International Science Index

International Journal of Architectural and Environmental Engineering

947
95343
Effect of Correlation of Random Variables on Structural Reliability Index
Abstract:
The problem of correlation between random variables in the structural reliability analysis has been extensively discussed in literature on the subject. The cases taken under consideration were usually related to correlation between random variables from one side of ultimate limit state: correlation between particular loads applied on structure or correlation between resistance of particular members of a structure as a system. It has been proved that positive correlation between these random variables reduces the reliability of structure and increases the probability of failure. In the paper, the problem of correlation between random variables from both side of the limit state equation will be taken under consideration. The simplest case where these random variables are of the normal distributions will be concerned. The case when a degree of that correlation is described by the covariance or the coefficient of correlation will be used. Special attention will be paid on questions: how much that correlation changes the reliability level and can it be ignored. In reliability analysis will be used well-known methods for assessment of the failure probability: based on the Hasofer-Lind reliability index and Monte Carlo method adapted to the problem of correlation. The main purpose of this work will be a presentation how correlation of random variables influence on reliability index of steel bar structures. Structural design parameters will be defined as deterministic values and random variables. The latter will be correlated. The criterion of structural failure will be expressed by limit functions related to the ultimate and serviceability limit state. In the description of random variables will be used only for the normal distribution. Sensitivity of reliability index to the random variables will be defined. If the reliability index sensitivity due to the random variable X will be low when compared with other variables, it can be stated that the impact of this variable on failure probability is small. Therefore, in successive computations, it can be treated as a deterministic parameter. Sensitivity analysis leads to simplify the description of the mathematical model, determine the new limit functions and values of the Hasofer-Lind reliability index. In the examples, the NUMPRESS software will be used in the reliability analysis.
946
95726
Pragmatism in Adaptive Reuse of Obsolete Industrial Land in China
Authors:
Abstract:
Major cities in China has experienced a shift from production based on manufacturing industry to tertiary industry. How to make a better use of existing obsolete industrial land within urban cores has become a difficult problem for many policymakers. City governments regard old manufacturing industrial land as an important source of land to facilitate the development of the cities. Despite the announcement of policies in promoting that, a large portion of industrial land is still not properly redeveloped and most of them became obsolete. The study uses the project of Xinyi International Club as a case to examine the process of adaptive reuse of obsolete industrial space in Guangzhou, China. It attempts to elucidate the underlying mechanisms by identifying the key forces from both the government and the private sectors in influencing the process. The study found that market forces in transforming industrial space are exerting a strong impact on the existing land use planning system in Chinese cities. Pragmatic relaxation of the formal land use the regulatory framework and government supportive land-use intervention have also been crucial towards achieving successful implementation of the restructuring project and making it a showcase. This study questions whether these extraordinary measures, in particular, the use of temporary land use permit, are sustainable in facilitating the transformation of derelict industrial land, and in informing future industrial land-use restructuring policies. It concludes that, while the land use regulatory system in China is becoming increasingly dynamic and flexible, it remains ill-equipped in responding positively to the market, which is characterized by an increasing bargaining power of the private sector. A comprehensive appraisal of the overall impacts of these adaptive re-uses on society is wanting.
945
94524
Sustainable Environmental Management through the Comparative Study of Two Recreational Parks in Nigeria
Abstract:
The role of a recreational park in human and environmental development has attracted much interest in the recent time. Recreation parks' development could act as an effective planning strategy to enhance environmental sustainability, social cohesiveness, and users' quality of life. Similarly, parks enhance neighbourhood's aesthetics, refresh the air and enhance humans' contact with nature. In this connection, recreation parks create natural surroundings of rural areas for leisure, relaxation, recreation, psychological and physical comfort of the people. The purpose of this paper is to investigate the effectiveness of the two recreational parks' development as a strategy for neighbourhood's environmental improvement, sustainability and the recreationists' cohesiveness. A total number of 158 survey questionnaires were distributed to the tourists at Ikogosi cold and warm spring in Ekiti state as well as Olumirin waterfalls, Erin-Ijesa, Osun State, in South-West, Nigeria. The quantitative results of the analyzed data with Relative Importance Index (RII) revealed that recreation parks provide optimum opportunities for users' social cohesiveness and well-being while parks' sustainable environment could be enhanced base on the provision of essential facilities, services, and future developmental plans. It is recommended that for recreation parks to realize their full potential in environmental sustainability, adequate maintenance and provision of essential facilities becomes imperative.
944
92891
The Ecological Urbanism as an Oppurtunity to Solve City Problem
Abstract:
The world’s population continues to grow resulting in steady migration from rural to urban areas. Increased numbers of people and cities hand in hand with greater exploitation of world’s resource. Every year, more cities are feeling the devastating of this impact of this situation. During the 1970’s, some of eco-concept were applied to urban settings, one of them is Ecological Cities. A non-profit organization, Urban Ecology, was founded in California in 1975 to 'rebuild cities in balance with nature'. Efforts to synthesize ecological and urban planning approaches were slowed somewhat in the 1980s, but useful refinements were made. Consideration of social impact acknowledges that the ecological design is not just about ecology itself. It is also about questioning and redefining our understanding of the ecology. When ecologist did recognize the existence of cities, they were usually concerned with resource flows. One popular approach was to study the flow and transformation of energy through urban ecosystem. This research method is descriptive method, following LEED Certification which is the international standard of the sustainable building, is more widely applied. But there remains problem that the moral imperative of sustainability and by implication of sustainable design, tends to supplant the disciplinary contribution. Sustainable design is not always seen as design excellence or design innovation. This can provoke the skepticism and cause the tension those who promote disciplinary knowledge and those who push for sustainability. The challenges of rapid urbanization and limited of global resources has become more pressing. So, there is a need to find an alternative design approaches. The urban, as the site of complex relation (economy, political, social, cultural), need a complex problem solving that can solve current and future condition. The aim of this study is to discussed about conjoining of ecology such as public park and sustainable design.
