It had a rough and porous surface area, increased and gave higher sorption capacity for removal of Pb(II) ion. The CPB-Na 1/1 and 1/3 adsorbent adsorbed Pb(II) with adsorption capacity of 45.48 mg/g and 45.97 mg/g respectively, whereas pectin and chitosan were of 39.20 mg /g and 24.67 mg /g respectively.
Electrochemical Activity of NiCo-GDC Cermet Anode for Solid Oxide Fuel Cells Operated in Methane
Solid Oxide Fuel Cells (SOFCs) have been considered as one of the most efficient large unit power generators for household and industrial applications. The efficiency of an electronic cell depends mainly on the electrochemical reactions in the anode. The development of anode materials has been intensely studied to achieve higher kinetic rates of redox reactions and lower internal resistance. Recent studies have introduced an efficient cermet (ceramic-metallic) material for its ability in fuel oxidation and oxide conduction. This could expand the reactive site, also known as the triple-phase boundary (TPB), thus increasing the overall performance. In this study, a bimetallic catalyst Ni₀.₇₅Co₀.₂₅Oₓ was combined with Gd₀.₁Ce₀.₉O₁.₉₅ (GDC) to be used as a cermet anode (NiCo-GDC) for an anode-supported type SOFC. The synthesis of Ni₀.₇₅Co₀.₂₅Oₓ was carried out by ball milling NiO and Co3O4 powders in ethanol and calcined at 1000 °C. The Gd₀.₁Ce₀.₉O₁.₉₅ was prepared by a urea co-precipitation method. Precursors of Gd(NO₃)₃·6H₂O and Ce(NO₃)₃·6H₂O were dissolved in distilled water with the addition of urea and were heated subsequently. The heated mixture product was filtered and rinsed thoroughly, then dried and calcined at 800 °C and 1500 °C, respectively. The two powders were combined followed by pelletization and sintering at 1100 °C to form an anode support layer. The fabrications of an electrolyte layer and cathode layer were conducted. The electrochemical performance in H₂ was measured from 800 °C to 600 °C while for CH₄ was from 750 °C to 600 °C. The maximum power density at 750 °C in H₂ was 13% higher than in CH₄. The difference in performance was due to higher polarization resistances confirmed by the impedance spectra. According to the standard enthalpy, the dissociation energy of C-H bonds in CH₄ is slightly higher than the H-H bond H₂. The dissociation of CH₄ could be the cause of resistance within the anode material. The results from lower temperatures showed a descending trend of power density in relevance to the increased polarization resistance. This was due to lowering conductivity when the temperature decreases. The long-term stability was measured at 750 °C in CH₄ monitoring at 12-hour intervals. The maximum power density tends to increase gradually with time while the resistances were maintained. This suggests the enhanced stability from charge transfer activities in doped ceria due to the transition of Ce⁴⁺ ↔ Ce³⁺ at low oxygen partial pressure and high-temperature atmosphere. However, the power density started to drop after 60 h, and the cell potential also dropped from 0.3249 V to 0.2850 V. These phenomena was confirmed by a shifted impedance spectra indicating a higher ohmic resistance. The observation by FESEM and EDX-mapping suggests the degradation due to mass transport of ions in the electrolyte while the anode microstructure was still maintained. In summary, the electrochemical test and stability test for 60 h was achieved by NiCo-GDC cermet anode. Coke deposition was not detected after operation in CH₄, hence this confirms the superior properties of the bimetallic cermet anode over typical Ni-GDC.
