International Science Index

International Journal of Aerospace and Mechanical Engineering

685
42681
Simulation and Experimental Research on Pocketing Operation for Toolpath Optimization in CNC Milling
Abstract:
Nowadays, manufacturing industries augment their production lines with modern machining centers backed by CAM software. Several attempts are being made to cut down the programming time for machining complex geometries. Special programs/software have been developed to generate the digital numerical data and to prepare NC programs by using suitable post-processors for different machines. By selecting the tools and manufacturing process then applying tool paths and NC program are generated. More and more complex mechanical parts that earlier were being cast and assembled/manufactured by other processes are now being machined. Majority of these parts require lots of pocketing operations and find their applications in die and mold, turbo machinery, aircraft, nuclear, defense etc. Pocketing operations involve removal of large quantity of material from the metal surface. The modeling of warm cast and clamping a piece of food processing parts which the used of Pro-E and MasterCAM® software. Pocketing operation has been specifically chosen for toolpath optimization. Then after apply Pocketing toolpath, Multi Tool Selection and Reduce Air Time give the results of software simulation time and experimental machining time.
684
58516
Yaw Angle Effect on the Aerodynamic Performance of Rear-Roof Spoiler of Hatchback Vehicle
Abstract:
Rear-roof spoiler is commonly used for improving the aerodynamic performance of road vehicles. This study aims to investigate the effect of yaw angle on the effectiveness of strip-type rear-roof spoiler in providing lower drag and lift coefficients of a hatchback model. A computational fluid dynamics (CFD) method was used. The numerically obtained results were compared to the experimental data for validation of the CFD method. At increasing yaw angle, both the drag and lift coefficients of the model were to increase. In addition, the effectiveness of spoiler was deteriorated. These unfavorable effects were due to the formation of longitudinal vortices around the side edges of the model that had caused the surface pressure of the model to drop. Furthermore, there were significant crossflow structures developed behind the model at larger yaw angle, which were associated with the drop in the surface pressure of the rear section of the model and cause the drag coefficient to rise.
683
60069
The Prediction of Sound Absorbing Coefficient for Multi-Layer Non-Woven
Abstract:
Automotive interior material with consists of several material layers has the sound-absorbing function. It is difficult to predict sound absorbing coefficient because of several material layers. So, many experimental tuning is required to achieve the target of sound absorption. Therefore, while the car interior materials are developed, a lot of time and money is spent. In this study, we present the method to predict the sound absorbing performance of the material with multi-layer using physical properties of each material. The properties are predicted by foam-X software using sound absorption coefficient data measured by impedance tube. And we will compare and analyze the predicted sound absorption coefficient with the data measured by scaled reverberation chamber and impedance tubes for a prototype. If the method is used instead of experimental tuning in the development of car interior material, the time and money can be saved. And then, the development effort can be is reduced because it can be optimized by simulation.
682
60364
Wear Behaviour of Two Different Cemented Carbide Grades in Turning 316 L Stainless Steel
Abstract:
In this paper, the wear behaviour of cemented carbide with two different WC grain size was investigated by high resolution scanning electron microscopy, energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy and the most surface-sensitive analytical technique i.e. Auger electron spectroscopy (AES). Wear tests were carried out against 316L stainless steel at 220 m/min and 240 m/min. From the results, it is found that the wear rate of submicron grain cemented carbide is much more than medium grain size cemented carbide. Increasing cutting speed increases the wear rate dramatically, which is more pronounced for the finer grain cemented carbide. The observations indicate that the wear of submicron grain cemented carbide insert involve chemical wear and attrition wear while the medium grain cemented carbide worn out due to the chemical wear and superficial plastic deformation.
681
60515
Performance Evaluation of Solid Lubricant Characteristics at Different Sliding Conditions
Abstract:
In modern industry, mechanical parts are subjected to friction and wear, leading to heat generation, which affects the reliability, life and power consumption of machinery. To overcome the tribological losses due to friction and wear, a significant portion of lubricant with high viscous properties allows very smooth relative motion between two sliding surfaces. Advancement in modern tribology has facilitated the use of applying solid lubricants in various industrial applications. Solid lubricant additives with high viscous thin film formation between the sliding surfaces can adequately wet and adhere to a work surface. In the present investigation, an attempt has been made to investigate and evaluate the tribological studies of various solid lubricants like MoS¬2, graphite and boric acid at different sliding conditions. The base oil used in this study was SAE 40 oil with a viscosity of 220 cSt at 400C. The tribological properties were measured on pin-on-disc tribometer. An experimental set-up has been developed for effective supply of solid lubricants to the pin-disc interface zone. The results obtained from the experiments show that the friction coefficient increases with increase in applied load for all the considered environments. The tribological properties with MoS2 solid lubricant exhibit larger load carrying capacity than that of graphite and boric acid. The present research work also contributes to the understanding of the behaviour of film thickness distribution of solid lubricant using contact potential technique under different sliding conditions. The results presented in this research work are expected to form a scientific basis toward selecting the best solid lubricant in various industrial applications for possible minimization of friction and wear.
