International Science Index

International Journal of Business and Economics Engineering

Historical Hashtags: An Investigation of the #CometLanding Tweets
This study aims to investigate how the Twittersphere reacted during the recent historical event of robotic landing on a comet. The news is about Philae, a robotic lander from European Space Agency (ESA), which successfully made the first-ever rendezvous and touchdown of its kind on a nucleus comet on November 12, 2014. In order to understand how Twitter is practically used in spreading messages on historical events, we conducted an analysis of one-week tweet feeds that contain the #CometLanding hashtag. We studied the trends of tweets, the diffusion of the information and the characteristics of the social network created. The results indicated that the use of Twitter as a platform enables online communities to engage and spread the historical event through social media network (e.g. tweets, retweets, mentions and replies). In addition, it was found that comprehensible and understandable hashtags could influence users to follow the same tweet stream compared to other laborious hashtags which were difficult to understand by users in online communities.
Design of a Small and Medium Enterprise Growth Prediction Model Based on Web Mining
Small and medium enterprises (SMEs) play an important role in the economy of many countries. When the overall world economy is considered, SMEs represent 95% of all businesses in the world, accounting for 66% of the total employment. Existing studies show that the current business environment is characterized as highly turbulent and strongly influenced by modern information and communication technologies, thus forcing SMEs to experience more severe challenges in maintaining their existence and expanding their business. To support SMEs at improving their competitiveness, researchers recently turned their focus on applying data mining techniques to build risk and growth prediction models. However, data used to assess risk and growth indicators is primarily obtained via questionnaires, which is very laborious and time-consuming, or is provided by financial institutes, thus highly sensitive to privacy issues. Recently, web mining (WM) has emerged as a new approach towards obtaining valuable insights in the business world. WM enables automatic and large scale collection and analysis of potentially valuable data from various online platforms, including companies’ websites. While WM methods have been frequently studied to anticipate growth of sales volume for e-commerce platforms, their application for assessment of SME risk and growth indicators is still scarce. Considering that a vast proportion of SMEs own a website, WM bears a great potential in revealing valuable information hidden in SME websites, which can further be used to understand SME risk and growth indicators, as well as to enhance current SME risk and growth prediction models. This study aims at developing an automated system to collect business-relevant data from the Web and predict future growth trends of SMEs by means of WM and data mining techniques. The envisioned system should serve as an 'early recognition system' for future growth opportunities. In an initial step, we examine how structured and semi-structured Web data in governmental or SME websites can be used to explain the success of SMEs. WM methods are applied to extract Web data in a form of additional input features for the growth prediction model. The data on SMEs provided by a large Swiss insurance company is used as ground truth data (i.e. growth-labeled data) to train the growth prediction model. Different machine learning classification algorithms such as the Support Vector Machine, Random Forest and Artificial Neural Network are applied and compared, with the goal to optimize the prediction performance. The results are compared to those from previous studies, in order to assess the contribution of growth indicators retrieved from the Web for increasing the predictive power of the model.
Key Competences in Economics and Business Field: The Employers’ Side of the Story
Rapid technological developments and increase in organizations’ interdependence on international scale are changing the traditional workplace paradigm. A key feature of knowledge based economy is that employers are looking for individuals that possess both specific academic skills and knowledge, and also capability to be proactive and respond to problems creatively and autonomously. The focus of this paper is workers with Economics and Business background and its goals are threefold: (1) to explore wide range of competences and identify which are the most important to employers; (2) to investigate the existence and magnitude of gap between required and possessed level of a certain competency; and (3) to inquire how this gap is connected with performance of a company. A study was conducted on a representative sample of Croatian enterprises during the spring of 2016. Results show that generic, rather than specific, competences are more important to employers and the gap between the relative importance of certain competence and its current representation in existing workforce is greater for generic competences than for specific. Finally, results do not support the hypothesis that this gap is correlated with firms’ performance.
