International Science Index

International Journal of Animal and Veterinary Sciences

A Fishery Regulation Model: Bargaining over Fishing Pressure
The Diamond-Mortensen-Pissarides model widely used in labor economics is tailored to fishery. By this way, a fishing function is defined to depict the fishing technology, and Bellman equations are established to describe the behaviors of fishermen and conservationists. On this basis, a negotiation takes place as a Nash-bargaining over the upper limit of the fishing pressure between both political representative groups of fishermen and conservationists. The existence and uniqueness conditions of the Nash-bargained fishing pressure are established. Given the biomass evolution equation, the dynamics of the model variables (fishing pressure, biomass, fish need) is studied.
An Alternative Approach in Preservation of Forages: Microbial Preservatives
Different losses (washing losses, mechanical losses etc) occurred during field drying process of forages lead to losses in nutrition contents, especially protein and soluble carbohydrates. The extent of these losses increases due to the field drying time of forages. The fact encouraged the researchers to find methods which enable the rapid movement of forages from the field to barn. One of this methods is to use microbial preservatives which enable the storage of forages with high moisture levels (27-28%) without any quality losses. In this study, it was discussed the possibilities of using microbial preservatives for the conservation of forages.
Development of NO-Ergic Synaptic Transmission in Sympathetic Neurons of Mammals: Immunohistochemical Study
The vast majority of sympathetic ganglionic neurons are catecholaminergic. Some sympathetic neurons lack catecholamines and mostly use acetylcholine as their main neurotransmitter. Some cholinergic postganglionic neurons also express neuronal nitric oxide synthase (nNOS). Preganglionic sympathetic neurons are cholinergic and most of them are also nNOS-immunoreactive (IR). The purpose of this study was to gain further insight into the neuroplasticity of sympathetic neurons during postnatal ontogenesis by comparing the development of pre- and postganglionic neurons expressing nNOS in different mammals. nNOS was investigated by immunohistochemistry in the sympathetic superior cervical ganglion (SCG), stellate ganglion (SG), celiac ganglion (CG) and spinal cord from rats, mice and cats of different ages (newborn, 10-day-old, 20-day-old, 30-day-old, 2-month-old and 2-year-old). In rats and mice, nNOS-positive neurons were not found in sympathetic ganglia from birth onwards. In cats, non-catecholaminergic nNOS-IR sympathetic ganglionic neurons are present from the moment of birth. In all studied age groups, substantial populations of nNOS-IR cells (up to 8.3%) was found in the SG, with a much smaller population found in the SCG (
Effects of Different Calcium Nonphytate Phosphorus Levels on Blood Parameters of Broilers
This study was conducted to determine the effects of different calcium (Ca) and nonphytate phosphorus (NPP) levels on some blood parameters of broilers. Four hundred and eighty 1-d-old chicks (Ross 308) were randomly allocated to 3 dietary treatments with 5 replicate pens. Three diets were arranged for starter (d 0-21, 3 levels Ca-NPP at 1.05-0.49, 0.95-0.44 and 0.85-0.41%), and grower (d 22-42, 3 levels Ca-NPP at 0.87-0.42, 0.78-0.38 and 0.69-0.34%). The diets were fed as mash. To determine the Ca, P concentration, alanine transaminase (ALT), aspartate transaminase (AST) and alkaline phosphatase (ALP) activity in blood serum twelve birds (6 male, 6 female) representing the average weight of the group (± 5%) were selected from each group. Blood samples were collected during slaughter at 42 days of age. There were no significant differences (P > 0.05) in Ca, P, AST and ALT concentrations in blood serum, with the exception that the ALP concentration (P < 0.05). Based on the data it can be concluded that increased ALP concentration in birds fed diets containing, d 0-21, %0.95 Ca and %0.44 NPP, d 22-42, %0.78 Ca and %0.38 NPP indicates that bone development has been better in this group.
Molecular Characterization of Echinococcus granulosus Isolated from Cattle and Human in Bangladesh
Echinococcus granulosus is the causative agent of cystic echinococcosis (CE) in human and many domestic animals worldwide including Bangladesh. The aim of this study was to identify and characterize the genotype of E. granulosus isolated from cysts collected from cattle and human using 12S rRNA gene and Cytochrome oxidase 1 gene. A total of 43 hydatid cyst samples were collected from 385 cattle from three city corporation slaughterhouses located at Chittagong. Among them, 3 cysts were fertile. Four human hydatid cysts fluid were collected from Sir Salimullah Medical College Mitford Hospital, Dhaka, Bangladesh. Genomic DNA was extracted from germinal membrane and/or protoscolices using commercial DNA extraction kit followed by PCR amplification of mitochondrial 12S rRNA and Cytochrome oxidase 1 gene. The samples include G1 (64.28%) and G3 (21.43%) genotypes as reported for the first time in the country. Among 4 human hydatid cysts sample, 2 cysts were found to belong to the common sheep strain (G1) of E. granulosus, reinforcing this strain has the most potential for zoonotic transfer. Study generated 13 sequences, 10 sequences from 12S rRNA gene and 3 sequences from Cytochrome oxidase 1 gene. Two sequences were submitted to GenBank. These sequences were aligned with G1 common sheep strain and buffalo strain G3. Results of this study indicate that common sheep strain G1 is the dominant subtype of E. granulosus in Chittagong region of Bangladesh.