943
95421
Understanding Consumer Recycling Behavior: A Literature Review of Motivational and Behavioral Aspects
Abstract:
Recycling is an important aspect of a sustainable society and depends to a large extent on consumers’ willingness to provide the voluntary work needed to take the first critical step in many return logistics systems. Based on a systematic review of articles on recycling behavior, this paper presents and discusses the findings in relation to Fogg’s Behavioral Model (FBM). Through the analysis of a corpus of 72 articles, the most important research contributions on recycling behavior are summarized and discussed. The choice of using FBM as a framework provides a new way of viewing previous research findings, and aids in identifying knowledge gaps. Based on the review, this work identifies and discusses four areas of potential interest for future research.
942
93717
Residual Plastic Deformation Capacity in Reinforced Concrete Beams Subjected to Drop Weight Impact Test
Abstract:
Concrete is commonly used for protective structures and how impact loading affects different types of concrete structures is an important issue. Often the knowledge gained from static loading is also used in the design of impulse loaded structures. A large plastic deformation capacity is essential to obtain a large energy absorption in an impulse loaded structure. However, the structural response of an impact loaded concrete beam may be very different compared to a statically loaded beam. Consequently, the plastic deformation capacity and failure modes of the concrete structure can be different when subjected to dynamic loads; and hence it is not sure that the observations obtained from static loading are also valid for dynamic loading. The aim of this paper is to investigate the residual plastic deformation capacity in reinforced concrete beams subjected to drop weight impact tests. A test-series consisting of 18 simply supported beams (0.1 x 0.1 x 1.18 m, ρs = 0.7%) with a span length of 1.0 m and subjected to a point load in the beam mid-point, was carried out. 2x6 beams were first subjected to drop weight impact tests, and thereafter statically tested until failure. The drop in weight had a mass of 10 kg and was dropped from 2.5 m or 5.0 m. During the impact tests, a high-speed camera was used with 5 000 fps and for the static tests, a camera was used with 0.5 fps. Digital image correlation (DIC) analyses were conducted and from these the velocities of the beam and the drop weight, as well as the deformations and crack propagation of the beam, were effectively measured. Additionally, for the static tests, the applied load and midspan deformation were measured. The load-deformation relations for the beams subjected to an impact load were compared with 6 reference beams that were subjected to static loading only. The crack pattern obtained were compared using DIC, and it was concluded that the resulting crack formation depended much on the test method used. For the static tests, only bending cracks occurred. For the impact loaded beams, though, distinctive diagonal shear cracks also formed below the zone of impact and less wide shear cracks were observed in the region half-way to the support. Furthermore, due to wave propagation effects, bending cracks developed in the upper part of the beam during initial loading. The results showed that the plastic deformation capacity increased for beams subjected to drop weight impact tests from a high drop height of 5.0 m. For beams subjected to an impact from a low drop height of 2.5 m, though, the plastic deformation capacity was in the same order of magnitude as for the statically loaded reference beams. The beams tested were designed to fail due to bending when subjected to a static load. However, for the impact tested beams, one beam exhibited a shear failure at a significantly reduced load level when it was tested statically; indicating that there might be a risk of reduced residual load capacity for impact loaded structures.
941
88843
Solving the Overheating on the Top Floor of Energy Efficient Houses: The Envelope Improvement
Abstract:
Although various energy rating schemes and compulsory building codes are using around the world, there are increasing reports on overheating in energy efficient dwellings. Given that the cooling demand of buildings is rising globally because of the climate change, it is more likely that the overheating issue will be observed more. This paper studied the summer indoor temperature in eight air-conditioned multi-level houses in Adelaide which have complied with the Australian Nationwide Houses Energy Rating Scheme (NatHERS) minimum energy performance of 7.5 stars. Through monitored temperature, this study explores that overheating is experienced on 75.5% of top floors during cooling periods while the air-conditioners were running. This paper found that the energy efficiency regulations have significantly improved thermal comfort in low floors, but not on top floors, and the energy-efficient house is not necessarily adapted with the air temperature fluctuations particularly on top floors. Based on the results, this study suggests that the envelope of top floors for multi-level houses in South Australian context need new criteria to make the top floor more heat resistance in order to: preventing the overheating, reducing the summer pick electricity demand and providing thermal comfort. Some methods are used to improve the envelope of the eight case studies. The results demonstrate that improving roofs was the most effective part of the top floors envelope in terms of reducing the overheating.
