International Science Index

International Journal of Architectural and Environmental Engineering

The Concepts of Urban Sustainable Development and Smart Cities – in the Understanding of Academia and the European Union
When considering the future city one repeatedly comes across two sometimes sparsely differentiated terms: Sustainable and smart. ‘A European Strategy for Smart, Sustainable, and Inclusive Growth’, this is how the European Commission named its current growth strategy. Thus, Europe should become smarter and more sustainable. Both, the smart and the sustainable city represent a positive vision of urban development as well as a subject area for contemporary and future urban policies. But what is actually behind these terminologies? The paper analyses how the terms are defined academically and how this academic understanding is represented in the funding mechanisms of European urban policies. The theoretical framework is mainly based on sources such as journal articles and policy reports. It became clear that despite some similarities, such as the broad field of work or the tendency to operationalize the terms by defining sub-categories, both ideas are distinctly different in terms of the development history, the main driving forces behind and the theoretical scope. Moreover, the significantly more comprehensively defined term sustainability has found its way into the centre of European regional funding policies. On the contrary, the smart city vision still lacks terminological and content-related clarity and as a consequence the corresponding European funding landscape is more small-scaled and less customized.
Housing Practices of the Young Southern Europeans in Connection with Family Strategies during the Crisis
Southern European countries tend to have a lot of connections in their culture, customs, ideals and attitude towards everyday aspects. On the contrary, all of them demonstrate a lot of differences in their history, political life and economic situation. Nevertheless, the state welfare and its insufficiency to deal with citizens’ needs, is common for the whole region. As the global financial crisis initiated, all of them gradually were affected and established austerity measures. Consequently, there were crucial budget cuts in state welfare and accordingly limited support to the citizens at a time that is is most needed as the economic difficulties of the households are rising rapidly. Crisis in connection with austerity measures brought up a housing problem which was hidden for decades with the assistance of the institution of the Southern European family. New or old copying practices concerning housing are already developed and more will rise in order to survive this new era. Expressly, youth is one of the most vulnerable groups in this situation and therefore there is a special focus in the policies that affect their housing as well as their copying practices in connection with the family/kinship strategies.
Impact of Transportation on the Economic Growth of Nigeria
Transportation is a critical factor in the economic growth and development of any nation, region or state. Good transportation network supports every sector of the economy like the manufacturing, transportation and encourages investors thereby affect the overall economic prosperity. The paper evaluates the impact of transportation on the economic growth of Nigeria using south eastern states as a case study. The choice of the case study is its importance as the commercial and industrial nerve of the country. About 200 respondents who are of different professions such as dealers in goods, transporters, contractors, consultants, bankers were selected and a set of questionnaire were administered to using the systematic sampling technique in the five states of the region. Descriptive statistics and relative importance index (RII) technique was employed for the analysis of the data gathered. The findings of the analysis reveal that Nigeria has the least effective ratio per population in Africa of 949.91 km/Person. Conclusion was drawn to improve road network in the area and the country as a whole to enhance the economic activities of the people.
Connectivity: Connecting Activity Rethinking Streets as Public Space under the Six Dimensions of Urban Space Design in the Context of Bangladesh
With the encroachment of automobile upon our communities for decades and the concomitant urban sprawl resulting in a loss of public place, it was only a matter of time before people, realizing the role of streets in stimulating urban prosperity, would start reclaiming them to rebuild their communities. In order for this restoration of communities to take effect it is imperative that streets be freed from the dominance of motor vehicles. A holistic approach to pedestrian-friendly street environment can help build communities that embody the cities in which they are found. While the developed countries are finding more and more innovative ways to integrate walkable streets to foster communal living, the developing countries still have a long way to go. Since Dhaka is still struggling to balance the growing needs of accommodating automobiles for increased population with the loss of urban community life that comes with it, it is high time that alternate approaches are looked into. This study aims to understand streets as a living corridor through which one discovers and identifies with the city. The research area is chosen to be Manik Mia Avenue, overlooking the South Plaza of the National Parliament Building in Dhaka city. Being the site of supreme power, it is precisely this symbolic importance that the National Parliament Building has in the psyche of Bangladeshis, which has given Manik Mia Avenue a significant place in the country’s history. Above all, being an avenue it is essentially a neutral territory, universally accessible, inclusive and pluralist. The needs of the Avenue’s frequent users are analyzed with the help of a multi-method approach to survey consisting of an empirical study, a questionnaire survey and interview with relevant users. The research then tries to understand the concept of walkability by exploring the different ways in which the built environment influences walking. For this analysis, the six dimensions of Matthew Carmona are taken as a guideline for a holistic approach toward the different interacting facets of an urban public space. Based on the studies, a set of criteria is proposed to evaluate, plan and design streets that are more contextual in nature. The study concludes with how the existing street patterns of Dhaka city can be rethought and redesigned to cater to peoples’ need for a public place. The proposal is meant to be an inspiration for further studies in this respect in the context of Bangladesh.