A Configurational Approach to Understand the Effect of Organizational Structure on Absorptive Capacity: Results from PLS and fsQCA
Based on the theory of organizational design and the theory of knowledge, this study uses complexity theory to explain and better understand the causal impacts of various patterns of organizational structural factors stimulating absorptive capacity (ACAP). Organizational structure can be thought of as heterogeneous configurations where various components are often intertwined. This study argues that impact of the traditional variables which define a firm’s organizational structure (centralization, formalization, complexity and integration) on ACAP is better understood in terms of set-theoretic relations rather than correlations. This study uses a data sample of 347 from a multiple industrial sector in South Korea. The results from PLS-SEM support all the hypothetical relationships among the variables. However, fsQCA results suggest the possible configurations of centralization, formalization, complexity, integration, age, size, industry and revenue factors that contribute to high level of ACAP. The results from fsQCA demonstrate the usefulness of configurational approaches in helping understand equifinality in the field of knowledge management. A recent fsQCA procedure based on a modeling subsample and holdout subsample is use in this study to assess the predictive validity of the model under investigation. The same type predictive analysis is also made through PLS-SEM. These analyses reveal a good relevance of causal solutions leading to high level of ACAP. In overall, the results obtained from combining PLS-SEM and fsQCA are very insightful. In particular, they could help managers to link internal organizational structural with ACAP. In other words, managers may comprehend finely how different components of organizational structure can increase the level of ACAP. The configurational approach may trigger new insights that could help managers prioritize selection criteria and understand the interactions between organizational structure and ACAP. The paper also discusses theoretical and managerial implications arising from these findings.
Concept Drifts Detection and Localisation in Process Mining
Process mining provides methods and techniques for analyzing event logs recorded in modern information systems that support real-world operations. While analyzing an event-log, state-of-the-art techniques available in process mining believe that the operational process as a static entity (stationary). This is not often the case due to the possibility of occurrence of a phenomenon called concept drift. During the period of execution, the process can experience concept drift and can evolve with respect to any of its associated perspectives exhibiting various patterns-of-change with a different pace. Work presented in this paper discusses the main aspects to consider while addressing concept drift phenomenon and proposes a method for detecting and localizing the sudden concept drifts in control-flow perspective of the process by using features extracted by processing the traces in the process log. Our experimental results are promising in the direction of efficiently detecting and localizing concept drift in the context of process mining research discipline.
Trace Logo: A Notation for Representing Control-Flow of Operational Process
Process mining research discipline bridges the gap between data mining and business process modeling and analysis, it offers the process-centric and end-to-end methods/techniques for analyzing information of real-world process detailed in operational event-logs. In this paper, we have proposed a notation called trace logo for graphically representing control-flow perspective (order of execution of activities) of process. A trace logo consists of a stack of activity names at each position, sizes of the activity name indicates their frequency in the traces and the total height of the activity depicts the information content of the position. A trace logo created from a set of aligned traces generated using Multiple Trace Alignment technique.
Optimised Path Recommendation for a Real Time Process
Traditional execution process follows the path of execution drawn by the process analyst without observing the behaviour of resource and other real-time constraints. Identifying process model, predicting the behaviour of resource and recommending the optimal path of execution for a real time process is challenging. The proposed AlfyMiner: αyM iner gives a new dimension in process execution with the novel techniques Process Model Analyser: PMAMiner and Resource behaviour Analyser: RBAMiner for recommending the probable path of execution. PMAMiner discovers next probable activity for currently executing activity in an online process using variant matching technique to identify the set of next probable activity, among which the next probable activity is discovered using decision tree model. RBAMiner identifies the resource suitable for performing the discovered next probable activity and observe the behaviour based on; load and performance using polynomial regression model, and waiting time using queueing theory. Based on the observed behaviour αyM iner recommend the probable path of execution with; next probable activity and the best suitable resource for performing it. Experiments were conducted on process logs of CoSeLoG Project1 and 72% of accuracy is obtained in identifying and recommending next probable activity and the efficiency of resource performance was optimised by 59% by decreasing their load.
Best Resource Recommendation for a Stochastic Process
The aim of this study was to develop an Artificial Neural Network0 s recommendation model for an online process using the complexity of load, performance, and average servicing time of the resources. Here, the proposed model investigates the resource performance using stochastic gradient decent method for learning ranking function. A probabilistic cost function is implemented to identify the optimal θ values (load) on each resource. Based on this result the recommendation of resource suitable for performing the currently executing task is made. The test result of CoSeLoG project is presented with an accuracy of 72.856%.