940
88841
Identifying the Need of Adaption to Heatwaves for Energy Efficient Houses Top-Floors
Abstract:
There are increasing reports on overheating and cooling demand in energy efficient dwellings, although various energy rating schemes and compulsory building codes are being employed worldwide. To find the accurate location of overheated rooms in dwellings, this paper studied the summer indoor temperature pattern which was monitored in eight air conditioned multi level houses. These houses comply with the Australian Nationwide Houses Energy Rating Scheme (NatHERS) minimum energy performance of 7.5 star from 10. The minute by minute monitored temperature of these houses were converted to hourly. The hourly temperature of four consecutive summer months, (December, January and February 2011 2015) were analyzed. As there is no threshold to evaluate overheating in Australian houses, the initial threshold for identifying overheating is based on 32 °C. The rooms with running air conditioner that their maximum daily temperature were above this threshold were marked as overheated. The number of days with overheating on top floors and low floors were found for eight houses. The investigation is conducted more in depth by calculating the ‘Number of Overheating Hours’ and ‘Weighted Exceedance Hours’ for one house through seven years (2011-2017) minutely monitored temperature based on 26 °C as overheating threshold. The outputs showed that overheating were experienced on 75.5% of top floors during cooling periods while the air-conditioners were running and low floors were cool. During the four studied summers, the top floor maximum daily air temperature was above 32 °C for about 22.5 days with running air conditioners. Results demonstrated that top floors of multi level dwellings are exposed to the outdoor air temperature fluctuations. However, there was no overheating on low floors. Based on the results, this study highlights that the energy efficiency regulations of Australia have significantly improved thermal comfort on low floors, but not on top floors. The conclusion recommends that top floors of multi level houses in South Australian context remarkably need to be adapted with heat events in order to: prevent the overheating, reduce the summer pick electricity demand and provide thermal comfort.
939
88908
Predictability of Thermal Response in Housing: A Case Study in Australia, Adelaide
Abstract:
Changes in cities’ heat balance due to rapid urbanization and the urban heat island (UHI) have increased energy demands for space cooling and have resulted in uncomfortable living conditions for urban residents. Climate resilience and comfortable living spaces can be addressed through well-designed urban development. The sustainable housing can be more effective in controlling high levels of urban heat. In Australia, to mitigate the effects of UHIs and summer heat waves, one solution to sustainable housing has been the trend to compact housing design and the construction of energy efficient dwellings. This paper analyses whether current housing configurations and orientations are effective in avoiding increased demands for air conditioning and having an energy efficient residential neighborhood. A significant amount of energy is consumed to ensure thermal comfort in houses. This paper reports on the modelling of heat transfer within the homes using the measurements of radiation, convection and conduction between exterior/interior wall surfaces and outdoor/indoor environment respectively. The simulation was tested on selected 7.5-star energy efficient houses constructed of typical material elements and insulation in Adelaide, Australia. The chosen design dwellings were analyzed in extremely hot weather through one year. The data were obtained via a thermal circuit to accurately model the fundamental heat transfer mechanisms on both boundaries of the house and through the multi-layered wall configurations. The formulation of the Lumped capacitance model was considered in discrete time steps by adopting a non-linear model method. The simulation results focused on the effects of orientation of the solar radiation on the dynamic thermal characteristics of the houses orientations. A high star rating did not necessarily coincide with a decrease in peak demands for cooling. A more effective approach to avoid increasing the demands for air conditioning and energy may be to integrate solar–climatic data to evaluate the performance of energy efficient houses.
938
91694
The Effect of Shank-Space on the Thermal Performance of Shallow U-Tube Ground Heat Exchangers
Abstract:
Space conditioning accounts for 50% of the energy consumed by Europe’s building stock. Curtailing such an energy consumption through the adoption of energy efficient technologies has now become essential. The Ground Source Heat Pump (GSHP) is one such technology which is capable of delivering heating and cooling with enhanced energy-efficiency. The distinctive component of a GSHP is the Ground Heat Exchanger (GHE) which normally consists of an underground circuit of pipes through which a circulating liquid absorbs or rejects heat. As ground temperatures get increasingly stable with depth, vertical GHE, consisting of a U-tube encased within a borehole backfilled with thermally conductive grout, are the most common setup. Research on GHE has mainly focused on either improving the materials used (e.g., pipework, grout) or improving the configuration adopted (e.g., the centre-to-centre distance between the two vertical pipe branches of a U-tube, i.e., the shank-space or the borehole spacing arrangement). Specifically, in relation to shank-space, researchers have observed how the shank-space is an important factor which may influence the heat transfer performance of U-tube GHE. In this area, most of the research carried out has focused on vertical boreholes with typical depths of around 100m, as commercially these are the ones which are used, primarily to ensure that enough contact area to reject or absorb the heat is available. However, reaching such depths is not always possible and other design limitations, such as for example, the requirement for limited interaction with the water table, may require that a system makes use of shallower GHE (up to 50m depth). To the authors’ best knowledge, specific research on shallow GHE is however lacking. To address this aspect, a 3D steady-state Computational Fluid Dynamics (CFD) model of a U-tube GHE was used to investigate the influence of varying shank-spaces on the thermal performance of two isolated vertical shallow U-tube GHE, one 20m deep and the other 40m deep. Borehole diameter was taken as 0.3m. To facilitate the computational process, the simplified 3D steady-state CFD model makes use of an innovative approach, whereby the U-junction at the bottom of the U-tube is eliminated. To ensure confidence in the results obtained using this simplified model, the model was first validated against available experimental and numerical studies performed for full U-tube models. As one would expect, the results show that for the 20m deep borehole containing the vertical U-tube, the temperature drop of the circulating fluid varies for different shank-spaces and is lowest for the closest shank space (0.76K) and highest for the widest shank-space (0.85K). It is observed however that this temperature drop is not linear with increases in shank-space and that for the modelled setup, thermal performance improvement drastically diminishes beyond the 0.15m shank-space, and is practically insignificant for the 0.205m and the 0.26m shank-spaces. Similar results, although with higher values were obtained for the 40m deep 0.3m diameter borehole/U-tube configuration, indicating that for shallow U-tube GHE absolute temperature of the fluid is more dependent on the length of pipework than the effect of shank-space.