Hydrodynamic and Morphological Simulation of Karnafuli River Using CCHE2D Model
Karnafuli is one of the most important rivers of Bangladesh which is playing a vital role in our national economy. The major sea port of Bangladesh is the Chittagong port located on the right bank of Karnafuli River Bangladesh. Karnafuli river port is considered as the lifeline of the economic activities of the country. Therefore, it is always necessary to keep the river active and live in terms of its navigability. Due to man-made intervention, the river flow becomes interrupted and thereby may cause the change in the river morphology. The specific objective of this study is the application of 2D model to assess different hydrodynamic and morphological characteristics of the river due to normal flow condition and sea level rise condition. The model has been set with the recent bathymetry data collected from CPA hydrography division. For model setup, the river reach is selected between Kalurghat and Khal no-18. Time series discharge and water level data are used as boundary condition at upstream and downstream. Calibration and validation have been carried out with the recent water level data at Khal no-10 and Sadarghat. The total reach length of the river has been divided into four parts to determine different hydrodynamic and morphological assessments like variation of velocity, sediment erosion and deposition and bed level changes also have been studied. This model has been used for the assessment of river response due sediment transport and sea level rise. Model result shows slight increase in velocity. It also changes the rate of erosion and deposition at some location of the selected reach. It is hoped that the result of the model simulation will be helpful to suggest the effect of possible future development work to be implemented on this river.
BIM-Based Tool for Sustainability Assessment and Certification Documents Provision
The assessment of building sustainability to achieve a specific green benchmark and the preparation of the required documents in order to receive a green building certification, both are considered as a major challenging tasks for green building design team. However, this labor and time-consuming process can take advantage of the available Building Information Modeling (BIM) features such as material take-off and scheduling. Furthermore, the workflow can be automated in order to track potentially achievable credit points and provide rating feedback for several design options by using integrated Visual Programing (VP) to handle the stored parameters within the BIM model. Hence, this study proposes a BIM-based tool that uses Green Building Index (GBI) rating system requirements as a unique input case to evaluate the building sustainability in the design stage of the building project life cycle. The tool covers two key models for data extraction, firstly, a model for data extraction, calculation and the classification of achievable credit points in a green template, secondly, a model for the generation of the required documents for green building certification. The tool was validated on a BIM model of residential building, and it serves as proof of concept that building sustainability assessment of GBI certification can be automatically evaluated and documented through BIM.
A Review of Literature on Theories of Construction Accident Causation Models
Construction sites are characterized by occupational risks. Review of literature on construction accidents reveals that a lot of theories have been propounded over the years by different theorists, coupled with multifarious models developed by different proponents at different times. Accidents are unplanned events that are prominent in construction sites, involving materials, objects, and people with attendant damages, loses and injuries. Models were developed to investigate the causations of accident with the aim of preventing its occurrence. Though some of these theories were criticized, most especially, the Heinrich Domino theory, being mostly faulted for placing much blame on operatives rather than the management. The purpose of this paper is to unravel the significant construction accident causation theories and models for the benefit of understanding of the theories, and consequently enabling construction stakeholders to identify the possible potential hazards on construction sites, as all stakeholders have significant roles to play in preventing accident. Accidents are preventable; hence, understanding the risk factors of accident and the causation theories paves the way for its prevention. However, findings reveal that still some gaps messing in the existing models, while it is recommended that further research can be made in order to develop more models in order to maintain zero accident on construction sites.
Utilization of Safety Measures in Prevention of Site Accidents in Nigerian Construction Industry
Construction industry is famous with hazardous and high-risk environment with operatives facing a greater risk of work-related fatality or injury than operatives in other industries. It is characterised with different types of accident, ranging from electrocution, trip and slip, fall from height, struck-by, explosion, trench collapse, to scaffolding accidents, with each type being caused by different factors. However, accidents are unplanned, unforeseeable and unexpected events, but regardless of the high-risk nature of the industry, accidents are preventable. The aim of the paper is to determine the extent of the utilization of the safety measures, as well as identifying the factors underlining the non-usage. A research methodology consisting of a literature review was used to identify the types and causes of site accidents, while a well-structured questionnaire was used to determine the level of the usage of safety measures on site. The data were analysed with the results revealing the use of protective clothing, safety helmet, first aid, protective shoe, safety belt, and face shield to aid safety of workers, as well as ascribing non-usage of safety measures to cost, ignorance, lack of experts and non-inclusion in contract document. Recommendations are included in the paper suggesting the enforcement of the utilization of safety measures in reducing the spate of accident occurrence on construction sites.