680
60032
Damage Strain Analysis of Parallel Fiber Eutectic
Abstract:
According to isotropic of parallel fiber eutectic, the initial strain filed in parallel fiber eutectic is obtained from the flexibility tensor of parallel fiber eutectic. In allusion to the damage behavior of parallel fiber eutectic, damage variables are introduced to determine the strain field of parallel fiber eutectic with damage behavior. The damage strains in the matrix, interphase and fiber of parallel fiber eutectic is quantitatively analyzed. Results show that damage strains are not only associated with the fiber volume fraction of parallel fiber eutectic, but also with the damage degree.
679
60205
Finite Element Modeling of Stockbridge Damper and Vibration Analysis: Equivalent Cable Stiffness
Abstract:
Aeolian vibrations are the major cause for the failure of conductor cables. Using a Stockbridge damper reduces these vibrations and increases the life span of the conductor cable. Designing an efficient Stockbridge damper that suits the conductor cable requires a robust mathematical model with minimum assumptions. However, it is not easy to analytically model the complex geometry of the messenger. Therefore, an equivalent stiffness must be determined so that it can be used in the analytical model. This paper examines the bending stiffness of the cable and discusses the effect of this stiffness on the natural frequencies. The obtained equivalent stiffness compensates for the assumption of modeling the messenger as a rod. The results from the free vibration analysis of the analytical model with the equivalent stiffness are validated using the full-scale finite element model of the Stockbridge damper.
678
58993
Finite Eigenstrains in Nonlinear Elastic Solid Wedges
Abstract:
Eigenstrains in nonlinear solids are created due to anelastic effects such as non-uniform temperature distributions, growth, remodeling, and defects. Eigenstrains understanding is indispensable, as they can generate residual stresses and strongly affect the overall response of solids. Here, we study the residual stress and deformation fields of an incompressible isotropic infinite wedge with a circumferentially-symmetric distribution of finite eigenstrains. We construct a material manifold, whose Riemannian metric explicitly depends on the eigenstrain distribution, thereby we turn the problem into a classical nonlinear elasticity problem, where we find an embedding of the Riemannian material manifold into the ambient Euclidean space. In particular, we find exact solutions for the residual stress and deformation fields of a neo-Hookean wedge having a symmetric inclusion with finite radial and circumferential eigenstrains. Moreover, we numerically solve a similar problem when a symmetric Mooney-Rivlin inhomogeneity with finite eigenstrains is placed in a neo-Hookean wedge. Generalization of the eigenstrain problem to other geometries are also discussed.
677
60348
Fabrication of SnO₂ Nanotube Arrays for Enhanced Gas Sensing Properties
Abstract:
Metal-oxide semiconductor (MOS) gas sensors are widely used in the gas-detection market due to their high sensitivity, fast response, and simple device structures. However, the high working temperature of MOS gas sensors makes them difficult to integrate with the appliance or consumer goods. One-dimensional (1-D) nanostructures are considered to have the potential to lower their working temperature due to their large surface-to-volume ratio, confined electrical conduction channels, and small feature sizes. Unfortunately, the difficulty of fabricating 1-D nanostructure electrodes has hindered the development of low-temperature MOS gas sensors. In this work, we proposed a method to fabricate nanotube-arrays, and the SnO₂ nanotube-array sensors with different wall thickness were successfully prepared and examined. The fabrication of SnO₂ nanotube arrays incorporates the techniques of barrier-free anodic aluminum oxide (AAO) template and atomic layer deposition (ALD) of SnO₂. First, 1.0 µm Al film was deposited on ITO glass substrate by electron beam evaporation and then anodically oxidized by five wt% phosphoric acid solution at 5°C under a constant voltage of 100 V to form porous aluminum oxide. As the Al film was fully oxidized, a 15 min over anodization and a 30 min post chemical dissolution were used to remove the barrier oxide at the bottom end of pores to generate a barrier-free AAO template. The ALD using reactants of TiCl4 and H₂O was followed to grow a thin layer of SnO₂ on the template to form SnO₂ nanotube arrays. After removing the surface layer of SnO₂ by H₂ plasma and dissolving the template by 5 wt% phosphoric acid solution at 50°C, upright standing SnO₂ nanotube arrays on ITO glass were produced. Finally, Ag top electrode with line width of 5 μm was printed on the nanotube arrays to form