Influence of a Company’s Dynamic Capabilities on Its Innovation Capabilities
The advanced concepts of strategic and innovation management in the sphere of company dynamic and innovation capabilities, and achieving their mutual alignment and a synergy effect, are important elements in business today. This paper analyses the theory and empirically investigates the influence of a company’s dynamic capabilities on its innovation capabilities. A new multidimensional model of dynamic capabilities is presented, consisting of five factors appropriate to real time requirements, while innovation capabilities are considered pursuant to the official OECD and Eurostat standards. After examination of dynamic and innovation capabilities indicated their theoretical links, the empirical study testing the model and examining the influence of a company’s dynamic capabilities on its innovation capabilities showed significant results. In the study, a research model was posed to relate company dynamic and innovation capabilities. One side of the model features the variables that are the determinants of dynamic capabilities defined through their factors, while the other side features the determinants of innovation capabilities pursuant to the official standards. With regard to the research model, five hypotheses were set. The study was performed in late 2014 on a representative sample of large and very large Croatian enterprises with a minimum of 250 employees. The research instrument was a questionnaire administered to company top management. For both variables, the position of the company was tested in comparison to industry competitors, on a fivepoint scale. In order to test the hypotheses, correlation tests were performed to determine whether there is a correlation between each individual factor of company dynamic capabilities with the existence of its innovation capabilities, in line with the research model. The results indicate a strong correlation between a company’s possession of dynamic capabilities in terms of their factors, due to the new multi-dimensional model presented in this paper, with its possession of innovation capabilities. Based on the results, all five hypotheses were accepted. Ultimately, it was concluded that there is a strong association between the dynamic and innovation capabilities of a company. 
Gamification of a Business Intelligence Tool
The act of applying game mechanics and dynamics (which have been traditionally used in video games) into business applications is being widely trialed in an effort to make conventional business software a bit more participative, fun and engaging. This new trend, named ‘gamification’ has its believers and of course, its critics who still need convincing that the concept is an effective and beneficial business tool worthy of investment. The literature reveals that user engagement of business intelligence (BI) tools is much lower than expected and investors are failing to get a good return on their investment (ROI). So, a software prototype will be designed and developed to add gamification to a BI tool to determine its effect upon the user engagement levels of test participants. The experimental study will be evaluated using the comprehensive User Engagement Scale (UES) to see if there are improvements in areas such as; aesthetics, perceived usability, endurability, novelty, felt involvement and focused attention. The results of this unique study should demonstrate whether or not ‘gamifying’ a BI tool has the potential to increase an individual’s motivation to use BI software more often.
Enhancement of Indexing Model for Heterogeneous Multimedia Documents: User Profile Based Approach
Recent research shows that user profile as important element can improve heterogeneous information retrieval with its content. In this context, we present our indexing model for heterogeneous multimedia documents. This model is based on the combination of user profile to the indexing process. The general idea of our proposal is to operate the common concepts between the representation of a document and the definition of a user through his profile. These two elements will be added as additional indexing entities to enrich the heterogeneous corpus documents indexes. We have developed IRONTO domain ontology allowing annotation of documents. We will present also the developed tool validating the proposed model.
The Possibility to Assess the Industrial Enterprise Sustainability
The priority of Russian enterprises development has been given to the optimization process of industrial enterprise activity for their sustainable development in a long-term period. The assessment of sustainable development level as one of the most efficient instruments of sustainable development management at the industrial enterprise gives a complex view of its state. In order to perform accurate analysis of the current state of the industrial enterprise, it is necessary to perform the assessment of its sustainable development and using its results to elaborate the further tactic of enterprise functioning. The assessment of sustainable development level of the enterprise may help the effective management of strategy development only if the corresponding indicators system is created. The elaboration and usage the sustainable development indicators allows the enterprise to implement analysis of its activity results and monitoring of sustainable enterprise functioning. The authors’ methods are based on general aspects of the industrial enterprise functioning such as finance, customers, inner economic process, and staff system.