Climate Change Adaptation: Methodologies and Tools to Define Resilience Scenarios for Existing Buildings in Mediterranean Urban Areas
Climate changes in Mediterranean areas, such as the increase of average seasonal temperatures, the urban heat island phenomenon, the intensification of solar radiation and the extreme weather threats, cause disruption events, so that climate adaptation has became a pressing issue. Due to the strategic role that the built heritage holds in terms of environmental impact and energy waste and its potentiality, it is necessary to assess the vulnerability and the adaptive capacity of existing building to climate change, in order to define different mitigation scenarios. The aim of this research work is to define an optimized and integrated methodology for the assessment of resilience levels and adaptation scenarios for existing buildings in Mediterranean urban areas. Moreover, the study of resilience indicators allows us to define building environmental and energy performance in order to identify the design and technological solutions for the improvement of the building and its urban area potentialities. The methodology identifies step-by-step different phases, starting from the detailed study of characteristic elements of urban system: climatic, natural, human, typological and functional components are analyzed in their critical factors and their potential. Through the individuation of the main perturbing factors and the vulnerability degree of the system to the risks linked to climate change, it is possible to define mitigation and adaptation scenarios. They can be different, according to the typological, functional and constructive features of the analyzed system, divided into categories of intervention, and characterized by different analysis levels (from the single building to the urban area). The use of software simulations allows to obtain information on the overall behavior of the building and the urban system, to generate predictive models in the medium and long-term environmental and energy retrofit and to make a comparative study of the mitigation scenarios identified. The studied methodology is validated on a case study. F.N. Author is a student with the Civil, Built and Environmental Department of Engineering, University La Sapienza of Rome, Via della Polveriera, 00184 Roma - Italy (e-mail: T.C. Author was with the Construction Technologies Institute - Italian National Research Council, ITC-CNR, U.O.S. of Bari Via Paolo Lembo 38/b, 70124 Bari. She is specialized on ABITA-Bioecological Architecture and Technological Innovation for the Environment, ABITA Inter-University center, University of Florence, San Niccolò 93, Florence 50121, Italy (e-mail:
An Attempt to Enhance the Visual Quality of Building Sector within Egyptian Cities
Visual environment of any city gives usually the first impression about its resident community. Rapid population growth worldwide has caused a huge movement in building construction sector in order to fulfill the substantial need for sheltering and services that suit different types of the society. Unfortunately, unaesthetic Value of building sector became one of the major causes of visual pollution especially in congested cities. Despite the very harmful impact of this kind of pollution on the human psychology and their quality of life, it is sometimes considered from the governments as less important than other types of pollutions such as chemical or water pollution. Actually, this problem harms and degrades the urban environment with a similar-if not bigger-importance, as its effect on people can cause an overall loss of sense of hygiene and aesthetics as well as psychological disturbance for the residing community. Hence, trying to enhance the visual quality of the built environment will reflect a positive contribution to upgrade the aesthetic sense of the community especially in the very congested cities. This paper will illustrate the different forms of visual pollution caused by building sector. It also explores aesthetic disturbance problem caused by building sector in different places of Alexandria city in Egypt. Different solutions are suggested to tackle and eliminate the spreading of this severe problem benefiting from Moscow experience that has succeeded in eliminating the severity of this type of pollution at the city centre.
Big Data Approach to the Life-Cycle Assessment of Building Value
Research Goal: This research presents a utilization of big data based on building value analysis. A prediction method of building value is researched by analysing big data of building life-cycle and various urban composition elements. Research problem: Building value has various fluctuating factors such as incoming population, land use changes of surrounding area, demands of facility, etc. However, existing building value analysis is mostly predicted by fragmentary information such as the specific economy or real property model. Also, existing building value analysis is difficult to predict in real time as well as to consider these multidirectional elements simultaneously. In that regard, a utilization of big data enables relatively accurate predictions and simultaneous reflections of various information surrounding the building by extending the category of fluctuating factors which are limited in existing analysis. Research methods: In practice, building price is determined by the market price. The proposed term “building value” in this research is considered with divers external and internal aspects such as building material, construction, land market price, building life time cycle, and social and cultural impacts. This could be deduced by analysing existing methods such as sales comparison approach or yield capitalization method and studies from building value evaluation to reflect missing factors of existing method. A Building has a clear life cycle from the new construction to requidation. During life cycle of the building, it also has a clear price record. This research focused on the trend of the value changes. We traced the building’s value transition and collected divers cases. By adopting the machine learning technology, diverse value transition is studied by computer, and it combined with events which would influences of the value changes. Machine learning process uses cross distances method by machine learning tool (Rapid Miner). This calculates similarities between graphs and classifies the results. With this big data analysis and machine learning process, real-time price changes are deduced by conducting comprehensive analysis about land and linking various urban big data. The related urban big data is of 10 or more types such as land price, sale prices of apartment, status of transaction, officially assessed land price, location, area, use and proportion of nearby facilities, etc. The factors affecting to building value are analysed with weight value by significance. This research presents prediction cases of building value by real urban data. Based on the deduced building value, also, decision-making model is established to suggest strategies for land use such as reconstruction or additional development of floor area ratio limits to gain maximum profits. Result: As a method to use of generating and accumulation urban big data continuously, this research presents a prediction method of building value by using big data and machine learning. The result of this research is expected to be a practical case for applying big data in building design and urban planning area.
Forthcoming Big Data in Smart Building and Cities: Evolution of Big Data Analysis in Architecture by Using Dynamic Ontology Model
Research goal: This research presents building and urban scale of data ontology model that implements the complexity of urban data, the complexity of urban data network, and the dynamic changes of the data network in the building and urban environment. Research problem: The data collected from building and urban environment has diverse forms and complex network. Such data diversity brings good environment in facilitating big data, however such data complexity causes difficulties in understanding the correlation among the data sets. In the process, implementing the big data analysis into the architectural domain, we can firstly come to the simple question, how has the data affects each other and how has the effects changes by time? The existing way to find the correlation among the diverse data set is using tags that are written by data manager. Related data are recommended by the same words in title or tags. Additionally, the data that is checked with together by others is served. But in this way, people do not still know which data is more valuable among the searched data. This makes difficulty to apply the big data into the architecture environment. Research methods: Thus, this research focused on finding the methods how to define the correlations within the data sets which collected from the building and urban environment. We used a traditional approach making ontology map of the data sets and combined recent technology on that, the machine learning. Ontology is definition of the types, properties, and interrelationships of the entities that really or fundamentally exist for a particular domain of discourse. Ontology classifies the variables needed for some set of computations and establishes the relationships between them. In this paper, we suggest a dynamic ontology model that reflects consistently changing relations among data collected from architecture or urban environment. Urban data are classified into 10 major-categories and 49 sub-categories. All data are classed as categories and given tags according to included data value. The data model is made based on categories and tags. The relation between urban composition factors and behavior data is represented using entity-relationship diagram (ERD). This data relation model develops into dynamic ontology model that has various relations set affected context. The length between factors becomes a basis for prioritizing and weights. So, this dynamic ontology model helps to identify order of priority and determining weight of each factor. Therefore, the effective big data analysis is implemented. Result: Dynamic ontology model that has various relations set affected context. So, this dynamic ontology model helps to identify order of priority and determining weight of each factor. The result of this research is expected to be a practical study for applying big data in building design and urban planning domain.