SnO₂ nanotube-array sensor. Two SnO₂ nanotube-arrays with wall thickness of 30 and 60 nm were produced in this experiment for the evaluation of gas sensing ability. The flat SnO₂ films with thickness of 30 and 60 nm were also examined for comparison. The results show that the properties of ALD SnO₂ films were related to the deposition temperature. The films grown at 350°C had a low electrical resistivity of 3.6×10-3 Ω-cm and were, therefore, used for the nanotube-array sensors. The carrier concentration and mobility of the SnO₂ films were characterized by Ecopia HMS-3000 Hall-effect measurement system and were 1.1×1020 cm-3 and 16 cm3/V-s, respectively. The electrical resistance of SnO₂ film and nanotube-array sensors in air and in a 5% H₂-95% N₂ mixture gas was monitored by Pico text M3510A 6 1/2 Digits Multimeter. It was found that, at 200 °C, the 30-nm-wall SnO₂ nanotube-array sensor performs the highest responsivity to 5% H₂, followed by the 30-nm SnO₂ film sensor, the 60-nm SnO₂ film sensor, and the 60-nm-wall SnO₂ nanotube-array sensor. However, at temperatures below 100°C, all the samples were insensitive to the 5% H₂ gas. Further investigation on the sensors with thinner SnO₂ is necessary for improving the sensing ability at temperatures below 100 °C.
676
47769
Optimization of Machining Parametric Study on Electric Discharge Machining
Abstract:
Productivity and quality are two important aspects have become great concerns in today’s competitive global market. Every production/ manufacturing unit mainly focuses on these areas in relation to the process as well as product developed. Electrical discharge machining (EDM) process, even now it is an experience process, wherein still the selected parameters are often far from the maximum, and at the same time selecting optimization parameters is costly and time consuming. Material Removal Rate (MRR) during the process has been considered as productivity estimate with the aim to maximize it. With an intention of minimizing surface roughness is been taken as most important output parameter. These two opposite in nature requirements have been simultaneously satisfied by selecting an optimal process environment (optimal parameter setting). Objective function is obtained by Regression Analysis and Analysis of Variance. Then objective function is optimized using Genetic Algorithm technique. The model is shown to be effective; MRR and Surface Roughness improved using optimized machining parameters.
Keywords:
675
58403
Design and Study of a Parabolic Trough Solar Collector for Generating Electiricity
Abstract:
This paper presents a design and study of Parabolic Trough Solar Collector (PTC). Mathematical models were used in this work to find the direct and reflected solar radiation from the air layer on the surface of the earth per hour based on the total daily solar radiation on a horizontal surface. Also mathematical models had been used to calculate the radiation of the tilted surfaces. Most of the ingredients used in this project as previews data required on several solar energy applications, thermal simulation, and solar power systems. In addition, mathematical models had been used to study the flow of the fluid inside the tube (receiver), and study the effect of direct and reflected solar radiation on the pressure, temperature, speed, kinetic energy and forces of fluid inside the tube. Finally, the mathematical models had been used to study the (PTC) performances and estimate its thermal efficiency.
674
58527
Modeling the Effect of Thermal Gradation on Steady-State Creep Behavior of Isotropic Rotating Disc Made of Functionally Graded Material
Abstract:
In this paper, an attempt has been made to study the effect of thermal gradation on the steady-state creep behavior of rotating isotropic disc made of functionally graded material using threshold stress based Sherby’s creep law. The composite discs made of aluminum matrix reinforced with silicon carbide particulate have been taken for analysis. The stress and strain rate distributions have been calculated for the discs rotating at elevated temperatures having thermal gradation. The material parameters of creep vary radially and have been estimated by regression fit of the available experimental data. Investigations for discs made up of linearly increasing particle content operating under linearly decreasing temperature from inner to outer radii have been done using von Mises’ yield criterion. The results are displayed and compared graphically in designer friendly format for the above said disc profile with the disc made of particle reinforced composite operating under uniform temperature profile. It is observed that radial and tangential stresses show minor variation and the strain rates vary significantly in the presence of thermal gradation as compared to disc having uniform temperature.