Region-Specific Secretory Protein, α2m, in Male Reproductive Tract of the Blue Crab And Its Dynamics during Sperm transit towards Female Spermatheca
In this study, we characterized a region-specific 250 kDa protein that was secreted of MSD fluid, which is believed to play dual functions in forming a spermatophoric wall for sperm physical protection, and in sperm membrane modification as part of sperm maturation process. The partial amino acid sequence and N-terminal sequencing revealed that the MSD-specific 250 kDa protein showed a high similarity with a plasma-rich protein, α-2 macroglobulin (α2M), so termed pp-α2M. This protein was a large glycoprotein contained predominantly mannose and GlcNAc. The expression of pp-α2M mRNA was detected in spermatic duct (SD), androgenic gland (AG) and hematopoietic tissue, while the protein expression was rather specific to the apical cytoplasm of MSD epithelium. The secretory pp-α2M in MSD fluid was acquired onto the MSD sperm membrane and was also found within the matrix of the acrosome. Distally, pp-α2M was removed from spermathecal sperm membrane, while its level kept constant in the sperm AC. Together the results indicate that pp-α2M is a 250 kDa region-specific secretory protein which plays roles in sperm physical protection and also acts as maturation factor in the P. pelagicus sperm.
Lateralisation of Visual Function in Yellow-Eyed Mullet (Aldrichetta forsteri) and Its Role in Schooling Behaviour
Food security and economic growth are two of the biggest drivers of increased consumer demand for seafood. Meeting demand through sustainable fishing practices that minimise by-catch, preserve wild stocks and improve the quality of the catch, is a priority for the global fisheries industry. Research on the sensory and behavioural characteristics of individual fish species assists the development of new fishing technologies in order to support improved fisheries management. Commercial fisheries target species which congregate in large numbers commonly referred to as schools. New methods for capture of free ranging, naturally recruited fish schools are being investigated for potential harvesting of inshore species such as yellow-eyed mullet (Aldrichetta forsteri). Tank based experiments using wild caught schools of yellow-eyed mullet investigated a) lateralisation of visual cognitive function in individual fish and, b) group rotational bias in both juvenile and adult fish in order to characterise schooling behaviour. Tank based observations established anti-clockwise rotational swimming bias in juvenile yellow-eyed mullet and clockwise bias in adults (age ~1-2 and 2-3 years respectively). Groups of juvenile and adult fish were identified as having either left or right eye bias after individual exposure to a choice test. Juvenile fish had a predominantly left eye bias (~60%) and adult fish a right eye bias (~85%). Fish with a strong visual bias (≥80%) were tagged and separated into 3 schools each consisting of 15 fish (5 with a strong bias, 10 weak bias) to assess their position within the school. Results showed adult tagged fish occupied a position of safety on the left periphery (tank wall) and centre of the school, significantly more than the right-side which was exposed to the centre of the tank. Current research is being undertaken to determine if the mechanism for rotational swimming bias is formed during early life stages possibly associated with environmental conditions, or is instead due to ontogenetic plasticity associated with structural changes in cerebral asymmetry related to growth. This includes a mixed school experiment (juvenile and adult fish) to ascertain if bias is influenced by conspecifics with opposing directionality, and histology to investigate optic lobe asymmetry. Present results seem to suggest an age related change in cerebral asymmetry associated with A. forsteri visual sensory system. This research contributes to improved understanding of visual bias in fish, and the relationship to schooling behaviour. Results may also contribute to the development of new fisheries harvesting systems for both attraction and capture of naturally occurring inshore fish schools.
Canine Visceral Leishmaniasis In Brazil
Visceral leishmaniasis is a public health problem in Brazil, it is the main reservoir dog. In the period 2012-2016 78 diagnoses were performed in dogs suspected. Blood samples were collected from the cephalic vein obtaining serum used for the indirect immunofluorescence test and enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay, while it collected a drop of blood for the rapid chromatographic immunoassay. Obtained in 32 dogs positive. The test is important for the control of this disease and is used routinely in the Zoonoses Control Center.
Seasonal Assessment, Treatment and Removal of Heavy Metal Concentrations in a Tropical Drinking Water Reservoir
Heavy metals are present in low concentrations in reservoirs, but seasonal anthropogenic activities usually elevate the concentrations to a level that could become a health hazard. The dry season concentrations of cadmium, copper, iron, lead, mercury, nickel and zinc were assessed from three sites for 12 weeks in Oyun reservoir, Offa, Nigeria. Triplicate surface water samples were collected and analysed using atomic absorption spectrophotometry. The trend in the level of concentrations in the three sites is site C > B > A, while the trend in the levels of the concentrations in the reservoir is Ni > Fe > Zn > Pb > Cd > Cu > Hg. Ni, Cd, Pb and Hg were found to be higher than the WHO guidelines for the metals in drinking water. The high concentration of these metals was from anthropogenic watershed run-off of industrial effluents, domestic sewages and agricultural materials into the reservoir coming from several human activities such as washing, bathing, fish smoking, especially in site C. The health effects of high concentration of these metals in the reservoir were highlighted. Methods for the treatment and removal of the heavy metals from the reservoir during water purification such as active carbon adsorption, coagulation-flocculation, oxidation-filtration, softening treatment and reverse osmosis process were highlighted. Other methods that could be used include phytoremediation, rhizofiltration, bisorption and bioremediation. Watershed best management practices (BMP) is very useful to reduce the intrusion of the heavy metals from the watershed into the reservoir.