937
92315
Determination of the Relative Humidity Profiles in an Internal Micro-Climate Conditioned Using Evaporative Cooling
Abstract:
Driven by increased comfort standards, but at the same time high energy consciousness, energy-efficient space cooling has become an essential aspect of building design. Its aims are simple, aiming at providing satisfactory thermal comfort for individuals in an interior space using low energy consumption cooling systems. In this context, evaporative cooling is both an energy-efficient and an eco-friendly cooling process. In the past two decades, several academic studies have been performed to determine the resulting thermal comfort produced by an evaporative cooling system, including studies on temperature profiles, air speed profiles, effect of clothing and personnel activity. To the best knowledge of the authors, no studies have yet considered the analysis of relative humidity (RH) profiles in a space cooled using evaporative cooling. Such a study will determine the effect of different humidity levels on a person's thermal comfort and aid in the consequent improvement designs of such future systems. Under this premise, the research objective is to characterise the resulting different RH profiles in a chamber micro-climate using the evaporative cooling system in which the inlet air speed, temperature and humidity content are varied. The chamber shall be modelled using Computational Fluid Dynamics (CFD) in ANSYS Fluent. Relative humidity shall be modelled using a species transport model while the k-ε RNG formulation is the proposed turbulence model that is to be used. The model shall be validated with measurements taken using an identical test chamber in which tests are to be conducted under the different inlet conditions mentioned above, followed by the verification of the model's mesh and time step. The verified and validated model will then be used to simulate other inlet conditions which would be impractical to conduct in the actual chamber. More details of the modelling and experimental approach will be provided in the full paper The main conclusions from this work are two-fold: the micro-climatic relative humidity spatial distribution within the room is important to consider in the context of investigating comfort at occupant level; and the investigation of a human being's thermal comfort (based on Predicted Mean Vote – Predicted Percentage Dissatisfied [PMV-PPD] values) and its variation with different locations of relative humidity values. The study provides the necessary groundwork for investigating the micro-climatic RH conditions of environments cooled using evaporative cooling. Future work may also target the analysis of ways in which evaporative cooling systems may be improved to better the thermal comfort of human beings, specifically relating to the humidity content around a sedentary person.
936
93163
Thermal Simulation for Urban Planning in Early Design Phases
Abstract:
Thermal simulations are used to evaluate comfort and energy consumption of buildings. However, the performance of different urban forms cannot be assessed precisely if an environmental control system and user schedules are considered. The outcome of such analysis would lead to conclusions that combine the building use, operation, services, envelope, orientation and density of the urban fabric. The influence of these factors varies during the life cycle of a building. The orientation, as well as the surroundings, can be considered a constant during the lifetime of a building. The structure impacts the thermal inertia and has the largest lifespan of all the building components. On the other hand, the building envelope is the most frequent renovated component of a building since it has a great impact on energy performance and comfort. Building services have a shorter lifespan and are replaced regularly. With the purpose of addressing the performance, an urban form, a specific orientation, and density, a thermal simulation method were developed. The solar irradiation is taken into consideration depending on the outdoor temperature. Incoming irradiation at low temperatures has a positive impact increasing the indoor temperature. Consequently, overheating would be the combination of high outdoor temperature and high irradiation at the façade. On this basis, the indoor temperature is simulated for a specific orientation of the evaluated urban form. Thermal inertia and building envelope performance are considered additionally as the materiality of the building. The results of different thermal zones are summarized using the 'Degree day method' for cooling and heating. During the early phase of a design process for a project, such as Masterplan, conclusions regarding urban form, density and materiality can be drawn by means of this analysis.
935
96244
Use of Shipping Containers as Office Buildings in Brazil: Thermal and Energy Performance for Different Constructive Options and Climate Zones
Abstract:
Shipping containers are present in different Brazilian cities, firstly used for transportation purposes, but which become waste materials and an environmental burden in their end-of-life cycle. In the last decade, in Brazil, some buildings made partly or totally from shipping containers started to appear, most of them for commercial and office uses. Although the use of a reused container for buildings seems a sustainable solution, it is very important to measure the thermal and energy aspects when they are used as such. In this context, this study aims to evaluate the thermal and energy performance of an office building totally made from a 12-meter-long, High Cube 40’ shipping container in different Brazilian Bioclimatic Zones. Four different constructive solutions, mostly used in Brazil were chosen: (1) container without any covering; (2) with internally insulated drywall; (3) with external fiber cement boards; (4) with both drywall and fiber cement boards. For this, the DesignBuilder with EnergyPlus was used for the computational simulation in 8760 hours. The EnergyPlus Weather File (EPW) data of six Brazilian capital cities were considered: Curitiba, Sao Paulo, Brasilia, Campo Grande, Teresina and Rio de Janeiro. Air conditioning appliance (split) was adopted for the conditioned area and the cooling setpoint was fixed at 25°C. The coefficient of performance (CoP) of air conditioning equipment was set as 3.3. Three kinds of solar absorptances were verified: 0.3, 0.6 and 0.9 of exterior layer. The building in Teresina presented the highest level of energy consumption, while the one in Curitiba presented the lowest, with a wide range of differences in results. The constructive option of external fiber cement and drywall presented the best results, although the differences were not significant compared to the solution using just drywall. The choice of absorptance showed a great impact in energy consumption, mainly compared to the case of containers without any covering and for use in the hottest cities: Teresina, Rio de Janeiro, and Campo Grande. This study brings as the main contribution the discussion of constructive aspects for design guidelines for more energy-efficient container buildings, considering local climate differences, and helps the dissemination of this cleaner constructive practice in the Brazilian building sector.