673
48866
Innovative Design Considerations for Adaptive Spacecraft
Abstract:
Space technologies have changed the way we live in the present day society and manage many aspects of our daily affairs through Remote sensing, Navigation & Communications. Further defense and military usage of spacecraft has increased tremendously along with civilian purposes. The number of satellites deployed in space in Low Earth Orbit (LEO), Medium Earth Orbit (MEO), and geostationary Orbit (GEO) have gone up significantly. The dependency on remote sensing and operational capabilities are most invariably to be exploited more and more in future. Every country is acquiring spacecraft in one way or other for their daily needs. The spacecraft numbers are likely to increase significantly further and dependency on space technologies is increasing in every branch of Arts, Science, Medicine, Agriculture, Engineering and Technology. The aim of this research paper is to propose innovative design considerations for self adaptive spacecraft due to ever increasing numbers and usage of its applications. The main idea is to design and develop spacecraft with inbuilt features for automatic adaptability to its intended purpose and self protection. Here an attempt is made to propose design and develop futuristic spacecraft for 2030 and beyond due to tremendous advancements in VVLSI technologies, miniaturization and nano technologies are expected. In this paper an attempt is made to improve the existing methods of health monitoring, Telemetry Tracking and controlling of satellites through the design considerations proposed here to reduce the ground based health monitoring and controlling. Since modern day digital communications and information, technologies with large bandwidth including smart chips are available coupled with faster computer processing techniques, nano antenna arrays and nano wire lasers are in the offing, the attempt made in this paper to develop adaptive spacecraft is feasible. Further, data fusion/data warehousing technologies are available for exploitation.
672
59204
A Criterion for Evaluating Plastic Loads: Plastic Work-Tangent Criterion
Authors:
Abstract:
In ASME Boiler and Pressure Vessel Code, the plastic load is defined by applying the twice elastic slope (TES) criterion of plastic collapse to a characteristic load-deformation curve for the vessel. Several other plastic criterion such as tangent intersection (TI) criterion, plastic work (PW) criterion have been proposed in the literature, but all exhibit a practical limitation: difficult to define the load parameter for vessels subject to several combined loads. An alternative criterion: plastic work-tangent (PWT) criterion for evaluating plastic load in pressure vessel design by analysis is presented in this paper. According to the plastic work-load curve, when the tangent variation is less than a given value in the plastic phase, the corresponding load is the plastic load. Application of the proposed criterion is illustrated by considering the elastic-plastic response of the lower head of reactor pressure vessel (RPV) and nozzle intersection of (RPV). It is proposed that this is because the PWT criterion more fully represents the constraining effect of material strain hardening on the spread of plastic deformation and more efficiently ton evaluating the plastic load.
671
59209
Environmental Fatigue Analysis for Control Rod Drive Mechanisms Seal House
Abstract:
In this paper, the elastoplastic strain correction factor computed by software of ANSYS was modified, and the fatigue usage factor in air was also corrected considering in water under reactor operating condition. The fatigue of key parts on control rod drive mechanisms was analyzed considering the influence of environmental fatigue caused by the coolant in the react pressure vessel. The elastoplastic strain correction factor was modified by analyzing thermal and mechanical loads separately referring the rules of RCC-M 2002. The new elastoplastic strain correction factor Ke(mix) is computed to replace the original Ke computed by the software of ANSYS when evaluating the fatigue produced by thermal and mechanical loads together. Based on the Ke(mix) and the usage cycle and fatigue design curves, the new range of primary plus secondary stresses was evaluated to obtain the final fatigue usage factor. The results show that the precision of fatigue usage factor can be elevated by using modified Ke when the amplify of the primary and secondary stress is large to some extent. One approach has been proposed for incorporating the environmental effects considering the effects of reactor coolant environments on fatigue life in terms of an environmental correction factor Fen, which is the ratio of fatigue life in air at room. To incorporate environmental effects into the RCCM Code fatigue evaluations, the fatigue usage factor based on the current Code design curves is multiplied by the correction factor. The contribution of environmental effects to results is discussed. Fatigue life decreases logarithmically with decreasing strain rate below 10%/s, which is insensitive to strain rate when temperatures below 100°C.
670
58390
Rule Based Architecture for Collaborative Multidisciplinary Aircraft Design Optimisation
Abstract:
In aircraft design, the jump from the conceptual to preliminary design stage introduces a level of complexity which cannot be realistically handled by a single optimiser, be that a human (chief engineer) or an algorithm. The design process is often partitioned along disciplinary lines, with each discipline given a level of autonomy. This introduces a number of challenges including, but not limited to: coupling of design variables; coordinating disciplinary teams; handling of large amounts of analysis data; reaching an acceptable design within time constraints. A number of classical Multidisciplinary Design Optimisation (MDO) architectures exist in academia specifically designed to address these challenges. Their limited use in the industrial aircraft design process has inspired the authors of this paper to develop an alternative strategy based on well established ideas from Decision Support Systems. The proposed rule based architecture sacrifices possibly elusive guarantees of convergence for an attractive return in simplicity. The method is demonstrated on analytical and aircraft design test cases, and its performance is compared to a number of classical distributed MDO architectures.