The Indebtedness of Men and Women: A Study of Personal Bankruptcies in the Czech Republic
Debt relief (also labelled personal bankruptcy) is a bankruptcy settlement method which was implemented into Czech legislation by the Insolvency Act (Act No. 182/2006 Coll. on Insolvency and its Resolution) on 1 January 2008. The need to implement the institute of personal bankruptcy arose from the excessive over-indebtedness of many inhabitants of the Czech Republic after the crisis that arose around 2008 and 2009. The contribution analyses the development in the manner in which households approach personal bankruptcy and assesses and surveys the differences between indebtedness among men and women. The first section analyses the development in numbers of filed personal bankruptcy petitions and the successfulness thereof; it likewise analyses the impact of other economic influences (regional differences, unemployment etc.). The differences between debtors in dependency to gender are also surveyed. A survey of insolvency proceedings for 664 persons whose insolvency proceedings were commenced in 2008 was conducted, whilst the data were acquired from the publicly accessible insolvency register. The hypothesis on the equality of the average debt level of men and women was tested when comparing indebtedness in dependency to debtor gender. At a significance level of 0.05, the test confirmed that the mean value of debt level for women is lower than the mean value of debt level for men. Through analysis of further results, it was found that the average level of debt among women was CZK 537 thousand, while the average level of creditor satisfaction reached 46.2%. Men in the monitored sample had an average level of reported receivables of CZK 652 thousand, satisfaction of their creditors reached 58.8%. The main changes in the institute of personal bankruptcy are then evaluated in the closing discussion, and the impacts of these changes for households are assessed. The development of legislation in the Czech Republic and practice are shifting towards broader usage of personal bankruptcy, especially insofar as it can now also be used by entrepreneurs. Furthermore, the amendment of the Insolvency Act has enabled married couples to apply for joint debt relief, which has improved the position of the marriage partner with lower income and who would not get permission for debt relief on his/her own (mostly women are at issue). In current practice, the condition of adequate income is also solved by the fact that another person (usually a family member) undertakes to donate a certain monthly sum throughout the duration of the debt relief. Personal bankruptcy can thus be completed also by individuals to whom it would previously have been denied by the court.
Ranking the Elements of Relationship Market Orientation Banks (Case Study: Saderat Bank of Iran)
Today banks not only should seek for new customers but also should consider previous maintenance and retention and establish a stable relationship with them. In this term, relationship-manner marketing seeks to make, maintain, and promote the relationship between customers and other stakeholders in benefits to fulfill all involved parties. This fact is possible just by interactive transaction and promises fulfillment. According to the importance of relationship-manner marketing in banks, making context to make relationship-manner marketing has high importance. Therefore, the present study aims at exploring intention condition to relationship-manner marketing in Iran Province Iran Limited bank, and also prioritizing its variables using hierarchical analysis (AHP). There is questionnaire designed in this research to paired comparison of relationship-manner marketing elements. After distributing this questionnaire among statistical society members who are 20 of Iran Limited bank experts, data analysis has been done by Expert Choice software.
Assessing Firm Readiness to Implement Cloud Computing: Toward a Comprehensive Model
Nowadays almost all organizations depend on information systems to run their businesses. Investment on information systems and their maintenance to keep them always in best situation to support firm business is one of the main issues for every organization. The new concept of cloud computing was developed as a technical and economic model to address this issue. In cloud computing the computing resources, including networks, applications, hardwares and services are configured as needed and are available at the moment of request. However, migration to cloud is not an easy task and there are many issues that should be taken into account. This study tries to provide a comprehensive model to assess a firm readiness to implement cloud computing. By conducting a systematic literature review, four dimensions of readiness were extracted which include technological, human, organizational and environmental dimensions. Every dimension has various criteria that have been discussed in details. This model provides a framework for cloud computing readiness assessment. Organizations that intend to migrate to cloud can use this model as a tool to assess their firm readiness before making any decision on cloud implementation.