The Effects of Periostin in a Rat Model of Isoproterenol-Mediated Cardiotoxicity
Acute myocardial infarctions are the leading cause of deaths in the worldwide. Mature cardiomyocytes do not have the ability to regenerate. Instead fibrous tissue proliferates and granulation tissue to fill out. Periostin is an extracellular matrix protein from fasciclin family and it plays important role in the cell adhesion, migration, and growth of the organism. Periostin prevents apoptosis while stimulating cardiomyocytes. The main objective of this project is to investigate the effects of the recombinant murine periostin peptide administraton for the cardiomyocyte regeneration in a rat model of acut miyocardial infarction. The experiment was performed on 84 male rats (6 months old) in 4 group each contains 21 rats. Saline applied subcutaneously (1 ml/kg) two times with 24 hours intervals to the rats in control group (Group 1). Recombinant periostin peptide (1 μg/kg) dissolved in saline applied intraperitoneally in group 2 on 1, 3, 7, 14 and 21. days on same dates in group 4. Isoproterenol dissolved in saline applied intraperitoneally (85mg/kg/day) two times with 24 hours intervals to the groups 3 and 4. Rats in group 4 further received recombinant periostin peptide (1 μg/kg) dissolved in saline intraperitoneally starting one day after the final isoproterenol administration on days 1, 3, 7, 14 and 21. Following the final application of periostin, rats continued to feed routinely with pelleted chow and water ad libitum for further seven days. At the end of 7th day, rats sacrificed, blood and heart tissue samples collected for the immunohistochemical and biochemical analysis. Angiogenesis in response to tissue damage, is a highly dynamic process regulated by signals from the surrounding extracellular matrix and blood serum. In this project, VEGF, ANGPT, bFGF, TGFβ are the key factors that contribute to cardiomyocyte regeneration were investigated. Additionally, the relationship between mitosis and apoptosis (Bcl-2, Bax, PCNA, Ki-67, Phopho-Histone H3), cell cycle activators and inhibitors (Cyclin D1, D2, A2, Cdc2), the origin of regenerating cells (cKit and CD45) were examined. Present results revealed that periostin stimulated cardiomyocye cell-cycle re-entry in both normal and MCA damaged cardiomyocytes and increased angiogenesis. Thus, periostin contributes to cardiomyocyte regeneration during the healing period following myocardial infarction which provides a better understanding of its role of this mechanism, improving recovery rates and it is expected to contribute the lack of literature on this subject.
Estimation of Microbial-N Supply to Small Intestine in Angora Goats Fed by Different Roughage Sources
The aim of the study was to estimate the microbial-N flow to small intestine based on daily urinary purine derivatives(PD) mainly xanthine, hypoxanthine, uric acid and allantoin excretion in Angora goats fed by grass hay and concentrate (Period I); barley straw and concentrate (Period II). Daily urine samples were collected during last 3 days of each period from 10 individually penned Angora bucks( LW 30-35 Kg, 2-3 years old) receiving ad libitum grass hay or barley straw and 300 g/d concentrate. Fresh water was always available. 4N H2SO4 was added to collected daily urine .samples to keep pH under 3 to avoid of uric acid precipitation. Diluted urine samples were stored at -20°C until analysis. Urine samples were analyzed for xanthine, hypoxanthine, uric acid, allantoin and creatinine by High-Performance Liquid Chromatographic Method (HPLC). Urine was diluted 1:15 in ratio with water and duplicate samples were prepared for HPLC analysis. Calculated mean levels (n=60) for urinary xanthine, hypoxanthine, uric acid, allantoin, total PD and creatinine excretion were 0.39±0.02 , 0.26±0.03, 0.59±0.06, 5.91±0.50, 7.15±0.57 and 3.75±0.40 mmol/L for Period I respectively; 0.35±0.03, 0.21±0.02, 0.55±0.05, 5.60±0.47, 6.71±0.46 and 3.73±0.41 mmol/L for Period II respectively.Mean values of Period I and II were significantly different (P< 0.05) except creatinine excretion. Estimated mean microbial-N supply to the small intestine for Period I and II in Angora goats were 5.72±0.46 and 5.41±0.61 g N/d respectively. The effects of grass hay and barley straw feeding on microbial-N supply to small intestine were found significantly different (P< 0.05). In conclusion, grass hay showed a better effect on the ruminal microbial protein synthesis compared to barley straw, therefore; grass hay is suggested as roughage source in Angora goat feeding.
Biological Treatment of Corn Stove with Pleurotus ostreatus, Pleurotus eryngii and Lentinula edodes to Improve Digestibility
Corn stover is leftover of the leaves, stalk, husks and tassels in the field after harvesting the grain combined. Corn stover is a low-quality roughage but has mostly been used as roughage source for feeding ruminant animals in developing countries including Turkey; however, it can also be used to make biofuels as in developed countries. The objectives of the present study were to improve the digestibility of corn stove by the treatment of white rod fungus mainly Pleurotus osteritus(Po), Pleurotus eryingii(Pe) and Lantinula edode(Le) at different incubation times and also to determine the most effective fungus and incubation time to prepare fermeted corn stove for ruminant nutrition. The chopped corn stover was treated with Po, Pe and Le and incubated for 10, 20, 30 and 40 days in incubator at 26 °C. After each incubation time dry matter(DM), organic matter(OM), crude protein (CP), neutral detergent fiber (NDF), acid detergent fiber (ADF), neutral detergent lignin (ADL), in-vitro true digestibility on dry matter(IVTDDM) and organic matter(IVTDOM) bases were determined. The CP, IVTDDM and IVTDOM levels were increased with Po, Pe and Le treatments as increasing incubation times but not ADL levels. The obtained IVTDDM values were 26.90, 32.54 and 33.55%; 30.71, 30.68, 27.37 % ; 32.22, 40.99, 30.80 %; 40.35, 37.41, 33.93% for Po, Pe and Le treatments at 10, 20, 30 and 40 days incubation times respectively. The obtained IVTDOM values were 26.47, 32.33 and 33.18%; 29.00, 32.82 and 26.96%; 31.30, 41.18, 30.72%; 39.72, 37.24 and 33.46% for Po, Pe and Le treatments at 10, 20, 30 and 40 days incubation times respectively The most effective fungus and incubation times were Pe; 20 and 30 days respectively. In conclusion, 20 and 30 days Pe treatments may be used to prepare fermented corn stover for ruminant nutrition.