669
57339
Molecular Dynamics Simulation of Free Vibration of Graphene Sheets
Abstract:
TThis paper considers vibration of single-layered graphene sheets using molecular dynamics (MD) and nonlocal elasticity theory. Based on the MD simulations, Large-scale Atomic/Molecular Massively Parallel Simulator (LAMMPS), an open source software, is used to obtain fundamental frequencies. On the other hand, governing equations are derived using nonlocal elasticity and first order shear deformation theory (FSDT) and solved using generalized differential quadrature method (GDQ). The small-scale effect is applied in governing equations of motion by nonlocal parameter. The effect of different side lengths, boundary conditions and nonlocal parameter are inspected for aforementioned methods. Results are obtained from MD simulations is compared with those of the nonlocal elasticity theory to calculate appropriate values for the nonlocal parameter. The nonlocal parameter value is suggested for graphene sheets with various boundary conditions. Furthermore, it is shown that the nonlocal elasticity approach using classical plate theory (CLPT) assumptions overestimates the natural frequencies.
668
58337
Water Droplet Impact on Vibrating Rigid Superhydrophobic Surfaces
Abstract:
Water droplet impact on surfaces is a ubiquitous phenomenon in both nature and industry. The transfer of mass, momentum and energy can be influenced by the time of contact between droplet and surface. In order to reduce the contact time, we study the influence of substrate motion prior to impact on the dynamics of droplet recoil. Using optical high speed imaging, we investigated the impact dynamics of macroscopic water droplets (~ 2mm) on rigid nanostructured superhydrophobic surfaces vibrating at 60 – 300 Hz and amplitudes of 0 – 3 mm. In addition, we studied the influence of the phase of the substrate at the moment of impact on total contact time. We demonstrate that substrate vibration can alter droplet dynamics, and decrease total contact time by as much as 50% compared to impact on stationary rigid superhydrophobic surfaces. Impact analysis revealed that the vibration frequency mainly affected the maximum contact time, while the amplitude of vibration had little direct effect on the contact time. Through mathematical modeling, we show that the oscillation amplitude influences the possibility density function of droplet impact at a given phase, and thus indirectly influences the average contact time. We also observed more vigorous droplet splashing and breakup during impact at larger amplitudes. Through semi-empirical mathematical modeling, we describe the relationship between contact time and vibration frequency, phase, and amplitude of the substrate. We also show that the maximum acceleration during the impact process is better suited as a threshold parameter for the onset of splashing than a Weber-number criterion. This study not only provides new insights into droplet impact physics on vibrating surfaces, but develops guidelines for the rational design of surfaces to achieve controllable droplet wetting in applications utilizing vibration.
667
58885
Simulation Based Analysis of Gear Dynamic Behavior in Presence of Multiple Cracks
Abstract:
Gears are important components with a vital role in many rotating machines. One of the common gear failure causes is tooth fatigue crack; however, its early detection is still a challenging task. The objective of this study is to develop a numerical model that simulates the effect of teeth cracks on the resulting gears vibrations and permits consequently to perform an early fault detection. In contrast to other published papers, this work incorporates the possibility of multiple simultaneous cracks with different depths. As cracks alter significantly the stiffness of the tooth, finite element software is used to determine the stiffness variation with respect to the angular position, for different combinations of crack orientation and depth. A simplified six degrees of freedom nonlinear lumped parameter model of a one-stage spur gear system is proposed to study the vibration with and without cracks. The model developed for calculating the stiffness with the crack permitted to update the physical parameters of the second-degree-of-freedom equations of motions describing the vibration of the gearbox. The vibration simulation results of the gearbox were by obtained using Simulink/Matlab. The effect of one crack with different levels was studied thoroughly. The change in the mesh stiffness and the vibration response were found to be consistent with previously published works. In addition, various statistical time domain parameters were considered. They showed different degrees of sensitivity toward the crack depth. Multiple cracks were also introduced at different locations and the vibration response along with the statistical parameters were obtained again for a general case of degradation (increase in crack depth, crack number and crack locations). It was found that although some parameters increase in value as the deterioration level increases, they show almost no change or even decrease when the number of cracks increases. Therefore, the use of any statistical parameters could be misleading if not considered in an appropriate way.
666
57406
Tornadic Waterspout Impacts on Coastal Zones
Abstract:
Coastal waterspout activity is known to occur globally over a wide climatic range. This study has focussed on recent tornadic waterspout activity along the temperate New South Wales coastline of Australia. Recent tornadic waterspout impacts were surveyed at Kurnell, Kiama, and Lennox Head in coastal New South Wales and are thought to have formed either wholly or partly offshore. It is proposed that a warm, moist layer of air at the sea surface creates more unstable atmospheric conditions than would an approaching supercell path over land, and hence a greater propensity to generate a tornadic event. Measured and observed wind velocities in the vicinity of 60 ms-1 associated with the observed tornadic waterspouts are considerably higher in magnitude than the basic wind speed presented in AS1170.2 for an estimated return period of 2000 years in Region A.