Factors Influencing the Adoption of Social Media as a Medium of Public Service Broadcasting
The increased usage of Social media for different uses in turn makes it important to develop an understanding of users and their attitudes toward these sites, and moreover, the uses of such sites in a broader perspective such as broadcasting. This quantitative study addressed the problem of factors influencing the adoption of social media as a medium of public service broadcasting in the Republic of Maldives. These powerful and increasingly usable tools, accompanied by large public social media datasets, are bringing in a golden age of social science by empowering researchers to measure social behavior on a scale never before possible. This was conducted by exploring social responses on the use of social media. Research model was developed based on the previous models such as TAM, DOI and Trust combined model. It evaluates the influence of perceived ease of use, perceived usefulness, trust, complexity, compatibility and relative advantage influence on the adoption of social Media. The model was tested on a sample of 365 Maldivian people using survey method via questionnaire. The result showed that perceived usefulness, trust, relative advantage and complexity would highly influence the adoption of social media.
Production Plan and Technological Variants Optimization by Goal Programming Methods
In this paper the goal programming methodology for solving multiple objective problem of the technological variants and production plan optimization has been applied. The optimization criteria are determined and the multiple objective linear programming model for solving a problem of the technological variants and production plan optimization is formed and solved. Then the obtained results are analysed. The obtained results point out to the possibility of efficient application of the goal programming methodology in solving the problem of the technological variants and production plan optimization. The paper points out on the advantages of the application of the goal programming methodolohy compare to the Surrogat Worth Trade-off method in solving this problem.
Vendor Selection and Supply Quotas Determination by Using Revised Weighting Method and Multi-Objective Programming Methods
In this paper a new methodology for vendor selection and supply quotas determination (VSSQD) is proposed. The problem of VSSQD is solved by the model that combines revised weighting method for determining the objective function coefficients, and a multiple objective linear programming (MOLP) method based on the cooperative game theory for VSSQD. The criteria used for VSSQD are: (1) purchase costs and (2) product quality supplied by individual vendors. The proposed methodology is tested on the example of flour purchase for a bakery with two decision makers.
The Impact of Motivation on Employee Performance in South Korea
The purpose of this paper is to identify the impact or role of incentives on employee’s performance with a particular emphasis on Korean workers. The process involves defining and explaining the different types of motivation. In defining them, we also bring out the difference between the two major types of motivations. The second phase of the paper shall involve gathering data/information from a sample population and then analyzing the data. In the analysis, we shall get to see the almost similar mentality or value which Koreans attach to motivation, which a slide different view coming only from top management personnel. The last phase shall have us presenting the data and coming to a conclusion from which possible knowledge on how managers and potential managers can ignite the best out of their employees.
Social Entrepreneurship and Organizational Effectiveness: Evidence from Malaysia
Malaysia has made great strides in eradicating poverty. Based on the latest figures of the 9th Malaysian Plan Mid-term review, the overall hardcore poverty percentage is down to 0.7%, and only 3.6% of the Malaysian population is living below the overall poverty line. While in the past significant efforts had been taken by the government through various developmental project to alleviate poverty in rural area had proven successful. Today, urban poverty in Malaysia is an increasingly visible phenomenon due to rural-urban migration and the natural population growth in urban areas. Given the changing dimensions and emerging new forms of poverty as a result of unwanted effects of development there is a dire need to re-examine and re-visit urban poverty in Malaysia. Based on the leaders’ perceptions, this study affirmed that social entrepreneurship organizations in Malaysia have try to overcome the urban poverty through social entrepreneurship. The new framework has been developed from the results of this study. It shows that social entrepreneurship contributed to the organizational effectiveness. This result indicates that it is important to have social entrepreneurship in order to increase the socio economy and achieve the organization’s mission. Therefore, this study has proven that social entrepreneurship is beneficial to the Malaysian.
IPO Price Performance and Signaling
This study examines the credibility of the signaling as explanation for IPO initial underpricing. Findings reveal the initial underpricing and the long-term underperformance of IPOs in Taiwan. However, we only find weak support for signaling as explanation of IPO underpricing.
The Control Illusion of Conditioned Superstition
The study examined the control illusion of conditioned superstition by using Taiwanese subjects. The study had a three-group experimental design, that is, conditioning group and a control group, and the conditioning group was further separated into superstitious and unsuperstitious groups. The results showed that conditioned superstition can significantly influence the control illusion. Further analysis showed that the control illusion in the superstitious conditioning group was significantly greater than in the control group or in the unsuperstitious conditioning group. Besides, there was no significant difference between the control group and the unsuperstitious conditioning group.