934
92333
Machine Learning Approach to Project Control Threshold Reliability Evaluation
Abstract:
Planning is understood as the determination of what has to be performed, how, in which sequence, when, what resources are needed, and their cost within the organization before execution. In most construction project, it is evident that the inherent nature of planning is dynamic, and initial planning is subject to be changed due to various uncertain conditions of construction project. Planners take a continuous revision process during the course of a project and until the very end of project. However, current practice lacks reliable, systematic tool for setting variance thresholds to determine when and what corrective actions to be taken. Rather it is heavily dependent on the level of experience and knowledge of the planner. Thus, this paper introduces a machine learning approach to evaluate project control threshold reliability incorporating project-specific data and presents a method to automate the process. The results have shown that the model improves the efficiency and accuracy of the monitoring process as an early warning.
933
93481
Labor Productivity and Organization Performance in Specialty Trade Construction: The Moderating Effect of Safety
Abstract:
The notion of performance measurement has held great appeal for the industry and research communities alike. This idea is also true for the construction sector, and some propose that performance measurement and productivity analysis are two separate management functions, where productivity is a subset of performance, the latter requiring comprehensive analysis of comparable factors. Labor productivity is considered one of the best indicators of production efficiency. The construction industry continues to account for a disproportionate share of injuries and illnesses despite adopting several technological and organizational interventions that promote worker safety. Specialty trades contractors typically complete a large fraction of work on any construction project, but insufficient body of work exists that address subcontractor safety and productivity issues. Literature review has revealed the possibility of a relation between productivity, safety and other factors and their links to project, organizational, task and industry performance. This research posits that there is an association between productivity and performance at project as well as organizational levels in the construction industry. Moreover, prior exploration of the importance of safety within the performance-productivity framework has been anecdotal at best. Using structured questionnaire survey and organization- and project level data, this study, which is a combination of cross-sectional and longitudinal research designs, addresses the identified research gap and models the relationship between productivity, safety, and performance with a focus on specialty trades in the construction sector. Statistical analysis is used to establish a correlation between the variables of interest. This research identifies the need for developing and maintaining productivity and safety logs for smaller businesses. Future studies can design and develop research to establish causal relationships between these variables.
932
93095
Optimization Aluminium Design for the Facade Second Skin toward Visual Comfort: Case Studies & Dialux Daylighting Simulation Model
Abstract:
Visual comfort is important for the building occupants to need. Visual comfort can be fulfilled through natural lighting (daylighting) and artificial lighting. One strategy to optimize natural lighting can be achieved through the facade second skin design. This strategy can reduce glare, and fulfill visual comfort need. However, the design strategy cannot achieve light intensity for visual comfort. Because the materials, design and opening percentage of the facade of second skin blocked sunlight. This paper discusses aluminum material for the facade second skin design that can fulfill the optimal visual comfort with the case studies Multi Media Tower building. The methodology of the research is combination quantitative and qualitative through field study observed, lighting measurement and visual comfort questionnaire. Then it used too simulation modeling (DIALUX 4.13, 2016) for three facades second skin design model. Through following steps; (1) Measuring visual comfort factor: light intensity indoor and outdoor; (2) Taking visual comfort data from building occupants; (3) Making models with different facade second skin design; (3) Simulating and analyzing the light intensity value for each models that meet occupants visual comfort standard: 350 lux (Indonesia National Standard, 2010). The result shows that optimization of aluminum material for the facade second skin design can meet optimal visual comfort for building occupants. The result can give recommendation aluminum opening percentage of the facade second skin can meet optimal visual comfort for building occupants.
931
86914
Overcrowding and Adequate Housing: The Potential of Adaptability
Abstract:
Adequate housing has been a widely discussed theme in academic circles related to low-cost housing. Whereas its physical features are easy to deal with, overcrowding (related to social, cultural and economic aspects) is still ambiguous, particularly regarding the set of indicators that can accurately reflect and measure it. This paper develops research on low-cost housing models for developing countries and what is the best method to embed overcrowding as an important parameter for adaptability. A critical review of international overcrowding indicators and their application in two developing countries, Cape Verde and Angola, is presented. The several rationales and the constraints for an accurate assessment of overcrowding are considered, namely baseline data (statistics), which can induce misjudgments, as well as social and cultural factors (such as personal choices of residents). This paper proposes a way to tackle overcrowding through housing adaptability, considering factors such as physical flexibility, functional ambiguity, and incremental expansion schemes. Moreover, a case-study is presented to establish a framework for the theoretical application of the proposed approach.
930
88008
Planning Politics of Dhaka City: Recent Urbanization and Gentrification
Abstract:
This paper will describe how a city planning can be abusive and promote gentrification in Dhaka city area in an extreme remorseless way. To our knowledge, Dhaka is enormously overpopulated, and its somewhat unrest political situation and corruption is promoting not only bruised urban growth but also this growth leering people socially and mentally. Due to globalization, whole world is in a rat race of development fiesta and Bangladesh is no longer falling back in this race. Recent political agenda is to develop the country anyhow, whether it is a good development or not. In the name of development, Dhaka city is becoming overwhelmed with flyovers, needless shopping malls and commercial complexes. This drastic urbanization is promoting gentrification. Gentrification is the process of societal change which intimidate the existing group of people from a certain place and encouraging affluent group of people on that place and eventually they take the control of that place. Process of gentrification is more capitalistic rather socially democratic. Architects are indirectly or directly related with this social change and politics is the catalyst of these social alteration. The methodology of this paper was mainly dependent on mass interviews including political leaders and activist’s interviews. Also, photographic analysis, empirical research etc. helped to create this paper. Secondary data were collected from different published and unpublished documents, relevant research articles, and books. From the study, it is clearly can be said that architects and urban designers are promoting social imbalance. The paper tried to suggest how architects and other designers can help to resist gentrification and can remain the social heterogeneity.