3D-Printing Compressible Macroporous Polymer Using Poly-Pickering-High Internal Phase Emulsions as Micromixer
Microfluidic mixing technology grew rapidly in the past few years due to its many advantages over the macro-scale mixing, especially the ability to use small amounts of internal volume and also very high surface-to-volume ratio. The Reynold number identify whether the mixing is operated by the laminar or turbulence flow. Therefore, mixing with very fast kinetic can be achieved by diminishing the channel dimensions to decrease Reynold number and the laminar flow can be accomplished. Moreover, by using obstacles in the micromixer, the mixing length and the contact area between the species have been increased. Therefore, the channel geometry and its surface property have great importance to reach satisfactory mixing results. Since poly(-merised) High Internal Phase Emulsions (polyHIPEs) have more than 74% porosity and their pores are connected each other with pore throats, which cause high permeability, they are ideal candidate to build a micromixer. The HIPE precursor is commonly produced by using an overhead stirrer to obtain relatively large amount of emulsion in batch process. However, we will demonstrate that a desired amount of emulsion can be prepared continuously with micromixer build from polyHIPE, and such HIPE can subsequently be employed as ink in 3D printing process. In order to produce the micromixer a poly-Pickering(St-co-DVB)HIPE with 80% porosity was prepared with modified silica particles as stabilizer and surfactant Hypermer 2296 to obtain open porous structure and after coating of the surface, the three 1/16' ' PTFE tubes to transfer continuous (CP) and internal phases (IP) and the other is to collect the emulsion were placed. Afterwards, the two phases were injected in the ratio 1:3 CP:IP with syringe dispensers, respectively, and highly viscoelastic H(M)IPE, which can be used as an ink in 3D printing process, was gathered continuously. After the polymerisation of the resultant emulsion, polyH(M)IPE has interconnected porous structure identical to the monolithic polyH(M)IPE indicating that the emulsion can be prepared constantly with poly-Pickering-HIPE as micromixer and it can be used to prepare desired pattern with a 3D printer. Moreover, the morphological properties of the emulsion can be adjustable by changing flow ratio, flow speed and structure of the micromixer.
Ultrasonic Irradiation Synthesis of High-Performance Pd@Copper Nanowires/Multiwalled Carbon Nanotubes-Chitosan Electrocatalyst by Galvanic Replacement toward Ethanol Oxidation in Alkaline Media
The direct ethanol fuel cells (DEFCs) are contemplated as a promising energy source because, In addition to being used in portable electronic devices, it is also used for electric vehicles. The synthesis of bimetallic nanostructures due to their novel optical, catalytic and electronic characteristic which is precisely in contrast to their monometallic counterparts is attracting extensive attention. Galvanic replacement (sometimes is named to as cementation or immersion plating) is an uncomplicated and effective technique for making nanostructures (such as core-shell) of different metals, semiconductors, and their application in DEFCs. The replacement of galvanic does not need any external power supply compared to electrodeposition. In addition, it is different from electroless deposition because there is no need for a reducing agent to replace galvanizing. In this paper, a fast method for the palladium (Pd) wire nanostructures synthesis with the great surface area through galvanic replacement reaction utilizing copper nanowires (CuNWS) as a template by the assistance of ultrasound under room temperature condition is proposed. To evaluate the morphology and composition of Pd@ Copper nanowires/MultiWalled Carbon nanotubes-Chitosan , emission scanning electron microscopy, energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy were applied. In order to measure the phase structure of the electrocatalysts were performed via room-temperature X-ray powder diffraction (XRD) applying an X-ray diffractometer. Various electrochemical techniques including chronoamperometry and cyclic voltammetry were utilized for the electrocatalytic activity of ethanol electrooxidation and durability in basic solution. Pd@ Copper nanowires/MultiWalled Carbon nanotubes-Chitosan catalyst demonstrated substantially enhanced performance and long-term stability for ethanol electrooxidation in the basic solution in comparison to commercial Pd/C that demonstrated the potential in utilizing Pd@ Copper nanowires/MultiWalled Carbon nanotubes-Chitosan as efficient catalysts towards ethanol oxidation. Noticeably, the Pd@ Copper nanowires/MultiWalled Carbon nanotubes-Chitosan presented excellent catalytic activities with peak current density of 320.73 mAcm-2 which was 9.5 times more than in comparison to Pd/C (34.2133 mAcm-2). Additionally, activation energy thermodynamic and kinetic evaluations revealed that the Pd@ Copper nanowires/MultiWalled Carbon nanotubes-Chitosan catalyst has lower compared to Pd/C which leads to a lower energy barrier and an excellent charge transfer rate towards ethanol oxidation.