Commericializing Fashion Goods in the Digital Age
The internet has fundamentally revolutionized access to data and ushered new ways of creating and accessing information for commercializing products. Digital media such as computer programs, software, apps, websites, and social media have allowed the proliferation of information and ideas to grow exponentially. In recent years, a new wave of innovative e-commerce formats has begun to emerge in the fashion marketplace, responding to the ever-greater need for transparency and connectivity. For example, many fashion wholesalers and retailers have modified their operations using software systems that enable brands to cost, track, and analyze products and client orders, sales tools that connect buyers and brands to create a more dynamic market-place, as well as retailer-end apps designed to drive traffic back to brick-and-mortar stores. In this paper, we review the recently developed tools and applications of commercializing fashion, and present results of several field studies and interviews with fashion producers and buyers.
Integrated Information Approach to Inbound Logistics in Indian Steel Sector
Globalization and free trade has forced the organizations to continuously rethink and rework on the increasing cost of logistics. World wide, it is visualized that on one side the steel sector is witnessing rapid growth and on the other side it is facing huge challenges in terms of availability of raw materials for uninterrupted production. Inbound logistics also gains significant importance for ensuring the timely availability of raw materials. It is seen that in Indian steel sector logistic cost is still very large and challenging. Effectively managing the inbound logistics in steel decides the profitability and serviceability of the organization. Effective management of inbound logistics also has a major role on the inventory of the organization. Since, the logistics for the steel industry in India is evolving rapidly and it is the interplay of infrastructure, technology and new types of service providers that will define whether the industry is able to help its customers to reduce their logistics costs. Integration of Logistics has been treated as one of the most potential area for the companies to provide a base for cost reduction. In spite of the proven area for benefits for the industry, it is very surprising that none of the researchers have explored this area. Although, many researchers explored the subject of logistics in steel industry, but their perspective varied from exploring and understanding the associated cost and finding out the relations between them. Visualizing a potential gap, the present research is under taken to explore the integration opportunities in inbound logistics for steel sector. Typically in Indian steel sector where in most of the manufacturers depend on imported materials for processing the logistics is very challenging and accounts for transactions at supplier – who is situated in different country, shipper- who is transporting the material to the host country, regulators in both countries-that include customs and various clearing agents, local logistics service providers and local transporters/handlers. It is seen that In bound logistics cost in the steel sector is very high and accounts for about 15-16% of the turn over, integration of information across different channels provides and opportunity for improvements and growth of the organization. In the present paper, a case of leading steel manufacturer has been taken and the potentials for integration of information across various partners have been identified. The paper provides the identification of grey area in steel sector for major improvements in cycle time and lowering the inventories by integration of information. Finally, based on integration of information, the paper presents a business information framework for steel sector.
Students’ Perception of E-Learning Systems at Hashemite University
In search of better, traditional learning universities have expanded their ways to deliver knowledge and integrate cost effective e-learning systems. Universities’ use of information and communication technologies has grown tremendously over the last decade. To ensure efficient use of the e-learning system, this project aimed to evaluate the good and bad practices, detect errors and determine areas for further improvements in usage. This project critically evaluated the students’ perception of the e-learning system and recommended changes to improve students’ e-learning usage, through conducting questionnaire given to the students that have experience with e-learning systems. Results of the study indicated that, in general, students have favourable perceptions toward using the e-learning system. They seemed to value the resources tool and its contribution to building their knowledge more than other e-learning tools. However, they seemed to perceive a limited value from the audio or video podcasts. This study has shown that technology acceptance is the most variable, factor that contributes to students’ perception and satisfaction of the e-learning system.