Performance-Oriented Kinetic Façades Design Using 3D Scanning for Converting Physical Models into Digital Models
Façades are building components which play a key role in defining energy consumption, indoor environmental quality, and building exteriors. Kinetic façades modulate their function and shape according to user requirements and environmental conditions. They consist of embedded computation (intelligence) and physical counterparts (kinetics). The performance of them results from geometric transformation including their kinetic mechanism, material behavior, and kinetic pattern. There is a great demand for effective prototyping methods at the early design stage of kinetic façades both within practical and educational contexts. POD (Performance-oriented design) with interworking between physical and digital models provide a valid methodology for decision making in designing kinetic façades. POD is an approach to architecture by which building performance is a guiding design principle. Combined with generative parametric modeling, POD helps designers conduct ‘form-finding’ process following the ‘Generation-Measurement-Evaluation-Modification’ sequence. In the practice, physical and digital models are collaborations with multidisciplinary experts of architecture, engineering, media, etc. In the educational environment, students make prototypes by using an open-source platform like Arduino without experts. The prototype with sensors, actuators, and processors can be interworked with the digital models. However, it is so difficult for students to make physical and digital models of kinetic façades because of their complicated shapes and movements. Physical models are more appropriate than digital models for the initial and fast development of ideas, stimulation of imagination, and free inquiry. Whereas digital models are more efficient than physical models in analyzing, visualizing, and optimizing various performances of design. Students need an easier and faster design process which can gain the merit of each model. To utilize 3D shape information of physical models in the digital environment directly, emerging 3D scanning technology can be used. This paper aims at proposing the process of converting physical models into digital models using 3D scanning. HCI (Human Computer Interaction) have attempted to expand the notion of an interface between physical and digital worlds. Reverse engineering of machines, measuring an object and then reconstructing it as a 3D model supported HCI technically. Microsoft Kinect, developed for a game as a motion-sensing device, is used in various area including reverse engineering as well as media art. In this research, Kinect is used for acquiring point clouds of kinetic physical models in a real-time manner. This research consists of two phases; 1) acquiring point clouds of physical models and 2) editing point clouds into digital models. Origami is used as the physical model because it provides not only elaborate kinetic mechanism but clear edges and surfaces. There are some technical obstacles; 1) filtering point clouds, 2) dividing one mesh into sub-components, 3) including parameters of movements in digital models. The methods to resolve each obstacle are as follows; 1) using color detection algorithm, 2) using the geometrical properties, and 3) using a physical engine. The verification is done by testing whether digital models converted from physical models can work in performance simulation. Students can conduct the POD of kinetic facades intuitively through the process.
A Pedagogical Study of Computational Design in a Simulated Building Information Modeling (BIM)-Cloud Environment
Building Information Modeling (BIM) provides project stakeholders with various information about property and geometry of entire component as a 3D object-based parametric building model. In the architecture, engineering and construction sector, BIM-Cloud integration is considered to be the second generation of BIM development, and is expected to produce another wave of change across the construction industry. Cloud computing technology allows stakeholders to use and share pertinent information and services irrespective of location, time and device in collaboration environment based on BIM. The architect can generate and develop design alternative using data (ex: BIM model, engineering report, drawing) referenced or provided from the cloud server. The architect also can request the evaluation to other stakeholders with the data. Design alternative evolves interacting with evaluation results and design changes created from cooperation in BIM-cloud environment. BIM education has focused on parametric modeling, simulation and interaction with the physical model using diverse BIM tools, but few studies have attempted to adapt BIM-Cloud environment into the design studio. Student can experience heterogeneous collaboration which is one of the primary purposes of BIM through Design studio based on simulated BIM-Cloud environment. The BIM-Cloud environment allows tutor and student to transfer and share their thinking and information immediately with BIM data. In addition, tutor and student can manage whole information and services systematically with master BIM model. To set up and verify BIM-Cloud system in practical industry environment can be at risk due to cost and time. Virtual smart-Physical Prototyping process (VPP) for Smart Building Envelope was proposed at preceding research. This research proposed a pedagogical model to adapt BIM-Cloud technology based on previous VPP model. Design process model based on the BIM-Cloud environment was drawn from the analysis of the practical project and precedent academic sources about BIM-Cloud. Then, a model blended BIM-Cloud with VPP applying educational environment was proposed. Lecture course was set up based on the BIM-Cloud model. Reflection between assembled BIM model and partial BIM model was observed in the design process. The main BIM model managed by the tutor was divided into several parts and each part was transmitted to the student. Individual models were developed through advanced VPP, then the models were assembled by the tutor. Evaluation of assembled model affected decision-making for next design. The proposed design process based on BIM-Cloud was revised applying the discovery extracted from observation of design studio.