929
90880
Investigating the Relationship between Visual Exposure and Crime Incidents by Crime Types
Abstract:
Crime prevention is more important to promote the safer living environment. Although various attempts had been made, Crime Prevention Through Environmental Design (CPTED) had been attracting attention, which can prevent the crime through manipulating the built environment. CPTED relies upon the proper design and effective use of the spatial physical environment of the neighborhood. The main strategies are ‘natural surveillance’, ‘natural access control’, ‘natural territorial reinforcement’. Among these, natural surveillance is effective by improving the visibility of potential offenders. However, it’s been recognized the quantifying the degree of natural surveillance be difficult. This study used Weighted and Layered Visual Access & Exposure (WLVAE) which is one of the quantitative spatial analysis models that are utilized to predict human behavioral patterns. The case study was conducted for J city in Korea and predicted the crime risky area based on the physical condition such as building shape, road width, and vacant lot etc. Next, based on 10,002 actual crime cases for three years, the relationship between visual perception and crime was examined by type of five crimes (rape, robbery, theft, violence, murder). The analysis used visual access (VE), which means visual exposure, quantifying the spatial extent of being observed in a certain spot from other points. As a result, theft revealed to occur mostly in the alley where VE value was the lowest. This means that theft of the five crimes is most affected by natural surveillance. Therefore, in order to prevent theft crime, a spatial design capable of natural surveillance is needed. This could provide a useful guideline to be applied to urban spatial design and to proactive and predictive police activities against the risk of theft crime.
928
94333
Using Landscape as a Local Resource: The Case of the Eastern Poland
Authors:
Abstract:
A crucial regional development factor involves activation of endogenous potential determined by available resources. In the resource-based approach to the regional development, two kinds of resources are usually being distinguished – those that might be recreated on a different territory and the local ones, constitutive for the uniqueness and singularity of the given territorial unit. The specific resources give rise to the competitive advantages of the area, on which they appear since they are characterised by the rarity of occurrence. The rural landscape is one of such unique resources. Its character and specificity result from geographical, cultural and historical conditions. The fundamental cognitive objective of the paper shall be constituted by the spatial identification and diagnosis of the specific rural landscape in the regions of Eastern Poland (three provinces: Podlaskie, Lubelskie, and Podkarpackie), as well as by the assessment of their development-related potential. The study analyses the level of uniqueness and usability of rural landscapes evaluated by a team of experts representing the scientific community or NGOs. The term usability is understood as a landscape potential to achieve success. The term uniqueness meant a rarity, which makes it very attractive. Examined region has a diversified types and structure of landscape. Highly rated landscapes focus on protected areas and contribute to the development of other local resources (material and human resources) mainly related to the tourist function. As a result, the most attractive categories of the rural landscape contribute to the multifunctional development of the countryside.
927
85415
Simulation of Natural Ventilation Strategies as a Comparison Method for Two Different Climates
Abstract:
Health and living in a healthy environment are important for all the living creatures. Healthy buildings are the part of the healthy environment and the ones that people and sometimes the animals spend most of their times in it. Therefore, healthy buildings are important subject for everybody. There are many elements of the healthy buildings from material choice to the thermal comfort including indoor air quality. The aim of this study is, to simulate two natural ventilation strategies which are used as a cooling method in Mediterranean climate, by applying to a residential building and compare the results for Asian climate. Fulltime natural and night-time ventilation strategies are simulated for three days during the summertime in Mediterranean climate. The results show that one of the chosen passive cooling strategies worked on both climates good enough without using additional shading element and cooling device, however, the other ventilation strategy did not provide comfortable indoor temperature enough. Finally, both of the ventilation strategies worked better on the Asian climate than the Mediterranean in terms of the total overheating hours during the chosen period of year.
926
88534
Baby Cot’s Indoor Air Quality
Authors:
Abstract:
The indoor quality of occupied space is very important for the well-being of its occupants, especially in the case of babies. The lungs of a young child are still growing and adverse conditions could affect this development. Presently little children spend a lot of their time in day care centers while parents are at work. Little is known about the effects of different indoor environmental factors present in these day care centers and the quality of air of baby cots in which the babies are accommodated in these day care centers. Therefore this research investigated the quality of the accommodation of Dutch day care centers. Besides an extensive literature research actual measurements were performed in baby cots within three-day care center. Some experiments were performed to find out the importance of the configuration and types of baby cots. This research investigated the quality of the accommodation of a Dutch day care center which led to a tool describing the quality needs (e.g., quality standard) for the accommodation of day care centers. The results of our detailed studies were compared with the results of earlier Dutch more global studies in day care centers, in which more than 60 day care centers were investigated. Also the results are compared with the outcomes of research on school ventilation. The results proved that the situation in day care centers is even worse than that of schools within the Netherlands. More attention is needed to improve the current situation.