Relationship among Teams' Information Processing Capacity and Performance in Information System Projects: The Effects of Uncertainty and Equivocality
Uncertainty and equivocality are defined in the information processing literature as two task characteristics that require different information processing responses from managers. As uncertainty often stems from a lack of information, addressing it is thought to require the collection of additional data. On the other hand, as equivocality stems from ambiguity and a lack of understanding of the task at hand, addressing it is thought to require rich communication between those involved. Past research has provided weak to moderate empirical support to these hypotheses. The present study contributes to this literature by defining uncertainty and equivocality at the project level and investigating their moderating effects on the association between several project information processing constructs and project performance. The information processing constructs considered are the amount of information collected by the project team, and the richness and frequency of formal communications among the team members to discuss the project’s follow-up reports. Data on 93 information system development (ISD) project managers was collected in a questionnaire survey and analyzed it via the Fisher Test for correlation differences. The results indicate that the highest project performance levels were observed in projects characterized by high uncertainty and low equivocality in which project managers were provided with detailed and updated information on project costs and schedules. In addition, our findings show that information about user needs and technical aspects of the project is less useful to managing projects where uncertainty and equivocality are high. Further, while the strongest positive effect of interactive use of follow-up reports on performance occurred in projects where both uncertainty and equivocality levels were high, its weakest effect occurred when both of these were low.
Poverty Status and Determinants of Income Diversification among Rural Households of Pakistan
This study is designed to determine the poverty status and determinants of income diversification in rural areas of Pakistan using cross sectional data of Pakistan Social and Living Standards Measurement (PSLM) for 2010-2011. The variables used for measuring income diversification are demographic indicators, poverty status, and income of households. Foster-Greer-Thorbecke (FGT) poverty measures show that 43.1% poor and 56.9% non-poor resided in rural areas of Pakistan. A Tobit model was employed to examine the determinants of livelihood diversification among households. The result showed that age, gender, marital status, household size and province have significant impact on income diversification. The data show that non-poor and female headed household with higher family size diversify more as compared to poor, male headed household with small size of family members. The place of residence (province used as proxy for place) also plays important role for income diversification as Sindh Province was found more diversified as compared to Punjab and Khyber Pakhtoon Kha (KPK). It is recommended to improve the ways of income diversification among rural household to reduce poverty among them. This can be done by more investment in education with universal access for poor and remote localities households.
Strategic Management Methods in Non-Profit Making Organization
Paper deals with analysis of strategic management methods in non-profit making organization in the Czech Republic. Strategic management represents an aggregate of methods and approaches that can be applied for managing organizations - in this article the organizations which associate owners and keepers of non-state forest properties. Authors use these methods of strategic management: analysis of stakeholders, SWOT analysis and questionnaire inquiries. The questionnaire was distributed electronically via e-mail. In October 2013 we obtained data from a total of 84 questionnaires. Based on the results the authors recommend the using of confrontation strategy which improves the competitiveness of non-profit making organizations.
Earnings vs Cash Flows: The Valuation Perspective
The research paper is an effort to compare the earnings based and cash flow based methods of valuation of an enterprise. The theoretically equivalent methods based on either earnings such as Residual Earnings Model (REM), Abnormal Earnings Growth Model (AEGM), Residual Operating Income Method (ReOIM), Abnormal Operating Income Growth Model (AOIGM) and its extensions multipliers such as price/earnings ratio, price/book value ratio; or cash flow based models such as Dividend Valuation Method (DVM) and Free Cash Flow Method (FCFM) all provide different estimates of valuation of the Indian giant corporate Reliance India Limited (RIL). An ex-post analysis of published accounting and financial data for four financial years from 2008-09 to 2011-12 has been conducted. A comparison of these valuation estimates with the actual market capitalization of the company shows that the complex accounting based model AOIGM provides closest forecasts. These different estimates may be derived due to inconsistencies in discount rate, growth rates and the other forecasted variables. Although inputs for earnings based models may be available to the investor and analysts through published statements, precise estimation of free cash flows may be better undertaken by the internal management. The estimation of value from more stable parameters as residual operating income and RNOA could be considered superior to the valuations from more volatile return on equity.
Process Modeling and Problem Solving: Connecting Two Worlds by BPMN
Business Processes (BPs) are the key instrument to understand how companies operate at an organizational level, taking an as-is view of the workflow, and how to address their issues by identifying a to-be model. In last year’s, the BP Model and Notation (BPMN) has become a de-facto standard for modeling processes. However, this standard does not incorporate explicitly the Problem-Solving (PS) knowledge in the Process Modeling (PM) results. Thus, such knowledge cannot be shared or reused. To narrow this gap is today a challenging research area. In this paper we present a framework able to capture the PS knowledge and to improve a workflow. This framework extends the BPMN specification by incorporating new general-purpose elements. A pilot scenario is also presented and discussed.