Comparative Analysis of Industrial Sites Adaptive Re-Use in Laç, Albania
Industrial heritage in Albania is a new concept which has started to be promoted only in these last years. After more than two decades of democracy, the country has not yet confronted management of underused industrial sites. This paper makes a general description of industrial sites in the city of Laç, Albania. Historical transformation and changes through time, has ended up with a complicated situation of some deteriorated sites and some others reused for various functions. Following, this case is compared with other successful reuse cases for industrial purposes, in England and Sweden. This study provides an alternative approach of reuse methodology in other EU countries and an example of good practices. Furthermore, Albanian businessman and the government can learn how to deal with similar cases in other cities, where industrial sites are still abandoned and left without investments. At the end, this paper gives contribution in the limited academic studies regarding industrial heritage in country.
The Effect of the Incorporation of Glass Powder into Cement Sorel
The work concerns thermo-mechanical properties of cement Sorel mixed with different proportions of glass powder. Five specimens were developed. Four different glass powder mixtures were developed 5%, 10%, 15% and 20% with one control sample without glass powder. The research presented in this study focused on evaluating the effects of replacing portion of glass powder with various percentages of cement Sorel. The influence of the glass powder on the thermal conductivity, thermal diffusivity, bulk density and compressive strength of the cement Sorel at 28 days of curing were determined. The thermal property of cement was measured by using Photothermal deflection technique PTD. The results revealed that the glass powder additive affected greatly on the thermal properties of the cement.
Study on Conservation and Regeneration of the Industrial Buildings
The conservation and regeneration of historical industrial building is one of the most important issues to be solved in today’s urban development in the world. There are growing numbers of industrial building in which promoting heritage conservation maybe a helpful tool for a sustainable city in social, urban restructuring, environmental and economic component. This paper identifies the key attributes of conservation and regeneration industrial building from the literature, were discussed by reviewing its development at home and abroad. The authors have investigated 93 industrial buildings, which were used as industrial building before and reused into buildings with another function afterward. The data to be discussed below were mainly collected from various publications but also from available internet sources. This study focuses on green transformation, historical culture heritage, transformation techniques, and urban regeneration based on the empirical researches on the historical industrial building and site. Moreover, we focus on social, urban environment and sustainable development. The implications of the study provide suggestions for future improvements in the conservation and regeneration of historical industrial building, and inspire new ways of use, so the building becomes flexible and can consequently be adaptable to changes in order to survive time. Therefore, the building does not take into account only its future impact in the environment and society. Instead, it focuses on its entire life cycle.
Investigation of Aerodynamic and Design Features of Twisting Tall Buildings
After decades of conventional shapes, irregular forms with complex geometries are getting more popular for form generation of tall buildings all over the world. This trend has recently brought out diverse building forms such as twisting tall buildings. This study investigates both the aerodynamic and design features of twisting tall buildings through comparative analyses. Since twisting a tall building give rise to additional complexities related with the form and structural system, lateral load effects become of greater importance on these buildings. The aim of this study is to analyze the inherent characteristics of these iconic forms by comparing the wind loads on twisting tall buildings with those on their prismatic twins. Through a case study research, aerodynamic analyses of an existing twisting tall building and its prismatic counterpart were performed and the results have been compared. The prismatic twin of the original building were generated by removing the progressive rotation of its floors with the same plan area and story height. Performance-based measures under investigation have been evaluated in conjunction with the architectural design. Aerodynamic effects have been analyzed by both wind tunnel tests and computational methods. High frequency base balance tests and pressure measurements on 3D models were performed to evaluate wind load effects on a global and local scale. Comparisons of flat and real surface models were conducted to further evaluate the effects of the twisting form without façade texture contribution. Comparisons highlighted that, the twisting form under investigation shows better aerodynamic behavior both for along wind but particularly for across wind direction. Compared to the prismatic counterpart; twisting model is superior on reducing vortex-shedding dynamic response by disorganizing the wind vortices. Consequently, despite the difficulties arisen from inherent complexity of twisted forms, they could still be feasible and viable with their attractive images in the realm of tall buildings.
An Investigation on the Need to Provide Environmental Sanitation Facilities to Informal Settlement in Shagari Low-Cost Katsina State for Sustainable Built Environment
This paper identifies the problems that have aided the decoy to adequate basic infrastructural amenities, sub-standard housing, over-crowding, poor ventilation in homes and work places, sanitation, and non-compliance with building bye-laws and regulation. The paper also asserts the efficient disposal of solid and liquid waste is one of the challenges in the informal areas due to threats on the environment and public health. Sanitation services in the informal settlements have been found to be much lower compared to the average for unban. Bearing in mind a factor which prevents sustainable sanitation in informal areas which include low incomes, insecure tenure, low education levels, difficulty topography and transitory populations, and this study aim to identify effective strategies for achieving sustainable sanitation with specific reference to the informal settlement. Using the Shanghai Low-Cost as a case study. The primary data collected was through observation and interview method. Similarly, the secondary data used for the study was collected through literature reviews from extent studies with specific reference to informal settlement. A number of strategies towards achieving sustainable sanitation in the study were identified here in classified into three (3):- Advocacy and capacity building, infrastructural provision and institutionalization of systems and processes. The paper concludes with the premise on the need to build alliances between the government and stakeholders concerned with sanitation provision through the creation of sanitation and employ adaptable technology. Provision of sanitation facilities in public areas and to establish a statutory body for timely response to sanitation waste management in Katsina. It is imperative to check and prevent further decay for harmonious living and sustainable development.