Investigation of Biocorrosion in Brass by Arthrobacter Sulfureus in Neutral Medium
Microbial corrosion of brass gauze by the aerobic film forming bacteria Arthrobacter sulfurous in neutral media was investigated using gravimetric studies. Maximum weight loss of 166.98 mg was observed for a period of 28 days of exposure to the bacterial medium as against the weight loss of 13.69 mg for control. The optical density studies for the bacterial culture was found to show attainment of stationary phase in 48 h. Scanning electron microscopy analysis of the samples shows the presence of pitting corrosion. The energy dispersive X-ray analysis of the samples showed increased oxygen and phosphorus content in the sample due to bacterial activity.
Investigation of the Corrosion Inhibition Mechanism of Tagetes erecta Extract for Mild Steel in Nitric Acid: Gravimetric Studies
The extract of Tagetes erecta (marigold flower) was used as a green corrosion inhibitor for mild steel (MS) in nitric acid medium. The weight loss measurements were performed to understand the inhibition mechanism. The effect of temperature on the behaviour of mild steel corrosion without and with inhibitor was studied. The temperature studies revealed that the activation energy increased from 12 kJ/mol to 28.8 kJ/mol with the addition of 500 ppm inhibitor concentration. The thermodynamic analysis and the adsorption isotherm studies revealed that the molecules of inhibitor show physical adsorption on the surface of mild steel. Based on weight loss measurements, adsorption of the inhibitor on the surface of mild steel follows Langmuir isotherm.
Competitive Adsorption of Al, Ga and In by Gamma Irradiation Induced Pectin-Acrylamide-(Vinyl Phosphonic Acid) Hydrogel
Pectin-Acrylamide- (Vinyl Phosphonic Acid) Hydrogels were prepared from their blend by using gamma radiation of various doses. It was found that the gel fraction of hydrogel increases with increasing the radiation dose reaches a maximum and then started decreasing with increasing the dose. The optimum radiation dose and the composition of raw materials were determined on the basis of equilibrium swelling which resulted in 20 kGy absorbed dose and 1:2:4 (Pectin:AAm:VPA) composition. Differential scanning calorimetry reveals the gel strength for using them as the adsorbent. The FTIR-spectrum confirmed the grafting/ crosslinking of the monomer on the backbone of pectin chain. The hydrogels were applied in adsorption of Al, Ga, and In from multielement solution where the adsorption capacity order for those three elements was found as – In>Ga>Al. SEM images of hydrogels and metal adsorbed hydrogels indicate the gel network and adherence of the metal ions in the interpenetrating network of the hydrogel which were supported by EDS spectra. The adsorption isotherm models were studied and found that the Langmuir adsorption isotherm model was well fitted with the data. Adsorption data were also fitted to different adsorption kinetic and diffusion models. Desorption of metal adsorbed hydrogels was performed in 5% nitric acid where desorption efficiency was found around 90%.
A Fast and Environmentally Friendly Fluorimetric Method for the Determination of Aflatoxin B₁ in Peanuts Samples
Aflatoxins are mycotoxin species that must be properly identified as they cause serious damage to human and animal health and cause loss of crops. These are acute toxicants, as well as immunosuppressive agents, and also have mutagenic, teratogenic and carcinogenic effects. In this study, a new fluorimetric method for Aflatoxin B1 has been developed that is environmentally friendly, precise, selective and fast. For this purpose, a polymeric sensor was prepared by photocuring technique, and the effects of parameters such as wavelength, duration, foreign species effect on the determination were also investigated. The polymeric membrane was prepared in as little as 3 minutes. The excitation and emission wavelengths of the method were 375 nm and 423 nm, respectively, and a decrease in fluorescence intensity in the presence of Aflatoxin B1 was observed. The same sensor can be regenerated using only 10% methanol and can be used 40 times. The detection limit was calculated to be 3.84x10⁻¹⁰ mol L⁻¹, and the method was successfully applied to the peanut samples. Our method is a highly selective, fast, precise, reliable, economical and environmentally friendly method which contributes to the work carried out on this field.