665
57601
Simulation of Nonlinear Behavior of Reinforced Concrete Slabs Using Rigid Body-Spring Discrete Element Method
Abstract:
Most analysis procedures of reinforced concrete (RC) slabs are based on elastic theory. When subjected to large forces, however, slabs deform beyond elastic range and the study of their behavior and performance require nonlinear analysis. This paper presents a numerical model to simulate nonlinear behavior of RC slabs using rigid body-spring discrete element method. The proposed slab model composed of rigid plate elements and nonlinear springs is based on the yield line theory which assumes that the nonlinear behavior of the RC slab subjected to transverse loads is contained in plastic or yield-lines. In this model, the displacement of the slab is completely described by the rigid elements and the deformation energy is concentrated in the flexural springs uniformly distributed at the potential yield lines. The spring parameters are determined from comparison of transverse displacements and stresses developed in the slab obtained using FEM and the proposed model with assumed homogeneous material. Numerical models of typical RC slabs with varying geometry, reinforcement, support conditions, and loading conditions, show reasonable agreement with available experimental data. The model was also shown to be useful in investigating dynamic behavior of slabs.
664
57684
Nuclear Fuel Safety Threshold Determined by Logistic Regression plus Uncertainty
Abstract:
Analysis of the uncertainty quantification related to nuclear safety margins applied to the nuclear reactor is an important concept to prevent future radioactive accidents. The nuclear fuel performance code may involve the tolerance level determined by traditional deterministic models producing acceptable results at burn cycles under 62 GWd/MTU. The behavior of nuclear fuel can simulate applying a series of material properties under irradiation and physics models to calculate the safety limits. In this study, theoretical predictions of nuclear fuel failure under transient conditions investigate extended radiation cycles at 75 GWd/MTU, considering the behavior of fuel rods in light-water reactors under reactivity accident conditions. The transient can melt the core reactor partially due to the quick increase of reactivity based on the adiabatic Fuchs-Hansen model using state equations. The kinetic equations show characteristics of complex non-linear applying the adiabatic Fuchs-Hansen model to calculate the dynamic state equations. In this investigation, employs the multivariate logistic regression to a probabilistic forecast of fuel failure. A comparison of computational simulation and experimental results were acceptable. The experiments carried out use the pre-irradiated fuels rods subjected to a rapid energy pulse exhibit the same behavior during a nuclear accident. The propagation of uncertainty utilizes the Wilk's formulation. The variables chosen as essentials to failure prediction were the fuel burn-up, the applied peak power, the pulse width, the oxidation layer thickness, and the cladding type.
663
58182
Influence of Initial Stress and Corrugation on Rayleigh-Type Wave in Piezomagnetic Half-Space
Abstract:
Propagation of Rayleigh-type surface waves in an initially stressed piezomagnetic half- space with irregular boundary is investigated. The materials are assumed to be transversely isotropic crystals. The dispersion relations have been derived for electrically open and short cases. Effect of initial stress and corrugation have been shown graphically. It is also found that piezomagnetic material properties have an important effect on wave propagation. The result is relevant to the analysis and design of various acoustic surface wave devices constructed from piezomagnetic materials.
662
60606
Influence of Rotation on Rayleigh-Type Wave in Piezoelectric Plate
Abstract:
Propagation of Rayleigh-type waves in an rotating piezoelectric plate is investigated. The materials are assumed to be transversely isotropic crystals. The frequency equation have been derived for electrically open and short cases. Effect of rotation and piezoelectricity have been shown. It is also found that piezoelectric material properties have an important effect on Rayleigh wave propagation. The result is relevant to the analysis and design of various acoustic surface wave devices constructed from piezoelectric materials also in SAW devices.
661
57186
Nanocharacterization of PIII Treated 7075 Aluminum Alloy
Abstract:
Nitrogen implantation in aluminum and its alloys is acquainted for the difficulties in obtaining modified layers deeper than 200 nm. The present work addresses a method to overcome such problem; although, the coating with nitrogen and oxygen obtained by plasma immersion ion implantation (PIII) into 7075 aluminum alloy surface was too shallow. This alloy is commonly used as structural parts in aerospace applications. Such layer was characterized by secondary ion mass spectroscopy, electron microscopy, nanoindentation experiments reciprocating wear tests. From the results, one can assumes that the wear of this aluminum alloy starts presenting severe abrasive wear followed by an additional adhesive mechanism. PIII produced slight difference as showed in all characterizations carried out in this work. The results showed here can be used as scientific basis for further nitrogen PIII experiments in aluminum alloys which have the goal to produce thicker modified layers or to improve their surface properties.