In Vitro Effects of Salvia officinalis on Bovine Spermatozoa
In vitro storage and processing of animal semen is represents a risk factor to spermatozoa vitality, potentially leading to reduced fertility. A variety of substances isolated from natural sources may exhibit protective or antioxidant properties on the spermatozoon, thus extending the lifespan of stored ejaculates. This study compared the ability of different concentrations of the Salvia officinalis extract on the motility, mitochondrial activity, viability and reactive oxygen species (ROS) production by bovine spermatozoa during different time periods (0, 2, 6 and 24h) of in vitro culture. Spermatozoa motility was assessed using Computer aided sperm analysis (CASA) system. Cell viability was examined using the metabolic activity MTT assay, the eosin-nigrosin staining technique was used to evaluate the sperm viability and ROS generation was quantified using luminometry. The CASA analysis revealed that the motility in the experimental groups supplemented with 0.5-2 µg/mL Salvia extract was significantly lower in comparison with the control (P
The in Vitro Effects of Viscum album on the Functionality of Rabbit Spermatozoa
This study aimed to assess the in vitro effects of different concentrations of the Viscum album extract on the motility, viability and reactive oxygen species (ROS) production by rabbit spermatozoa during different time periods (0, 2 and 8h). Spermatozoa motility was assessed using the CASA (Computer aided sperm analysis) system. Cell viability was evaluated using the metabolic activity MTT assay and the luminol-based luminometry was applied to quantify the ROS formation. The CASA analysis revealed that low Viscum concentrations were able to prevent a rapid decline of spermatozoa motility, especially in the case of concentrations ranging between 1 and 5 µg/mL (P
Dietary Effect of Selenium-Enriched Radish Sprouts, Vitamin E and Rhodobacter Capsulatus on Hypocholesterolemia and Immunity of Broiler
The study was designed to investigate the effects of dietary Selenium-enriched radish sprouts (Se-RS), Vitamin E (Vit E) and Rhodobacter capsulatus (RC) on broiler's immunity, cholesterol concentration and fatty acid composition in broiler meat. A total of 100 two-week-old male broiler chicks were randomly assigned into 5 dietary groups, such as i) Control; ii) Se-RS (5 μg/kg Se-RS); iii) Se-RS+RC (5 μg/kg Se-RS + 0.2 g/kg RC); iv) Se-RS+Vit E (5 μg/kg Se-RS + 50 mg/kg Vit E) and v) Se-RS+RC+Vit E (5 μg/kg Se-RS + 0.2 g/kg RC + 50 mg/kg Vit E). The broilers were offered ad libitum specific diets and clean drinking water. After the end of 3-wk of feeding period, serum cholesterol and triglycerides concentrations were decreased (p
Incubation, Hatching and Health Management Problems of Farmed Ostriches (Struthio camelus) in Kaduna State, Nigeria: A Case Study of Five Farms
Against the background of declining trend in ostrich farming and progressive decrease in flock sizes, this survey was carried out in five ostrich farms in Kaduna State, Nigeria. Semi-structured questionnaires were administered to the farms to obtain information on incubation, hatching and health management problems. A total of 15 dead-in-shell embryos (5 per farm with hatchery facility) at different ages were collected and subjected to bacteriological culture, isolation and identification. Single disc diffusion method was used to determine the susceptibility of the bacteria isolated to ten commonly used antimicrobial agents using standard protocols. Haemagglutination inhibition (HI) test was conducted on serum samples obtained from 50 ostriches (10 per farm) to determine the presence and titre of Newcastle disease (ND) and Avian Influenza (AI) H5 antibodies. The study revealed that inadequate power supply, dead-in-shell embryos, weak oedematous chicks, open navel, early chick mortality (5 per 20 chicks) and poor brooding facilities were some of the major causes of production losses. Based on management practices, rearing ostriches in the same compartment with other bird species, lack of routine vaccination against endemic ND, self-medication and poor knowledge of farmers on ostrich farming were some of the problems. The results also showed that pathogenic Escherichia coli (68%) was the major bacterial cause of dead-in-shell embryos in the farms with hatcheries. The antibiotics sensitivity test revealed widespread resistance of E. coli, Bacillus spp, Salmonella enteritidis and Pseudomonas spp to chloramphenicol, neomycin, nitrofurantoin, sulphamexazole and tetracycline. However, high sensitive to ciprofloxacin and enrofloxacin was shown by the aforementioned organisms. Of the 50 sera analyzed, 26 (52%) and 7 (14%) were positive for ND and AI H5 antibodies with mean titres of 3.6 ± 0.24 log2 and 4.3 ± 0.19 log2, respectively. The antibody titres were either low or marginal since the OIE recommended 4log2 as the minimum protection level against both diseases. Rational development of solutions and strategies for improvement in production and health based on aforementioned problems is highly recommended.