Preparation and Characterization of Cellulose Based Antimicrobial Food Packaging Materials
This study aimed to develop polyelectrolyte structured antimicrobial food packaging materials that do not contain any antimicrobial agents. Cationic hydroxyethyl cellulose was synthesized and characterized by Fourier Transform Infrared, carbon and proton Nuclear Magnetic Resonance spectroscopy. Its nitrogen content was determined by the Kjeldahl method. Polyelectrolyte structured antimicrobial food packaging materials were prepared using hydroxyethyl cellulose, cationic hydroxyethyl cellulose, and sodium alginate. Antimicrobial activity of materials was defined by inhibition zone method (disc diffusion method). Thermal stability of samples was evaluated by thermal gravimetric analysis and differential scanning calorimetry. Surface morphology of samples was investigated by scanning electron microscope. The obtained results prove that produced food packaging materials have good thermal and antimicrobial properties, and they can be used as food packaging material in many industries.
Thermal Properties of Polyhedral Oligomeric Silsesquioxanes/Polyimide Nanocomposite
In this study, we aimed to synthesize and characterize polyhedral oligomeric silsesquioxanes containing polyimide nanocomposite. Polyimide nanocomposites widely have been used in membranes in fuel cell, solar cell, gas filtration, sensors, aerospace components, printed circuit boards. Firstly, polyamic acid was synthesized and characterized by Fourier Transform Infrared. Then, polyhedral oligomeric silsesquioxanes containing polyimide nanocomposite was prepared with thermal imidization method. The obtained polyimide nanocomposite was characterized by Fourier Transform Infrared, Scanning Electron Microscope, Thermal Gravimetric Analysis and Differential Scanning Calorimetry. Thermal stability of polyimide nanocomposite was evaluated by thermal gravimetric analysis and differential scanning calorimetry. Surface morphology of composite samples was investigated by scanning electron microscope. The obtained results prove that successfully prepared polyhedral oligomeric silsesquioxanes are containing polyimide nanocomposite. The obtained nanocomposite can be used in many industries such as electronics, automotive, aerospace, etc.
Chlorine Pretreatment Effect on Mechanical Properties of Optical Fiber Glass
The principal ingredient of an optical fiber is quartz glass. The quality of the optical fiber decreases if impure foreign substances are attached to its preform surface. If residual strain inside a preform is significant, it cracks with a small impact during drawing or transporting. Furthermore, damages and unevenness on the surface of an optical fiber base material break the fiber during drawing. The present work signifies that chlorine pre-treatment enhances mechanical properties of the optical fiber glass. FTIR (Fourier-Transform Infrared Spectroscopy) results show that chlorine gas chemically modifies the structure of silica clad; chlorine is known to soften glass. Metallic impurities on the preform surface likely formed volatile metal chlorides due to chlorine pretreatment at elevated temperature. The chlorine also acts as a drying agent, and therefore the preform surface is anticipated to be water deficient and supposedly avoids particle adhesion on the glass surface. The Weibull analysis of long length tensile strength demarcates a substantial shift in its knee. The higher dynamic fatigue n-value also indicated surface crack healing.
Low-Surface Roughness and High Optical Quality CdS Thin Film Deposited on Heated Substrate Using Room-Temperature Chemical Solution
The high production cost of the conventional solar cells requires the search for economic methods suitable for solar energy conversion. Cadmium Sulfide (CdS) is one of the most important semiconductors used in photovoltaics, especially in large area solar cells; and can be prepared in a thin film form by a wide variety of deposition techniques. The preparation techniques include vacuum evaporation, sputtering and molecular beam epitaxy. Other techniques, based on chemical solutions, are also used for depositing CdS films with dramatically low-cost compared to other vacuum-based methods. Although this technique is widely used during the last decades, due to simplicity and low-deposition temperature (~100°C), there is still a strong need for more information on the growth process and its relation with the quality of the deposited films. Here, we report on deposition of high-quality CdS thin films; with low-surface roughness ( < 3.0 nm) and sharp optical absorption edge; on low-temperature glass substrates (70°C) using a new method based on the room-temperature chemical solution. In this method, a mixture solution of cadmium acetate and thiourea at room temperature was used under special growth conditions for deposition of CdS films. X-ray diffraction (XRD) measurements were used to examine the crystal structure properties of the deposited CdS films. In addition, UV-VIS transmittance and low-temperature (4K) photoluminescence (PL) measurements were performed for quantifying optical properties of the deposited films. The deposited films show high optical quality as confirmed by observation of both, sharp edge in the transmittance spectra and strong PL intensity at room temperature. Furthermore, we found a strong effect of the growth conditions on the optical band gap of the deposited films; where remarkable red-shift in the absorption edge with temperature is clearly seen in both transmission and PL spectra. Such tuning of both optical band gap of the deposited CdS films can be utilized for tuning the electronic bands' alignments between CdS and other light-harvesting materials, like CuInGaSe or CdTe, for potential improvement in the efficiency of solar cells devices based on these heterostructures.