Evaluation of SDS (Software Defined Storage) Controller (CorpHD) for Various Storage Demands
Growth in cloud applications is generating the tremendous amount of data, building load on traditional storage management systems. Software Defined Storage (SDS) is a new storage management concept becoming popular to handle this large amount of data. CoprHD is one of the open source SDS controller, available for experimentation and development in the storage industry. In this paper, the storage management techniques provided by CoprHD to manage heterogeneous storage platforms are experimented and analyzed. Various storage management parameters such as time to provision, storage capacity measurement, and heterogeneity are experimentally evaluated along with the theoretical expression to prove the completeness of CoprHD controller for storage management.
The Potential of 'CASBEE for Cities' in Developing Country: Evidence of Myanmar
Nowadays, the growing cities of the developing country are characterized with rapid growth and poor infrastructure management that inviting and accelerating environmental relative problems. Many reports are increasingly pointed out the failure of sustainability in those developing world. On the other hand of around the world, the initiative movements to sustainable development had already been carried out since 1990s. Aligned with the sustainable development actions, many sustainable assessment tools are also developed to rate and evaluate the sustainability performances through the building to community level. Among them, CASBEE, developed by Japanese organizations is recognized as one of the international well known assessment tools. At this instant, CASBEE is taking the leading role in city level sustainable assessment by the expanding of CASBEE for Cities tool which has the characteristics of an extensive and comprehensive assessment of the current conditions of cities. The main theme of this tool is conducted from the viewpoint of the environment, society and economy which are known as the three pillars/ dimensions of sustainability. The main purpose of the study is to find out the potential of CASBEE tool reflecting sustainability city level performances in developing countries. The research framework was designed with three major phases: Quantitative Approach, Qualitative Approach and Evaluation Reflection. The first two approaches were based on the investigation of tool’s contents and indicators by means of three sustainable dimensions and sustainability categories. To know the reality and reflection on developing country, Pathein City from Myanmar was selected and evaluated by 2012 version of CASBEE for Cities. The evaluation practices went through assigned indicators, and the evaluation outcome presents the performances of Pathein city’s environmental efficiency as a very good in current conditions. The results of this study indicate that the tool CASBEE for Cities is considerable balance among three dimensions of sustainability, but it has not yet counted enough for some indicators like as location, infrastructure and institution which are relative to society dimension. For city of the developing country, there are the most critical issues on development such as affordable housing provision and heritage preservation which are even now practicing in Pathein city, but the tool does not account for those issues. Moreover, in some of the indicators, the benchmark and the weighting coefficient are strongly linkage to the system birth region. By means of this study, it can be stated that CASBEE for Cities would be potential for delivering sustainable city level development in developing country especially in Myanmar along with further inclusion of the indicators.
The Rule of Architectural Firms in Enhancing Building Energy Efficiency in Emerging Countries: Processes and Tools Evaluation of Architectural Firms in Egypt
Achieving energy efficient architecture in general, and in emerging countries in particular, is a challenging process that requires the contribution of various governmental, institutional, and individual entities. The rule of architectural design is essential in this process as it is considered as one of the earliest steps on the road to sustainability. Architectural firms have a moral and professional responsibility to respond to these challenges and deliver buildings that consume less energy. This study aims to evaluate the design processes and tools in practice of Egyptian architectural firms based on a limited survey to investigate if their processes and methods can lead to projects that meet the Egyptian Code of Energy Efficiency Improvement. A case study of twenty architectural firms in Cairo was selected and categorized according to their scale; large-scale, medium-scale, and small-scale. A questionnaire was designed and distributed to the firms, and personal meetings with the firms’ representatives took place. The questionnaire answered three main points; the design processes adopted, the usage of performance-based simulation tools, and the usage of BIM tools for energy efficiency purposes. The results of the study revealed that only little percentage of the large-scale firms have clear strategies for building energy efficiency in their building design, however the application is limited to certain project types, or according to the client request. On the other hand, the percentage of medium-scale firms is much less, and it is almost absent in the small-scale ones. This demonstrates the urgent need of enhancing the awareness of the Egyptian architectural design community of the great importance of implementing these methods starting from the early stages of the building design. Finally, the study proposed recommendations for such firms to be able to create a healthy built environment and improve the quality of life in emerging countries.