The Use of SD Bioline TB AgMPT64® Detection Assay for Rapid Characterization of Mycobacteria in Nigeria
Performing culture and characterization of Mycobacteria in low resource settings like Nigeria is a very difficult task to undertake because of very few and limited laboratories carrying out such experiment; this is a largely due to stringent requirement of biosafety measures, longer turnaround time and laborious nature of tests. Hence, a rapid, simple and accurate test for characterization is needed. The ‘SD BIOLINE TB Ag MPT 64 Rapid ®’ is a simple and rapid immunochromatographic test used in differentiating Mycobacteria into Mycobacterium tuberculosis (NTM). 100 sputa were obtained from patients suspected to be infected with tuberculosis and presented themselves to the Hospitals for check-up and treatment were involved in the study. The samples were cultured in a class III Biosafety cabinet and level III biosafety practices were followed. 40 isolates were obtained from the cultured sputa, and there were identified as Acid-fast bacilli (AFB) using Zeihl-Neelsen acid-fast stain. All the isolates (AFB positive) were then subjected to the SD BIOLINE Analyses. 31 (77.5%) were characterized as MTBC, while 9 (22.5%) were NTM. The total turnaround time for the rapid assay was just 30 minutes as compared to few days of phenotypic and genotypic method. It was simple, rapid and reliable test to differentiate MTBC from NTM.
Survey on Prevalence of Endo and Ecto-Parasites of Rattus rattus in Mazandaran Province, North of Iran
Background: Rodents act as reservoir host and important potential source for many zoonotic pathogens which pose a public health risk to humans. Therefore, it is necessary to investigate the prevalence of gastrointestinal and ectoparasites among rodents. Materials and Methods: 118 Rattus rattus were captured using snap live traps. Each rat was combed with a fine tooth comb to dislodge ectoparasite and studied. Various samples were collected from feces, examined wet smear, formalin-ether method and stained with modified acid-fast staining and trichrome. Result: The overall prevalence of gastrointestinal parasites of examined rats was 75.4%. Cryptosporidium 30.5%, was the most prevalent protozoan which was followed by Giardia 20.3% and Entamoeba muris 13.5%, Trichomonas muris 10.1% and Spironucleus muris 3.3%. The prevalence of helminth egg was as following Syphacia obvelata 24.5%, Hymenolepis diminuta 10.1% and Trichuris muris 9.3%. 86.4% rodents were found to be infested with ectoparasites including mite 35.6%, flea 28.4%, and lice 42.7%. A significant statistical difference was observed between prevalence and gender of infected individuals. Conclusions: The prevalence of gastrointestinal and ectoparasites of collected rats in studied area is remarkably high. In addition, Rattus rattus can be considered as potential risk for human health.
Ultrastructural Study of Surface Topography of Trematode Parasites of Domestic Buffalo (Bubalus bubalis) in Udaipur, India
Paramphistomiasis and fascioliasis diseases have been prevalent due to presence of trematode parasites in the rumen and liver of domestic buffalo (Bubalus bubalis) in Udaipur, India. The trematode parasites such as Paramphistomum cervi, Gastrothylax crumenifer, Cotylophoron cotylophorum, Orthocoelium scoliocoelium, Fasciola hepatica and Fasciola gigantica were collected from infected rumen and liver of the freshly slaughtered buffaloes (Bubalus bubalis) at local zoo abattoir in Udaipur. Live trematodes were washed in normal saline, fixed in 0.2M cacodylate fixative, post fixed in osmium tetraoxide, dehydrated, dried, coated with gold sputter and observed under scanning electronic microscope (SEM). The surface tegument of Paramphistomum cervi was spineless with transverse folds, discontinuous with ridges and grooves. Two types of sensory papillae such as knob like and button shaped were also observed. The oral opening of Cotylophoron cotylophorum was surrounded by wrinkled and ridged tegument which formed concentric elevated rings. Tegument of Cotylophoron cotylophorum in acetabulum region was observed to be rough and bee-comb like structure. Genital sucker of this worm was surrounded by a tyre- shaped elevation of the tegument. Orthocoelium scoliocoelium showed circular and concentric rings of tegumental folds around the oral sucker. Genital pore had knob like papillae with radial tegumental folds. Surface topography of Fasciola gigantica and Fasciola hepatica were found to be rough due to occurrence of different types of spines, three types of sensory papillae, transverse folds and grooves. Oral and ventral suckers were spineless and covered with thick rims of transverse folds. Genital pore showed small scattered spines. Present research work would provide knowledge for ultrastructural characteristics of trematode parasites for chemotherapeutic measures and help us to evolve suitable strategy for the eradication of trematode parasites from the domestic buffalo (Bubalus bubalis).
Anthelminthic Effect of Clitoria Ternatea on Paramphistomum Cervi in Buffalo (Bubalus Bubalis) of Udaipur, Rajasthan, India
Helminths including Paramphistomum Cervi (P. cervi) are a major cause of reduced production in livestock or domestic ruminant. Rajasthan is the largest state of India having a maximum number of livestock. The economy of rural people largely depends on livestock such as cow, buffalo, goat and sheep. The prevalence of P. cervi helminth parasite is extremely high in buffalo (Bubalus bubalis) of Udaipur, which causes the disease paramphistomiasis. This disease mainly affects milk, meat, wool production and loss of life of buffalo. Chemotherapy is the only efficient and effective tool to cure and control the helminth P. cervi infection, as efficacious vaccines against helminth have not been developed so far. Various veterinary drugs like Albendazole have been used as the standard drug for eliminating P. cervi from buffalo, but these drugs are unaffordable and inaccessible for poor livestock farmers. The fruits, leaves and seeds of Clitoria ternatea Linn. are known for their ethno-medicinal value and commonly known as “Aprajita” in India. Seed extract of Clitoria ternatea found to have a significant anthelmintic action against Paramphistomum cervi at the dose of 35 mg/ml. The tegument of treated P. cervi was compared with controlled parasites by light microscopy. Treated P. cervi showed extensive distortion and destruction of the tegument including ruptured parenchymal cells, disruption of musculature cells, swelling and vacuolization in tegumental and sub tegumental cells. As a result, it can be concluded that the seeds of Clitoria ternatea can be used as the anthelmintic agent. Key words: Paramphistomiasis, Buffalo, Alcoholic extract, Paramphistomum cervi, Clitoria ternatea.