The Inversion of Helical Twist Sense inLiquid Crystal by Spectroscopy Methods
The chiral liquid crystal phases form the helicoidal structure, which is characterized by the helical pitch and the helical twist sense. In anticlinic smectic phase with antiferroelectric properties three types of helix temperature dependence have been obtained: increased helical pitch with temperature and right-handed helix, decreased helical pitch with temperature and left-handed helix and the inversion of both. The change of helical twist sense may be observed during the transition from one liquid crystal phase to another or within one phase for the same substance. According to Gray and McDonnell theory, the helical handedness depends on the absolute configuration of the assymetric carbon atom and its position related to the rigid core of the molecule. However, this theory does not explain the inversion of helical twist sense phenomenon. It is supposed, that it may be caused by the presence of different conformers with opposite handendess, which concentration may change with temperature. In this work, the inversion of helical twist sense in the chiral liquid crystals differing in the length of alkyl chain, in the substitution the benzene ring by fluorine atoms and in the type of helix handedness was tested by vibrational spectroscopy (infrared and raman spectroscopy) and by nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy. The results obtained from the vibrational spectroscopy confirm the presence of different conformers. Moreover, the analysis of nuclear magnetic resonance spectra is very useful to check, on which structural fragments the change of conformations are important for the change of helical twist sense.
Reduced General Dispersion Model in Cylindrical Coordinates and Isotope Transient Kinetic Analysis in Laminar Flow
This abstract discusses a method that reduces the general dispersion model in cylindrical coordinates to a second order linear ordinary differential equation with constant coefficients so that it can be utilized to conduct kinetic studies in packed bed tubular catalytic reactors at a broad range of Reynolds numbers. The model was tested by 13CO isotope transient tracing of the CO adsorption of Boudouard reaction in a differential reactor at an average Reynolds number of 0.2 over Pd-Al2O3 catalyst. Detailed experimental results have provided evidence for the validity of the theoretical framing of the model and the estimated parameters are consistent with the literature. The solution of the general dispersion model requires the knowledge of the radial distribution of axial velocity. This is not always known. Hence, up until now, the implementation of the dispersion model has been largely restricted to the plug-flow regime. But, ideal plug-flow is impossible to achieve and flow regimes approximating plug-flow leave much room for debate as to the validity of the results. The reduction of the general dispersion model transpires as a result of the application of a factorization theorem. Factorization theorem is derived from the observation that a cross section of a catalytic bed consists of a solid phase across which the reaction takes place and a void or porous phase across which no significant measure of reaction occurs. The disparity in flow and the heterogeneity of the catalytic bed cause the concentration of reacting compounds to fluctuate radially. These variabilities signify the existence of radial positions at which the radial gradient of concentration is zero. Succinctly, factorization theorem states that a concentration function of axial and radial coordinates in a catalytic bed is factorable as the product of the mean radial cup-mixing function and a contingent dimensionless function. The concentration of adsorbed compounds are also factorable since they are piecewise continuous functions and suffer the same variability but in the reverse order of the concentration of mobile phase compounds. Factorability is a property of packed beds which transforms the general dispersion model to an equation in terms of the measurable mean radial cup-mixing concentration of the mobile phase compounds and mean cross-sectional concentration of adsorbed species. The reduced model does not require the knowledge of the radial distribution of the axial velocity. Instead, it is characterized by new transport parameters so denoted by Ωc, Ωa, Ωc, and which are respectively denominated convection coefficient cofactor, axial dispersion coefficient cofactor, and radial dispersion coefficient cofactor. These cofactors adjust the dispersion equation as compensation for the unavailability of the radial distribution of the axial velocity. Together with the rest of the kinetic parameters they can be determined from experimental data via an optimization procedure. Our data showed that the estimated parameters Ωc, Ωa Ωr, are monotonically correlated with the Reynolds number. This is expected to be the case based on the theoretical construct of the model. Computer generated simulations of methanation reaction on nickel provide additional support for the utility of the newly conceptualized dispersion model.