925
88536
Dutch Schools: Their Ventilation Systems
Abstract:
During the last decade research was done to clarify the importance of good Indoor Air Quality in schools. As a result, measurements were undertaken in different types of schools to see whether naturally ventilated schools could provide adequate indoor conditions. Also, a comparison was made between schools with hybrid ventilation and those with complete mechanical ventilation systems. Recently a large survey was undertaken at 60 schools to establish the average current situation of schools in the Netherlands. The results of the questionnaires were compared with those of earlier measured schools. This allowed us to compare different types of schools as well as schools of different periods. Overall it leads to insights about the actual current perceived quality by the teachers as well as the pupils and enables to draw some conclusions about the typical performances of specific types of school ventilation systems. Also, the perceived thermal comfort and controllability were researched. It proved that in around 50% of the schools there were major complains about the indoor air quality causing concentration problems and headaches by the pupils at the end of class. Although the main focus of the latest research was focused more on the quality of recently finished nearly Zero Energy schools, this research showed that especially the main focus school be on the renovation and upgrading of the existing 10.000 schools in the Netherlands.
924
89526
Qualitative Analysis of Occupant’s Satisfaction in Green Buildings
Abstract:
The green building movement in India commenced in 2003. Since then, more than 4,300 projects have adopted green building concepts. For last 15 years, the green building movement has grown strong across the country and has resulted in immense tangible and intangible benefits to the stakeholders. Several success stories have demonstrated the tangible benefit experienced in green buildings. However, extensive data interpretation and qualitative analysis are required to report the intangible benefits in green buildings. The emphasis is now shifting to the concept of people-centric design and productivity, health and wellbeing of occupants are gaining importance. This research was part of World Green Building Council’s initiative on 'Better Places for People' which aims to create a world where buildings support healthier and happier lives. The overarching objective of this study was to understand the perception of users living and working in green buildings. The study was conducted in twenty-five IGBC certified green buildings across India, and a comprehensive questionnaire was designed to capture occupant’s perception and experience in the built environment. The entire research focussed on the eight attributes of healthy buildings. The factors considered for the study include thermal comfort, visual comfort, acoustic comfort, ergonomics, greenery, fitness, green transit and sanitation and hygiene. The occupant’s perception and experience were analysed to understand their satisfaction level. The macro level findings of the study indicate that green buildings have addressed attributes of healthy buildings to a larger extent. Few important findings of the study focussed on the parameters such as visual comfort, fitness, greenery, etc. The study indicated that occupants give tremendous importance to the attributes such as visual comfort, daylight, fitness, greenery, etc. 89% occupants were comfortable with the visual environment, on account of various lighting element incorporated as part of the design. Tremendous importance to fitness related activities is highlighted by the study. 84% occupants had actively utilised sports and meditation facilities provided in their facility. Further, 88% occupants had access to the ample greenery and felt connected to the natural biodiversity. This study aims to focus on the immense advantages gained by users occupying green buildings. This will empower green building movement to achieve new avenues to design and construct healthy buildings. The study will also support towards implementing human-centric measures and in turn, will go a long way in addressing people welfare and wellbeing in the built environment.
923
90240
Healthy and Smart Building Projects
Abstract:
Stakeholders in the architecture, engineering, and construction (AEC) industry have been always searching for strategies to develop, design, and construct healthy and smart building projects. Healthy and smart building projects require that the building process including design and construction be altered and carefully implemented in order to bring about sustainable outcomes throughout the facility lifecycle. Healthy and smart building projects are expected to positively influence organizational success and facility performance across the project lifecycle leading to superior outcomes in terms of people, economy, and the environment. The present study aims to identify potential strategies that AEC organizations can implement to achieve healthy and smart building projects. Drivers and barriers for healthy and smart building features are also examined. The study findings indicate that there are three strategies to advance the development of healthy and smart building projects: (1) the incorporation of high-quality products and low chemical-emitting materials, (2) the integration of innovative designs, methods, and practices, and (3) the adoption of smart technology throughout the facility lifecycle. Satisfying external demands, achievement of a third-party certification, obtaining financial incentives, and a desire to fulfill professional duty are identified as the key drivers for developing healthy and smart building features; whereas, lack of knowledge and training, time/cost constrains, preference for/adherence to customary practices, and unclear business case for why healthy buildings are advantageous are recognized as the primary barriers toward a wider diffusion of healthy and smart building projects. The present study grounded in previous engineering, medical, and public health research provides valuable technical and practical recommendations for facility owners and industry professionals interested in pursuing sustainable, yet healthy and smart building projects.
922
91826
Multi-Stage Optimization of Local Environmental Quality by Comprehensive Computer Simulated Person as Sensor for Air Conditioning Control
Abstract:
In this study, a comprehensive computer simulated person (CSP) that integrates computational human model (virtual manikin) and respiratory tract model (virtual airway), was applied for estimation of indoor environmental quality. Moreover, an inclusive prediction method was established by integrating computational fluid dynamics (CFD) analysis with advanced CSP which is combined with physiologically-based pharmacokinetic (PBPK) model, unsteady thermoregulation model for analysis targeting micro-climate around human body and respiratory area with high accuracy. This comprehensive method can estimate not only the contaminant inhalation but also constant interaction in the contaminant transfer between indoor spaces, i.e., a target area for indoor air quality (IAQ) assessment, and respiratory zone for health risk assessment. This study focused on the usage of the CSP as an air/thermal quality sensor in indoors, which means the application of comprehensive model for assessment of IAQ and thermal environmental quality. Demonstrative analysis was performed in order to examine the applicability of the comprehensive model to the heating, ventilation, air conditioning (HVAC) control scheme. CSP was located at the center of the simple model room which has dimension of 3m×3m×3m. Formaldehyde which is generated from floor material was assumed as a target contaminant, and flow field, sensible/latent heat and contaminant transfer analysis in indoor space were conducted by using CFD simulation coupled with CSP. In this analysis, thermal comfort was evaluated by thermoregulatory analysis, and respiratory exposure risks represented by adsorption flux/concentration at airway wall surface were estimated by PBPK-CFD hybrid analysis. These Analysis results concerning IAQ and thermal comfort will be fed back to the HVAC control and could be used to find a suitable ventilation rate and energy requirement for air conditioning system.