Opening of North Sea Route and Geopolitics in Arctic: Impact and Possibilities of Route
Arctic is a polar region located at the north of the earth. This consists of the Arctic Ocean and other parts of Canada, Russia, the United States, Denmark, Norway, Sweden, Finland, and Iceland. Arctic has vast natural resources which are exploited with modern technology, and the economic opening up of Russia has given new opportunities. All these states have connected with the Arctic region for economic activities and this effect the region ecology. The pollution problem is a serious threat to the people health living around pollution sources. Due to the prevailing worldwide sea and air currents, the Arctic area is the fallout region for long-range transport pollutants, and in some places the concentrations exceed the levels of densely populated urban areas. The Arctic is especially vulnerable to the effects of global warming, as has become apparent in the melting sea ice in recent years. Climate models predict much greater warming in the Arctic than the global average, resulting in significant international attention to the region. The global warming has an adverse impact on the climate, indigenous people, wildlife, and infrastructure. However, there are several opportunities that have emerged in the form of shipping routes, resources, and new territories. The shipping route through the Arctic is a reality and is currently navigable for a few weeks during summers. There are large deposits of oil and gas, minerals and fish and the surrounding countries with Arctic coastlines are becoming quite assertive about exercising their sovereignty over the newfound wealth. The main part of the research is that how the opening of Northern Sea Route is providing opportunities or problem in the Arctic and it is becoming geopolitically important. It focuses on the interest Arctic and non Arctic states, their present and anticipated global geopolitical aims. The Northern Sea Route might open up due to climate changes and that Iceland might benefit or has an impact from the situation. Efforts will be made to answer the research question: ‘Whether Opening of North Sea Route is providing opportunities or becoming a risk for Arctic region?’ Every research has a structure which usually called design. In this research, both Qualitative and Quantitative method is used in terms of various literature, maps, pie- charts, etc to find out the answer for the research question. The aim of this research is to find out the impact of Opening of North Sea Route over Arctic region and how this make arctic geopolitically important. The aim behind this research is to find out the impact of climate change and how the particular geographical area is being affected.
Adaptive Design of Large Prefabricated Concrete Panels Collective Housing
More than half of the urban population in Romania lives today in residential buildings made out of large prefabricated reinforced concrete panels. Since their initial design was made in the 1960’s, these housing units are now being technically and morally outdated, consuming large amounts of energy for heating, cooling, ventilation and lighting while failing to meet the contemporary life-style. Due to their widespread, the design of a system that improves their energy efficiency would have a real impact not only on the energy consumption of the residential sector but also on the quality of life that it offers. Furthermore, with the transition of today’s existing power grid to a 'smart grid', buildings could become an active element for future electricity networks by contributing in micro-generation and energy storage. One of the most debated issues today is to find locally adapted measures that can be taken in order to assure the commitment for the 20-20-20 EU policy and to find alternative and innovative solutions for the cost-optimal energy performance of buildings adapted to the local market. The paper presents a possible adaptive design scenario towards sustainable retrofitting of these housing units. The apartments are transformed in order to meet the current living requirements and new ones are added on top of the building, replacing the unused roof space, acting as well as housing units as well as active solar energy collection systems. A new adaptive building envelope is ensured in order to achieve overall air-tightness and an elevator system is introduced to facilitate access to the new upper levels.
The Improving Efficiencies of Planting Configurations on Wind Environment of Town Square: The Case Study of Taichung City Hall in Taichung, Taiwan
With urban development, lots of buildings are built around the city. The buildings always affect the urban wind environment. The accelerative situation of wind caused of buildings often makes pedestrians uncomfortable, even causes the accidents and dangers. Factors influencing pedestrian level wind including atmospheric boundary layer, wind direction, wind velocity, planting, building volume, geometric shape of the buildings and adjacent interference effects, etc. Planting has many functions including scraping and slowing urban heat island effect, creating a good visual landscape, increasing urban green area and improve pedestrian level wind. On the other hand, urban square is an important space element supporting the entrance to buildings, city landmarks, and activity collections, etc. The appropriateness of urban square environment usually dominates its success. This research focuses on the effect of tree-planting on the wind environment of urban square. This research studied the square belt of Taichung City Hall. Taichung City Hall is a cuboid building with a large mass opening. The square belt connects the front square, the central opening and the back square. There is often wind draft on the square belt. This phenomenon decreases the activities on the squares. This research applies tree-planting to improve the wind environment and evaluate the effects of two types of planting configuration. The Computational Fluid Dynamics (CFD) simulation analysis and extensive field measurements are applied to explore the improve efficiency of planting configuration on wind environment. This research compares efficiencies of different kinds of planting configuration, including the clustering array configuration and the dispersion, and evaluates the efficiencies by the SET*.
Socio-Demographic Determinants of Environmental Attitude and Its Relationship with Sense of Community
The concept of environmental attitude examines the relationship between human and its environment, therefore it closely relates to environmental psychology. Spatial awareness and environmental consciousness that increased after the industrial revolution have been discussed since from 1970’s in the sustainability framework. The development of environmental attitudes and behavior at the individual level would also raise awareness and conscious at the community level. Similarly, it is expected to be the development of environmental sensitivity to consider the future of the community that has advanced social relations and social bonds. Starting from the neighborhood scale, the concept of the sense of community is important in living spaces in terms of ensuring social sustainability, and several spatial solutions are expected from various urban design and planning professions to improve the sense of community. The aim of this study is put forward that the experimental relationship between sense of community and environmental attitude and to determine how socio-demographic variables explain environmental attitude. Interviews were conducted with 121 inhabitants of Duzce – Kultur Neighborhood that the study area. As a research method, linear regression model was applied to test the relationship between environmental attitude and sense of community. Relationships between environmental attitude and socio-demographic variables were tested by one-way ANOVA and t-tests. Consequently, it was determined that the sense of community and environmental attitude influence on each other.