Comparative Scanning Electron Microscopic Observations of Anthelminthic Effect of Trigonella foenum-graecum on Paramphistomum cervi in Buffalo
Amphistomiasis disease is the main health problem throughout of the world and responsible for great economic losses to cattle industries, mostly to poor cattle farmers in developing countries. Among the rumen parasites, the Paramphistomum cervi were collected from the rumen of freshly slaughtered buffalo for the further treatment process. Trigonella foenum-graecum is commonly known as methi and fenugreek and their seeds are known for their therapeutic value. The present study was considered to evaluate in vitro efficacy of aqueous extract of Trigonella foenum-graecum on P. cervi. 130 mg/ml concentration of aqueous extract shows total mortality of P. cervi at 5 hours. The ultrastructural surface topography of untreated animal was compared with a treated animal by scanning electron microscope (SEM). The body of untreated P. cervi in conical shape, tegumental surface is highly ridged with transverse folds and present abundance number of papillaes. Observations demonstrated that the body of treated P. cervi become shrunken & elongated. Treated parasite shows the deep breakage in tegument and the disappearance of tegumental folds & papillae. Severe blebs formations have been found. Above findings, it can be concluded that the seeds of Trigonella foenum-graecum can be used as an anthelminthic agent to eliminate P. cervi from the body of buffalo.
Dental Fluorosis in Domestic Animals Inhabiting Industrial Area of Udaipur, Rajasthan, India
Fluoride is essential for teeth and bones development not only for human beings but also for animals. But excess intake of fluoride causes harmful effects on health. Fluorosis is a worldwide health hazard and India is also one of the endemic countries. Udaipur district of Rajasthan is also prone to fluorosis and superphosphate industries are aggravating fluoride toxicity in this area. Grazing fields for animals in the close vicinity of the industries, fodder and water are fluoride contaminated. Fluoride toxicity in the form of dental fluorosis was observed in domestic animals, inhabiting industrial area near Udaipur, where superphosphate fertilizer plants are functioning and releasing fluoride and fumes and effluents into the surroundings. These fumes and gases directly affect the vegetation of grazing field, thus allowing entry of fluoride into the food chain. A survey was conducted in this area to assess the severity of fluorosis, in 2015-16. It was a house to house survey and animal owners were asked for their fodder and water supply. Anterior teeth of the animal were observed. Domestic animals exhibited mild to severe signs of dental fluorosis. Teeth showed deep brown staining, patches, lines and abrasions. Even immature animals were affected badly. Most of the domestic animals were affected, but goats of this area showed chronic symptoms of fluorosis. Due to abrasion of teeth and paining teeth their chewing or grazing capacity and appetite reduced. Eventually, it reduced the life span of animals and increased the mortality rate.
Prevalence and Antibiotic Susceptibility of Bacterial Isolates from Mastitis Milk of Cow and Buffalo in Udaipur, India
-Mastitis disease has been known as one of the most costly diseases of dairy cattle and observed as an inflammatory disease of cow and buffalo udder. Mastitis badly affected animal health, quality of milk and economics of milk production along with cause’s great economic loss. Bacteria have been representing the most common etiological agents of mastitis. The antibiotic sensitivity test was important to attain accurate treatment of mastitis. The aim of present research work was to explore prevalence and antibiotic susceptibility pattern of bacterial isolates recovered from cow and buffalo clinical mastitis milk sample. During the period of April 2010 to April 2014, total 1487 clinical mastitis milk samples of cow and buffalo were tested to check the prevalence of mastitis causing bacterial isolates. Milk samples were collected aseptically from the udder at the time of morning milking. The most prevalent bacterial isolates were Staphylococcus aureus (24.34%) followed by coliform bacteria (15.87%), coagulase negative Staphylococcus aureus (13.85%), non-coliform bacteria (13.05%), mixed infection (12.51%), Streptococcus spp. (10.96%). Out of 1487, 140 (9.42%) mastitis milk samples showed no growth on culture media. Identification of bacteria made on the basis of Standard Microbial features and procedures. Antibiotic susceptibility of bacterial isolates was investigated by Kirby-Bauer disk diffusion method. In vitro Antibiotic susceptibility test of bacterial isolates revealed higher sensitivity to Gentamicin (74.6%), Ciprofloxacin (62.1%) and Amikacin (59.4%). The lower susceptibility was shown to Amoxicillin (21.6%), Erythromycin (26.4%) and Ceftizoxime (29.9%). Antibiotic sensitivity pattern revealed Gentamicin are the possible effective antibiotic against the major prevalent mastitis pathogens. Present research work would be helpful in increase production, quality and quantity of milk, increase annual income of dairy owners and improve health of cow and buffaloes.