660
59572
Performance and Specific Emissions of an SI Engine Using Anhydrous Ethanol–Gasoline Blends in Bogota City
Abstract:
The Colombian government has promoted the use of biofuels in the last 20 years through laws and resolutions, which regulate their use, with the objective to improve the atmospheric pollution and to promote Colombian agricultural industry. However, despite the use of blends of biofuels with fossil fuels, the air quality in large cities does not get better, this deterioration in the contamination is mainly caused by mobile sources that working with spark ignition internal combustion engines (SI-ICE), operating with a mixture in volume of 90 % gasoline and 10 % ethanol called E10, that for the case of Bogota represent 84 % of the fleet. Another problem is that Colombia has large cities located above 2200 masl and there are no accurate studies on the impact that the E10 mixture could cause in the emissions and performance of SI-ICE. This study aims to establish the optimal blend between gasoline-ethanol in which an SI engine operates more efficiently in urban centres located at 2600 masl. The test was developed on SI engine four-stroke, single cylinder naturally aspirated and with carburettor for the fuel supply using blends of gasoline and anhydrous ethanol in different ratios E10, E15, E20, E40, E60, E85, and E100. These tests were conducted in the city of Bogota, which is located at 2600 masl, with the engine operating at three engine speeds and at 25, 50, 75 and 100% load. The results show that the performance variables as engine brake torque, brake power, and brake thermal efficiency decrease, while brake specific fuel consumption increases with the rise in the percentage of ethanol in the mixture. On the other hand, the specific emissions of CO2 and NOx present increases while specific emissions of CO and HC decreases compared to those produced by gasoline. From the tests, it is concluded that the SI-ICE worked more efficiently with the E20 mixture, where was obtained only a reduction in the brake power of 5 %, coupled with a reduction in the specific emissions of HC and CO 45 and 15 % respectively compared to the results obtained with de blend E10. This behaviour is because the E20 mixture provides the appropriate amount of the combustion process oxygen, which leads to better utilization of available energy in this process, thus generating a comparable power output to the E10 mixing and producing lower emissions CO and HC with the other test blends. Nevertheless, the emission of NOx increases in 42 %.
659
56360
Behavior of Common Philippine-Made Concrete Hollow Block Structures Subjected to Seismic Load Using Rigid Body Spring-Discrete Element Method
Abstract:
Concrete hollow blocks (CHB) are the most commonly used masonry block for walls in residential houses, school buildings and public buildings in the Philippines. During the recent 2013 Bohol earthquake (Mw 7.2), it has been proven that CHB walls are very vulnerable to severe external action like strong ground motion. In this paper, a numerical model of CHB structures is proposed, and seismic behavior of CHB houses is presented. In modeling, the Rigid Body Spring-Discrete Element method (RBS-DEM)) is used wherein masonry blocks are discretized into rigid elements and connected by nonlinear springs at preselected contact points. The shear and normal stiffness of springs are derived from the material properties of CHB unit incorporating the grout and mortar fillings through the volumetric transformation of the dimension using material ratio. Numerical models of reinforced and unreinforced walls are first subjected to linearly-increasing in plane loading to observe the different failure mechanisms. These wall models are then assembled to form typical model masonry houses and then subjected to the El Centro and Pacoima earthquake records. Numerical simulations show that the elastic, failure and collapse behavior of the model houses agree well with shaking table tests results. The effectiveness of the method in replicating failure patterns will serve as a basis for the improvement of the design and provides a good basis of strengthening the structure.