Aluminum Based Hexaferrite and Reduced Graphene Oxide a Suitable Microwave Absorber for Microwave Application
Extensive use of digital and smart communication createsprolong expose of unwanted electromagnetic (EM) radiations. This harmful radiation creates not only malfunctioning of nearby electronic gadgets but also severely affects a human being. So, a suitable microwave absorbing material (MAM) becomes a necessary urge in the field of stealth and radar technology. Initially, Aluminum based hexa ferrite was prepared by sol-gel technique and for carbon derived composite was prepared by the simple one port chemical reduction method. Finally, composite films of Poly (Vinylidene) Fluoride (PVDF) are prepared by simple gel casting technique. Present work demands that aluminum-based hexaferrite phase conjugated with graphene in PVDF matrix becomes a suitable candidate both in commercially important X and Ku band. The structural and morphological nature was characterized by X-Ray diffraction (XRD), Field emission-scanning electron microscope (FESEM) and Raman spectra which conforms that 30-40 nm particles are well decorated over graphene sheet. Magnetic force microscopy (MFM) and conducting force microscopy (CFM) study further conforms the magnetic and conducting nature of composite. Finally, shielding effectiveness (SE) of the composite film was studied by using Vector network analyzer (VNA) both in X band and Ku band frequency range and found to be more than 30 dB and 40 dB, respectively. As prepared composite films are excellent microwave absorbers.
Characterization of Nickel Based Metallic Superconducting Materials
Density functional theory is used to investigate the.the structural, electronic, and magnetic properties of the cubic anti-perovskites InNNi3 and ZnNNi3. The structure of antiperovskite also called (perovskite-inverse) identical to the perovskite structure of the general formula ABX3, where A is a main group (III–V) element or a metallic element, B is carbon or nitrogen, and X is a transition metal, displays a wide range of interesting physical properties, such as giant magnetoresistance. Elastic and electronic properties were determined using generalized gradient approximation (GGA), and local spin density approximation (LSDA) approaches, ), as implemented in the Wien2k computer package. The results show that the two compounds are strong ductile and satisfy the Born-Huang criteria, so they are mechanically stable at normal conditions. Electronic properties show that the two compounds studied are metallic and non-magnetic. The studies of these compounds have confirmed the effectiveness of the two approximations and the ground-state properties are in good agreement with experimental data and theoretical results available.