921
92121
Assessment of Interior Environmental Quality and Airborne Infectious Risk in a Commuter Bus Cabin by Using Computational Fluid Dynamics with Computer Simulated Person
Abstract:
A commuter bus remains important as a means to network public transportation between railway stations and terminals within cities. In some cases, the boarding time becomes longer, and the boarding rate tends to be higher corresponding to the development of urban cities. The interior environmental quality, e.g. temperature and air quality, in a commuter bus is relatively heterogeneous and complex compared to that of an indoor environment in buildings due to several factors: solar radiative heat – which comes from large-area windows –, inadequate ventilation rate caused by high density of commuters, and metabolic heat generation from travelers themselves. In addition to this, under conditions where many passengers ride in the enclosed space, contact and airborne infectious risk have attracted considerable attention in terms of public health. From this point of view, it is essential to develop the prediction method for assessment of interior environmental quality and infection risk in commuter bus cabins. In this study, we developed a numerical commuter bus model integrated with computer simulated persons to reproduce realistic indoor environment conditions with high occupancy during commuting. Here, computer simulated persons were newly designed considering different types of geometries, e.g., standing position, seating position, and individual differences. Here we conducted coupled computational fluid dynamics (CFD) analysis with radiative heat transfer analysis under steady state condition. Distributions of heterogeneous air flow patterns, temperature, and moisture surrounding the human body under some different ventilation system were analyzed by using CFD technique, and skin surface temperature distributions were analyzed using thermoregulation model that integrated into computer simulated person. Through these analyses, we discussed the interior environmental quality in specific commuter bus cabins. Further, inhaled air quality of each passenger was also analyzed. This study may have possibility to design the ventilation system in bus for improving thermal comfort of occupants.
920
93485
A Literature Review of the Trend towards Indoor Dynamic Thermal Comfort
Abstract:
The Steady State thermal comfort model which dominates thermal comfort practice and which posits the ideal thermal conditions in a narrow range of thermal conditions does not deliver the expected comfort levels among occupants. Furthermore, the buildings where this model is applied consume a lot of energy in conditioning. This paper reviews significant literature about thermal comfort in dynamic indoor conditions including the adaptive thermal comfort model and alliesthesia. A major finding of the paper is that the adaptive thermal comfort model is part of a trend from static to dynamic indoor environments in aspects such as lighting, views, sounds and ventilation. Alliesthesia or thermal delight is consistent with this trend towards dynamic thermal conditions. It is within this trend that the two fold goal of increased thermal comfort and reduced energy consumption lies. At the heart of this trend is a rediscovery of the link between the natural environment and human well-being, a link that was partially severed by over-reliance on mechanically dominated artificial indoor environments. The paper concludes by advocating thermal conditioning solutions that integrate mechanical with natural thermal conditioning in a balanced manner in order to meet occupant thermal needs without endangering the environment.
919
93543
Integrated Thermal Control to Improve Workers' Intellectual Concentration in Office Environment
Abstract:
The authors have focused on the thermal difference between office rooms and break rooms, and proposed an integrated thermal control method to improve workers’ intellectual concentration. First, a trial experiment was conducted to verify the effect of temperature difference on workers’ intellectual concentration with using two experimental rooms; a thermally neutral break room and a cooler office room. As the result of the experiment, it was found that the thermal difference had a significant effect on improving their intellectual concentration. Workers, however, often take a short break at their desks without moving to a break room, so that the thermal difference cannot be given to them. So utilization of airflow was proposed as an integrated thermal control method instead of the temperature difference to realize the similar effect. Concretely, they are exposed to airflow when working in order to reduce their effective temperature while it is weakened when taking a break. Another experiment was conducted to confirm the effect of the airflow control on their intellectual concentration. As the result of concentration index and questionnaire survey, their intellectual concentration was significantly improved in the integrated thermal controlled environment. It was also found that most of them felt more comfortable and had higher motivation and higher degree of concentration in the environment.
918
94355
The IVAIRE Study: Relative Performance of Energy and Heat Recovery Ventilators in Cold Climates
Abstract:
This paper describes the results obtained in a two-year randomized intervention field study investigating the impact of ventilation rates on indoor air quality (IAQ) and the respiratory health of asthmatic children in Quebec City, Canada. The focus of this article is on the comparative effectiveness of heat recovery ventilators (HRV) and energy recovery ventilators (ERV) at increasing ventilation rates, improving IAQ, and maintaining an acceptable indoor relative humidity (RH). In 14% of the homes, the RH was found to be too low in winter. Providing more cold and dry outside air to under-ventilated homes in winter further reduces indoor RH. Thus low-RH homes in the intervention group were chosen to receive ERV’s (instead of HRVs) to increase the ventilation rate. The installation of HRV’s or ERV’s led to a near doubling of the ventilation rates in the intervention group homes which led to a significant reduction in the concentration of several keys of pollutants. The ERV’s were also effective in maintaining an acceptable indoor RH since they avoided excessive dehumidification of the home by recovering moisture from the exhaust airstream through the enthalpy core, otherwise associated with increased cold supply air rates.