658
59536
Computational Code for Solving the Navier-Stokes Equations on Unstructured Meshes Applied to the Leading Edge of the Brazilian Hypersonic Scramjet 14-X
Abstract:
An in-house C++ code has been developed, at the Prof. Henry T. Nagamatsu Laboratory of Aerothermodynamics and Hypersonics from the Institute of Advanced Studies (Brazil), to estimate the aerothermodynamic properties around the Hypersonic Vehicle Integrated to the Scramjet. In the future, this code will be applied to the design of the Brazilian Scramjet Technological Demonstrator 14-X B. The first step towards accomplishing this objective, is to apply the in-house C++ code at the leading edge of a flat plate, simulating the leading edge of the 14-X Hypersonic Vehicle, making possible the wave phenomena of oblique shock and boundary layer to be analyzed. The development of modern hypersonic space vehicles requires knowledge regarding the characteristics of hypersonic flows in the vicinity of a leading edge of lifting surfaces. The strong interaction between a shock wave and a boundary layer, in a high supersonic Mach number 4 viscous flow, close to the leading edge of the plate, considering no slip condition, is numerically investigated. The small slip region is neglecting. The study consists of solving the fluid flow equations for unstructured meshes applying the SIMPLE algorithm for Finite Volume Method. Unstructured meshes are generated by the in-house software ‘Modeler’ that was developed at Virtual’s Engineering Laboratory from the Institute of Advanced Studies, initially developed for Finite Element problems and, in this work, adapted to the resolution of the Navier-Stokes equations based on the SIMPLE pressure-correction scheme for all-speed flows, Finite Volume Method based. The in-house C++ code is based on the two-dimensional Navier-Stokes equations considering non-steady flow, with nobody forces, no volumetric heating, and no mass diffusion. Air is considered as calorically perfect gas, with constant Prandtl number and Sutherland's law for the viscosity. Solutions of the flat plate problem for Mach number 4 include pressure, temperature, density and velocity profiles as well as 2-D contours. Also, the boundary layer thickness, boundary conditions, and mesh configurations are presented. The same problem has been solved by the academic license of the software Ansys Fluent and for another C++ in-house code, which solves the fluid flow equations in structured meshes, applying the MacCormack method for Finite Difference Method, and the results will be compared.
657
59619
Investigation of the Technological Demonstrator 14x B in Different Angle of Attack in Hypersonic Velocity
Abstract:
The Brazilian hypersonic aerospace vehicle 14-X B, VHA 14-X B, is a vehicle integrated with the hypersonic airbreathing propulsion system based on supersonic combustion (scramjet), developing in Aerothermodynamics and hypersonic Prof. Henry T. Nagamatsu Laboratory, to conduct demonstration in atmospheric flight at the speed corresponding to Mach number 7 at an altitude of 30km. In the experimental procedure the hypersonic shock tunnel T3 was used, installed in that laboratory. This device simulates the flow over a model is fixed in the test section and can also simulate different atmospheric conditions. The scramjet technology offers substantial advantages to improve aerospace vehicle performance which flies at a hypersonic speed through the Earth's atmosphere by reducing fuel consumption on board. Basically, the scramjet is an aspirated aircraft engine fully integrated that uses oblique/conic shock waves generated during hypersonic flight, to promote the deceleration and compression of atmospheric air in scramjet inlet. During the hypersonic flight, the vehicle VHA 14-X will suffer atmospheric influences, promoting changes in the vehicle's angles of attack (angle that the mean line of vehicle makes with respect to the direction of the flow). Based on this information, a study is conducted to analyze the influences of changes in the vehicle's angle of attack during the atmospheric flight. Analytical theoretical analysis, simulation computational fluid dynamics and experimental investigation are the methodologies used to design a technological demonstrator prior to the flight in the atmosphere. This paper considers analysis of the thermodynamic properties (pressure, temperature, density, sound velocity) in lower surface of the VHA 14-X B. Also, it considers air as an ideal gas and chemical equilibrium, with and without boundary layer, considering changes in the vehicle's angle of attack (positive and negative in relation to the flow) and bi-dimensional expansion wave theory at the expansion section (Theory of Prandtl-Meyer).
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Influences of Separation of the Boundary Layer in the Reservoir Pressure in the Shock Tube
Abstract:
The shock tube is a ground-facility widely used in aerospace and aeronautics science and technology for studies on gas dynamic and chemical-physical processes in gases at high-temperature, explosions and dynamic calibration of pressure sensors. A shock tube in its simplest form is comprised of two separate tubes of equal cross-section by a diaphragm. The diaphragm function is to separate the two reservoirs at different pressures. The reservoir containing high pressure is called the Driver, the low pressure reservoir is called Driven. When the diaphragm is broken by pressure difference, a normal shock wave and non-stationary (named Incident Shock Wave) will be formed in the same place of diaphragm and will get around toward the closed end of Driven. When this shock wave reaches the closer end of the Driven section will be completely reflected. Now, the shock wave will interact with the boundary layer that was created by the induced flow by incident shock wave passage. The interaction between boundary layer and shock wave force the separation of the boundary layer. The aim of this paper is to make an analysis of influences of separation of the boundary layer in the reservoir pressure in the shock tube. A comparison among CDF (Computational Fluids Dynamics), experiments test and analytical analysis were performed. For the analytical analysis, some routines in Python was created, in the numerical simulations (Computational Fluids Dynamics) was used the Ansys Fluent, and the experimental tests were used T1 shock tube located in IEAv (Institute of Advanced Studies).