Effects of Polydispersity on the Glass Transition Dynamics of Aqueous Suspensions of Soft Spherical Colloidal Particles
The zero shear viscosity (η₀) of a suspension of hard sphere colloids characterized by a significant polydispersity (≈10%) increases with increase in volume fraction (ϕ) and shows a dramatic increase at ϕ=ϕg with the system entering a colloidal glassy state. Fragility which is the measure of the rapidity of approach of these suspensions towards the glassy state is sensitive to its size polydispersity and stiffness of the particles. Soft poly(N-isopropylacrylamide) (PNIPAM) particles deform in the presence of neighboring particles at volume fraction above the random close packing volume fraction of undeformed monodisperse spheres. Softness, therefore, enhances the packing efficiency of these particles. In this study PNIPAM particles of a nearly constant swelling ratio and with polydispersities varying over a wide range (7.4%-48.9%) are synthesized to study the effects of polydispersity on the dynamics of suspensions of soft PNIPAM colloidal particles. The size and polydispersity of these particles are characterized using dynamic light scattering (DLS) and scanning electron microscopy (SEM). As these particles are deformable, their packing in aqueous suspensions is quantified in terms of effective volume fraction (ϕeff). The zero shear viscosity (η₀) data of these colloidal suspensions, estimated from rheometric experiments as a function of the effective volume fraction ϕeff of the suspensions, increases with increase in ϕeff and shows a dramatic increase at ϕeff = ϕ₀. The data for η₀ as a function of ϕeff fits well to the Vogel-Fulcher-Tammann equation. It is observed that increasing polydispersity results in increasingly fragile supercooled liquid-like behavior, with the parameter ϕ₀, extracted from the fits to the VFT equation shifting towards higher ϕeff. The observed increase in fragility is attributed to the prevalence of dynamical heterogeneities (DHs) in these polydisperse suspensions, while the simultaneous shift in ϕ₀ is ascribed to the decoupling of the dynamics of the smallest and largest particles. Finally, it is observed that the intrinsic nonlinearity of these suspensions, estimated at the third harmonic near ϕ₀ in Fourier transform oscillatory rheological experiments, increases with increase in polydispersity. These results are in agreement with theoretical predictions and simulation results for polydisperse hard sphere colloidal glasses and clearly demonstrate that jammed suspensions of polydisperse colloidal particles can be effectively fluidized with increasing polydispersity. Suspensions of these particles are therefore excellent candidates for detailed experimental studies of the effects of polydispersity on the dynamics of glass formation.
Rheolaser: Light Scattering Characterization of Viscoelastic Properties of Hair Cosmetics That Are Related to Performance and Stability of the Respective Colloidal Soft Materials
Rheolaser MASTER™ makes use of multiple scattering of light, caused by scattering objects in a continuous medium (such as droplets and particles in colloids), to characterize the viscoelasticity of soft materials. It offers an alternative to conventional rheometers to characterize viscoelasticity of products such as hair cosmetics. Up to six simultaneous measurements at controlled temperature can be carried out simultaneously (10-15 min), and the method requires only minor sample preparation work. Conversely to conventional rheometer based methods, no mechanical stress is applied to the material during the measurements. Therefore, the properties of the exact same sample can be monitored over time, like in aging and stability studies. We determined the elastic index (EI) of water/emulsion mixtures (1 ≤ fat alcohols (FA) ≤ 5 wt%) and emulsion/gel-network mixtures (8 ≤ FA ≤ 17 wt%) and compared with the elastic/sorage mudulus (G’) for the respective samples using a TA conventional rheometer with flat plates geometry. As expected, it was found that log(EI) vs log(G’) presents a linear behavior. Moreover, log(EI) increased in a linear fashion with solids level in the entire range of compositions (1 ≤ FA ≤ 17 wt%), while rheometer measurements were limited to samples down to 4 wt% solids level. Alternatively, a concentric cilinder geometry would be required for more diluted samples (FA > 4 wt%) and rheometer results from different sample holder geometries are not comparable. The plot of the rheolaser output parameters solid-liquid balance (SLB) vs EI were suitable to monitor product aging processes. These data could quantitatively describe some observations such as formation of lumps over aging time. Moreover, this method allowed to identify that the different specifications of a key raw material (RM < 0.4 wt%) in the respective gel-network (GN) product has minor impact on product viscoelastic properties and it is not consumer perceivable after a short aging time. Broadening of a RM spec range typically has a positive impact on cost savings. Last but not least, the photon path length (λ*)—proportional to droplet size and inversely proportional to volume fraction of scattering objects, accordingly to the Mie theory—and the EI were suitable to characterize product destabilization processes (e.g., coalescence and creaming) and to predict product stability about eight times faster than our standard methods. Using these parameters we could successfully identify formulation and process parameters that resulted in unstable products. In conclusion, Rheolaser allows quick and reliable characterization of viscoelastic properties of hair cosmetics that are related to their performance and stability. It operates in a broad range of product compositions and has applications spanning from the formulation of our hair cosmetics to fast release criteria in our production sites. Last but not least, this powerful tool has positive impact on R&D development time—faster delivery of new products to the market—and consequently on cost savings.