Sustainable Landscape Development Assessment Tools
A dynamic landscape development is important for providing healthy ecosystem which supports all life. Nowadays, many initiatives towards sustainable development have been published. They lead to better living and more efficient use of natural resources in sustaining long-term ecological, economics and social benefits. To date, many assessment tools related to built environment have been established and practiced in this region, which mostly has the purpose assessing the environment performance of buildings. Hence, an assessment tool focusing on the sustainable landscape development itself is a necessity. This paper reviews the assessment criteria and indicators that are suitable for sustainable landscape development practices. The local and global assessment tools for landscape development are investigated, analyzed and discussed critically. Consideration also is given to the integration of the assessment tools with the surrounding environmental, social, and economical aspects. In addition, the assessment criteria and indicators for assessing the landscape development in Malaysia are also reviewed and discussed. In conclusion, this paper reviews, analyzes and discusses on available local and global landscape development assessment tools for sustainability.
Classification of Traffic Complex Acoustic Space
After years of development, the study of soundscape has been refined to the types of urban space and building. Traffic complex takes traffic function as the core, with obvious design features of architectural space combination and traffic streamline. The acoustic environment is strongly characterized by function, space, material, user and other factors. Traffic complex integrates various functions of business, accommodation, entertainment and so on. It has various forms, complex and varied experiences, and its acoustic environment is turned rich and interesting with distribution and coordination of various functions, division and unification of the mass, separation and organization of different space and the cross and the integration of multiple traffic flow. In this study, it made field recordings of each space of various traffic complex, and extracted and analyzed different acoustic elements, including changes in sound pressure, frequency distribution, steady sound source, sound source information and other aspects, to make cluster analysis of each independent traffic complex buildings. It divided complicated traffic complex building space into several typical sound space from acoustic environment perspective, mainly including stable sound space, high-pressure sound space, rhythm sound space and upheaval sound space. This classification can further deepen the study of subjective evaluation and control of the acoustic environment of traffic complex.
Regenerating Historic Buildings: Policy Gaps
Background: Policy makers at European Union (EU) and national levels address the re-use of historic buildings calling for sustainable practices and approaches. Implementation stages of policy are crucial so that EU and national strategic objectives for historic building sustainability are achieved. Governance remains one of the key objectives to ensure resource sustainability. Objective: The aim of the research was to critically examine policies for the regeneration and adaptive re-use of historic buildings in the EU and national level, and to analyse gaps between EU and national legislation and policies, taking Malta as a case study. The impact of policies on regeneration and re-use of historic buildings was also studied. Research Design: Six semi-structured interviews with stakeholders including architects, investors and community representatives informed the research. All interviews were audio recorded and transcribed in the English language. Thematic analysis utilising Atlas.ti was conducted for the semi-structured interviews. All phases of the study were governed by research ethics. Findings: Findings were grouped in main themes: resources, experiences and governance. Other key issues included identification of gaps in policies, key lessons and quality of regeneration. Abandonment of heritage buildings was discussed, for which main reasons had been attributed to governance related issues both from the policy making perspective as well as the attitudes of certain officials representing the authorities. The role of authorities, co-ordination between government entities, fairness in decision making, enforcement and management brought high criticism from stakeholders along with time factors due to the lengthy procedures taken by authorities. Policies presented an array from different perspectives of same stakeholder groups. Rather than policy, it is the interpretation of policy that presented certain gaps. Interpretations depend highly on the stakeholders putting forward certain arguments. All stakeholders acknowledged the value of heritage in regeneration. Conclusion: Active stakeholder involvement is essential in policy framework development. Research informed policies and streamlining of policies are necessary. National authorities need to shift from a segmented approach to a holistic approach.
Implementing of Indoor Air Quality Index in Hong Kong
Abstract— Many Hong Kong people nowadays spend most of their lifetime working indoor. Since poor Indoor Air Quality (IAQ) potentially leads to discomfort, ill health, low productivity and even absenteeism in workplaces, a call for establishing statutory IAQ control to safeguard the well-being of residents is urgently required. Although policies, strategies and guidelines for workplace IAQ diagnosis have been developed elsewhere and followed with remedial works, some of those workplaces or buildings have relatively late stage of the IAQ problems when the investigation or remedial work started. Screening for IAQ problems should be initiated as it will provide information as a minimum provision of IAQ baseline requisite to the resolution of the problems. It is not practical to sample all air pollutants that exit. Nevertheless, as a statutory control, reliable rapid screening is essential in accordance with a compromise strategy, which balances costs against detection of key pollutants. This study investigates the feasibility in using an IAQ index as a parameter of IAQ control in Hong Kong. The index is a screening parameter to identify the unsatisfactory workplace IAQ and will highlight where a fully effective IAQ monitoring and assessment is needed for an intensive diagnosis. There already exist a number of representative common indoor pollutants based on some extensive IAQ assessments. The selection of pollutants is surrogate to IAQ control consists of dilution, mitigation and emission control. The IAQ index and assessment will look at high fractional quantities of these common measurement parameters. With the support of the existing comprehensive regional IAQ database and the IAQ index by the research team as the pre-assessment probability, and the unsatisfactory IAQ prevalence as the post-assessment probability from this study, thresholds of maintaining the current measures and performing a further IAQ test or IAQ remedial measures will be proposed. With justified resources, the proposed IAQ index and assessment protocol might be a useful tool for setting up a practical public IAQ surveillance programme and policy in Hong Kong.