In Vitro Anthelmintic Effects of Citrullus colocynthis Fruit Extract on Fasciola gigantica of Domestic Buffalo (Bubalus bubalis) in Udaipur, India
Fasciola gigantica are present in the biliary ducts of liver and gall bladder of domestic buffaloes. They are very harmful and causes significant lose to live stock owners, on account of poor growth and lower productivity of domestic buffaloes. Synthetic veterinary drugs have been used to eliminate parasites from cattle but these drugs are unaffordable and inaccessible for poor cattle farmers. The in vitro anthelmintic effect of Citrullus colocynthis fruit extract against Fasciola gigantica parasites were observed by light and scanning electron microscopy. Fruit extracts of C. colocynthis exhibit highest mortality 100% at 50 mg/ml in 15th hour of exposure. The oral and ventral sucker appeared to be slightly more swollen than control and synthetic drug albendazole. The tegument showed submerged spines by the swollen tegument around them. The tegument of the middle region showed deep furrows, folding and submerged spines which either lied very flat against the surface or had become submerged in the tegument by the swollen tegument around them leaving deep furrows. Posterior region showed with deep folding in the tegument, completely disappearance of spines and swelling of the tegument led to completely submerged spines leaving spine socket. The present study revealed that fruit extracts of Citrullus colocynthis found to be potential sources for novel anthelmintic and justify their ethno-veterinary use.
Haematology and Serum Biochemical Profile of Layer Chickens Reared on Deep Litter System with or without Access to Grass or Legume Pasture under Humid Tropical Climate
There has been a growing interest on the effects of access to pasture on poultry health status. However, there is a paucity of data on the relative benefit of grass and legume pastures. An experiment was conducted to determine the effects of rearing systems {deep litter system (DL), deep litter with access to legumes (LP) or grass (GP) pastures} haematology and serum chemistry of ISA Brown layers. The study involved the use of two hundred and forty 12 weeks old pullets. The birds were reared until 60 weeks of age. Eighty birds were assigned to each treatment; each treatment had four replicates of 20 birds each. Blood samples (2.5 ml) were collected from the wing vein of two birds per replicate and serum chemistry and haematological parameters were determined. The results showed that there were no significant differences between treatments in all the parameters considered at 18 weeks of age. At 24 weeks old, the percentage of heterophyl (HET) in DL and LP were similar but higher than that of GP. The ratio of H:L was higher (P < 0.05) in DL than those of LP and GP while LP and GP were comparable. At week 38 of age, the percentage of PCV in the birds in LP and GP were similar but the birds in DL had significantly lower level than that of GP. In the early production phase, serum total protein of the birds in LP was similar to that of GP but higher (P < 0.05) than that of DL. At the peak production phase (week 38), the total protein in GP and DL were similar but significantly lower than that of LP. The albumin level in LP was greater (P < 0.05) than GP but similar to that of DL. In the late production phase, the total protein in LP was significantly higher than that of DL but similar to that of GP. It was concluded that rearing chickens in either grass or legume pasture did not have deleterious effects on the health of laying chickens but improved some parameters including blood protein and heterophyl/lymphocyte.
Direct Application of Loop-Mediated Isothermal Amplification Assay for Detection of Mycoplasma bovis in Mastitic Milk
Mycoplasma mastitis is always difficult to control due to lack of rapid and accurate diagnostic tool. The diagnostic methods available are mostly time-consuming due to the laborious culturing requirement, expensive, non-specific and less sensitive like biochemical tests and conventional PCR assay. A loop-mediated isothermal amplification (LAMP) assay was developed for detection of Mycoplasma bovis (M. bovis) directly from clinical mastitic milk samples. The LAMP assay was developed and validated on clinical samples obtained from M. bovis and other mastitis-causing pathogens detected by MALDI-TOF. Three different set of primers were used targeting different gene regions of M. bovis. The genes selected were UvrC, 16S rRNA and GyrB region. LAMP conditions were optimized for each of these and the efficiency, sensitivity and specificity of these LAMP primers were evaluated and compared. The result of 16S rRNA primers was more sensitive while GyrB primers were more specific. To confirm the specificity of the developed assay, other bacterial strains used were Mycoplasma agalactiae, Escherichia coli, Staphylococcus aureus, Streptococcus agalactiae, Streptococcus dysgalactiae and Streptococcus uberis. No cross reactivity was observed in all of the primer sets. Results were also compared to conventional PCR assay with primers chosen from the same genes and confirmed by sequencing. For the evaluation of LAMP assay sensitivity, culture-positive milk samples were subjected to the assay. LAMP assay detected M.bovis in some of those milk samples which were PCR negative. In the present study we have developed, validated and evaluated LAMP assay for detection of M.bovis from mastitis milk samples. The assay is authentic, rapid and sensitive.
Biomechanical Analysis on Skin and Jejunum of Chemically Prepared Cat Cadavers Used in Surgery Training
Biomechanical analysis is an important factor in tissue studies. The objective of this study was to determine the feasibility of a new anatomical technique and quantify the changes in skin and the jejunum resistance of cats’ corpses throughout the process. Eight adult cat cadavers were used. For every kilogram of weight, 120ml of fixative solution (95% 96GL ethyl alcohol and 5% pure glycerin) was applied via the external common carotid artery. Next, the carcasses were placed in a container with 96 GL ethyl alcohol for 60 days. After fixing, all carcasses were preserved in a 30% sodium chloride solution for 60 days. Before fixation, control samples were collected from fresh cadavers and after fixation, three skin and jejunum fragments from each cadaver were tested monthly for strength and displacement until complete rupture in a universal testing machine. All results were analyzed by F-test (P
Microbiological Analysis on Anatomical Specimens of Cats for Use in Veterinary Surgery
There are several fixative and preservative solutions for use on cadavers, many of them using formaldehyde as the fixative or anatomical part preservative. In some countries, such as Brazil, this toxic agent has been increasingly restricted. The objective of this study was to microbiologically identify and quantify the key agents in tanks containing 96GL ethanol or sodium chloride solutions, used respectively as fixatives and preservatives of cat cadavers. Eight adult cat corpses, three females and five males, with an average weight of 4.3 kg, were used. After injection via the external common carotid artery (120 ml/kg, 95% 96GL ethyl alcohol and 5% pure glycerin), the cadavers were fixed in a plastic tank with 96GL ethanol for 60 days. After fixing, they were stored in a 30% sodium chloride aqueous solution for 120 days in a similar tank. Samples were collected at the start of the experiment - before the animals were placed in the ethanol tanks, and monthly thereafter. The bacterial count was performed by Pour Plate Method in BHI agar (Brain Heart Infusion) and the plates were incubated aerobically and anaerobically for 24h at 37ºC. MacConkey agar, SPS agar (Sulfite Polymyxin Sulfadizine) and MYP Agar Base were used to isolate the microorganisms. There was no microbial growth in the samples prior to alcohol fixation. After 30 days of fixation in the alcohol solution, total aerobic and anaerobic (
Epididymis in the Agouti (Dasyprocta azarae): Light Microscope Study
The agouti is a wildlife rodent that can be used as an alternative source of animal protein and this species has been raised in captivity in Brazil with the aim of providing meat. Thus, the knowledge of their reproductive biology and morphology of the reproductive organs is important. The objective of this study was to describe the morphology of epididymis in the Azara’s agouti, by light microscopy. Samples of epididymis were obtained from five adult Azara’s agouti (Dasyprocta azarae) during castration surgery performed at the Municipal Zoo of Catanduva, Brazil. Fragments of the epididymal regions (initial segment, caput, corpus and cauda) were collected. The biological samples were immediately fixed in paraformaldehyde for 24 hours, followed by histologic procedures comprising embedding in ParaplastTM (Sigma, St. Louis, MO, USA), sections of 5 µm, and staining with HE and Masson’s trichrome. The epididymis was a highly convoluted tubule that links the testis to the vas deferens. The epithelium lining was pseudostratified columnar surrounded by a periductal stroma. The epithelium contains several cell types: principal, basal, apical, clear, and hallo cells. Principal cells were the most abundant cell type. There were observed also migratory cells named halo cells. The caput epididymis was divided into two different regions: initial segment and caput. The initial segment has a very wide lumen, a high epithelium with conspicuous microvilli and the lumen was wide with exfoliated material. The other region of the caput epididymis, showed a lower epithelium when compared with the initial segment, large amounts of spermatozoa in the lumen, and a cytoplasmic vacuolization. This region presented many narrows cells. Many spermatozoa appeared in the lumen of corpus epididymis. The cauda region had a lower epithelium than the other epididymal regions in the agouti. The cauda epithelium presented plicae protruding into the lumen. Large amounts of spermatozoa are also present in the lumen. Small microvilli uniformly arranged so as to form a kind of “brush border” are observed on the apical surface of the cauda epithelium. The pattern of the epithelium lining the duct of the agouti epididymis does not differ greatly from that reported to other mammals, such as domestic and wildlife animals. These findings can cooperate with future investigations especially those related to rational exploration of these animals. All experimental procedures were approved by the institutional ethics committee (CEUA 796/2015). This study was supported by FAPESP (Grants 2015/23822-1).
Effect of Z-VAD-FMK on in Vitro Viability of Dog Follicles
Mammalian ovaries contain thousands of follicles that eventually degenerate or die after culture in vitro. Caspase-3 is a key enzyme that regulating cell death. Our objective was to examine the influence of anti-apoptotic drug Z-VAD-FMK (pan-caspase inhibitor) on in vitro viability of dog follicles within the ovarian cortex. Ovaries were obtained from prepubertal (age, 2.5–6 months) and adult (age, 8 months to 2 years) bitches and ovarian cortical fragments were recovered. The cortices were then incubated on 1.5% (w/v) agarose gel blocks within a 24-wells culture plate (three cortical pieces/well) containing Minimum Essential Medium Eagle - Alpha Modification (Alpha MEM) supplemented with 4.2 µg/ml insulin, 3.8 µg/ml transferrin, 5 ng/ml selenium, 2 mM L-glutamine, 100 µg/mL of penicillin G sodium, 100 µg/mL of streptomycin sulfate, 0.05 mM ascorbic acid, 10 ng/mL of FSH and 0.1% (w/v) polyvinyl alcohol in humidified atmosphere of 5% CO2 and 5% O2. The cortices were divided in six treatment groups: 1) 10 ng/mL EGF (EGF V0); 2) 10 ng/mL of EGF plus 1 mM Z-VAD-FMK (EGF V1); 3) 10 ng/mL of EGF and 10 mM Z-VAD-FMK (EGF V10); 4) 1 mM Z-VAD-FMK; 5) 10 mM Z-VAD-FMK and (6) no EGF and Z-VAD-FMK supplementation. Ovarian follicles within the tissues were processed for histology and assessed for follicle density, viability (based on morphology) and diameter immediately after collection (Control) or after 3 or 7 days of in vitro incubation. Comparison among fresh and culture treatment group was performed using ANOVA test. There were no differences (P > 0.05) in follicle density and viability among different culture treatments. However, there were differences in this parameter between culture days. Specifically, culturing tissue for 7 days resulted in significant reduction in follicle viability and density, regardless of treatments. We found a difference in size between culture days when these follicles were cultured using 10 mM Z-VAD-FMK or 10 ng/mL EGF (EGF V0). In sum, the finding demonstrated that Z-VAD-FMK at the dosage used in the present study does not provide the protective effect to ovarian tissue during in vitro culture. Future studies should explore different Z-VAD-FMK dosages or other anti-apoptotic agent, such as surviving in protecting ovarian follicles against cell death.